2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—”

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–”

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

50 Responses

  1. 1.Sweeping Generalization
    a. “Hisoka is from class A hunter. He is either a elite bounty hunter or an elite relic hunter” (hunter x hunter)
    b. Not all from Class A hunters are truly hunters some are notorious criminals.

    2.False Dilemma
    a. “Either We will be forced to abandon its peace talks altogether with the group or risk the life of many people in Mindanao” (philstar)
    b. In this quotation the government is given only choices to what must be done in the issues in MILF and the government should choose the appropriate decision for the nation.

    3.Hasty Generalization
    a. “Zodica Family kills for money, Killua is a zodiac. Therefore killua kills for money – aneda” (hunter x hunter)
    b. Even though killua is a zodica not all zodica wants to kill.

    4.Argumentum ad Baculum
    a. “She like it or not, angelo had trapped her” (angel of darkness)
    b. In this quote Angelo used force to get what he wants he threatens Cara to stay there with him.

    5.Equivocation
    a. “He picked up her hand. ’If you don’t want to be called something ridiculously cutesy, then maybe you should stop being so ridiculously cute’. ‘I am not cute. I’m mad.’ He grinned. ‘So maybe you’re cute when you’re mad.’” (seducing Spencer)
    b. In this quotation the fallacy is committed when the same word or phrase is used with two or more meanings, deliberately or accidentally, in the formulation of an argument. That is, when the arguer uses multiple meanings of the same word such that the premises become irrelevant to the conclusion. Conclusion is not supported because of a shift in meaning of a word or phrase.

    6.Composition
    a. “My boss is a womanizer. He treated me like any other woman. All bosses are like him. I hate bosses. I won’t trust them ever again.” (seducing Spencer)
    b. Not all bosses are man there are bosses that are woman. And not all bosses are like the one who she has.

    7.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    a. “I will not go because Mr. Duba said so –gan” (hunter x hunter)
    b. This is an example of intellectual laziness. That is when we let other people reason on our behalf. Of course, citing an authority does not necessarily warrant the truth of a conclusion. But on has to examine why an author said so. (doing logic)^^,

    8.Argumentum ad Hominem
    a. “He’s a wash out (looser) guy why must we believe in him. He’s a dumb guy.” (hunter x hunter)
    b. In this quotation the person is attacked directly by his opponents it has caused damage to the personality of the person.

    9.Slippery Slope
    a. “And what would she do even if there was a town? Offer herself up to the local policeman? Refusing to give up her passport had to be a crime, but did she really want to try to prove such a claim against a native Italian like Angelo, who was undoubtedly a major landowner in the locality and probably held in considerable respect? She would end up with eggs on her face.” (angel of darkness)

    b. Cara thinks of many possible ways on how to escape from Angelo but all her thinking are related to each other that results to she cannot even escape.

    10.Petition Principii
    a. “He was thorough, he was an expert. She tried to hang onto that thought, the thought that he was expert because he’d done it millions of times with millions of women” (seducing Spencer)
    b. In this quote she always thinks that Spencer is non changeable womanizer even though Spencer says that he’s not that type of womanizer she didn’t believe even she argues with him in circles.

    11.Accent
    a. “Lolo Zordica whips his grandson when he’s bored” (hunter x hunter)
    b. We don’t know who the one who is bored is.

    12.Division
    a. “Spider is the most notorious group who kills many nations and hisoka is a spider, hisoka must be notorious too!” (hunter x hunter)
    b. In this quotation the characteristics of being notorious is taken away from the group and give it to one part of the group.

    13.False Cause
    a. “They face trouble when leoleo is with them. They must leave leoleo so they won’t face trouble –duba” (hunter x hunter)
    b. He treats leoleo as the object of trouble that he said they should abandon their friend but that is not the true reason why they face misfortune.

    14.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    a. “There are no examinees who passed second examination because no one proves their ability – officer monchy” (hunter x hunter)
    b. There are no proof that no one proof their ability and yet she drawn an conclusion without finishing the examination.

    15.Argumentum ad Populum
    a. “Many people said it is fun to be a hunter so I joined the hunter examination-gon” (hunter x hunter)
    b. He joined the examination because of it popularity in the world.

    16.Red Herring
    a. “killua didn’t get the license of being hunter because he wants to be friends with gon.” (hunter x hunter)
    b. The discussion is diverted to another topic. Killua didn’t get the license because he killed the other participants not because he wants to be friends with gon but it is also a part of the conclusion because of illumy his brother’s words that he will kill gon if he will not say that he is defeated.

    17.Argumentum Misericordiam
    a. “Sonia, Daughter! Forgive! He cried, and he tried to hold out his hand to her, but, losing his balance, he fell off the sofa, face downward on the floor. They rushed to pick him up, they put him on the sofa, but he was dying. Sonia with faint cry ran up, embraced him.” (crime and punishment)
    b. He acts so that his daughter will forgive him.

    18.Ignorantio Elenchi
    a. “You’re interested in meeting new people, and yet you’re so choosy that its very rare for you to actually add someone even to the outermost realms of your circle” (philstar)
    b. It is said that he wants to have new friends but when he is meeting someone he goes to another activity so that he will not be required to handle the situation.

    19.Complex Question
    a. “Some people wonder why I can get into the different characters so easily without separating from the real me.” (philstar)
    b. The question is not only answerable by yes or no. because it is not a simple question but consists of several questions rolled into one.

    20.Straw Man
    a. “Drinking alcohol is bad. Many parents forget their family because of drinking alcohol therefore many parents is bad.” (v.c. Andrews star)
    b. In the quotation the fallacy is committed when the arguer makes a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than it really is. That is when one puts a weak argument in an opponent’s mouth when stronger arguments are available.(doing logic)

  2. 1.Sweeping Generalization
    a. “Hisoka is from class A hunter. He is either a elite bounty hunter or an elite relic hunter” (hunter x hunter)
    b. Not all from Class A hunters are truly hunters some are notorious criminals.

    2.False Dilemma
    a. “Either We will be forced to abandon its peace talks altogether with the group or risk the life of many people in Mindanao” (philstar)
    b. In this quotation the government is given only choices to what must be done in the issues in MILF and the government should choose the appropriate decision for the nation.

    3.Hasty Generalization
    a. “Zodica Family kills for money, Killua is a zodiac. Therefore killua kills for money – aneda” (hunter x hunter)
    b. Even though killua is a zodica not all zodica wants to kill.

    4.Argumentum ad Baculum
    a. “She like it or not, angelo had trapped her” (angel of darkness)
    b. In this quote Angelo used force to get what he wants he threatens Cara to stay there with him.

    5.Equivocation
    a. “He picked up her hand. ’If you don’t want to be called something ridiculously cutesy, then maybe you should stop being so ridiculously cute’. ‘I am not cute. I’m mad.’ He grinned. ‘So maybe you’re cute when you’re mad.’” (seducing Spencer)
    b. In this quotation the fallacy is committed when the same word or phrase is used with two or more meanings, deliberately or accidentally, in the formulation of an argument. That is, when the arguer uses multiple meanings of the same word such that the premises become irrelevant to the conclusion. Conclusion is not supported because of a shift in meaning of a word or phrase.

    6.Composition
    a. “My boss is a womanizer. He treated me like any other woman. All bosses are like him. I hate bosses. I won’t trust them ever again.” (seducing Spencer)
    b. Not all bosses are man there are bosses that are woman. And not all bosses are like the one who she has.

    7.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    a. “I will not go because Mr. Duba said so –gan” (hunter x hunter)
    b. This is an example of intellectual laziness. That is when we let other people reason on our behalf. Of course, citing an authority does not necessarily warrant the truth of a conclusion. But on has to examine why an author said so. (doing logic)^^,

    8.Argumentum ad Hominem
    a. “He’s a wash out (looser) guy why must we believe in him. He’s a dumb guy.” (hunter x hunter)
    b. In this quotation the person is attacked directly by his opponents it has caused damage to the personality of the person.

    9.Slippery Slope
    a. “And what would she do even if there was a town? Offer herself up to the local policeman? Refusing to give up her passport had to be a crime, but did she really want to try to prove such a claim against a native Italian like Angelo, who was undoubtedly a major landowner in the locality and probably held in considerable respect? She would end up with eggs on her face.” (angel of darkness)

    b. Cara thinks of many possible ways on how to escape from Angelo but all her thinking are related to each other that results to she cannot even escape.

    10.Petition Principii
    a. “He was thorough, he was an expert. She tried to hang onto that thought, the thought that he was expert because he’d done it millions of times with millions of women” (seducing Spencer)
    b. In this quote she always thinks that Spencer is non changeable womanizer even though Spencer says that he’s not that type of womanizer she didn’t believe even she argues with him in circles.

    11.Accent
    a. “Lolo Zordica whips his grandson when he’s bored” (hunter x hunter)
    b. We don’t know who the one who is bored is.

    12.Division
    a. “Spider is the most notorious group who kills many nations and hisoka is a spider, hisoka must be notorious too!” (hunter x hunter)
    b. In this quotation the characteristics of being notorious is taken away from the group and give it to one part of the group.

    13.False Cause
    a. “They face trouble when leoleo is with them. They must leave leoleo so they won’t face trouble –duba” (hunter x hunter)
    b. He treats leoleo as the object of trouble that he said they should abandon their friend but that is not the true reason why they face misfortune.

    14.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    a. “There are no examinees who passed second examination because no one proves their ability – officer monchy” (hunter x hunter)
    b. There are no proof that no one proof their ability and yet she drawn an conclusion without finishing the examination.

    15.Argumentum ad Populum
    a. “Many people said it is fun to be a hunter so I joined the hunter examination-gon” (hunter x hunter)
    b. He joined the examination because of it popularity in the world.

    16.Red Herring
    a. “killua didn’t get the license of being hunter because he wants to be friends with gon.” (hunter x hunter)
    b. The discussion is diverted to another topic. Killua didn’t get the license because he killed the other participants not because he wants to be friends with gon but it is also a part of the conclusion because of illumy his brother’s words that he will kill gon if he will not say that he is defeated.

    17.Argumentum Misericordiam
    a. “Sonia, Daughter! Forgive! He cried, and he tried to hold out his hand to her, but, losing his balance, he fell off the sofa, face downward on the floor. They rushed to pick him up, they put him on the sofa, but he was dying. Sonia with faint cry ran up, embraced him.” (crime and punishment)
    b. He acts so that his daughter will forgive him.

    18.Ignorantio Elenchi
    a. “You’re interested in meeting new people, and yet you’re so choosy that its very rare for you to actually add someone even to the outermost realms of your circle” (philstar)
    b. It is said that he wants to have new friends but when he is meeting someone he goes to another activity so that he will not be required to handle the situation.

    19.Complex Question
    a. “Some people wonder why I can get into the different characters so easily without separating from the real me.” (philstar)
    b. The question is not only answerable by yes or no. because it is not a simple question but consists of several questions rolled into one.

    20.Straw Man
    a. “Drinking alcohol is bad. Many parents forget their family because of drinking alcohol therefore many parents is bad.” (v.c. Andrews star)
    b. In the quotation the fallacy is committed when the arguer makes a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than it really is. That is when one puts a weak argument in an opponent’s mouth when stronger arguments are available.(doing logic)

  3. 1. argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to inappropriate authority)
    “My Mama always said, ‘Life was like a box of chocolates; you never know what you’re gonna get.” (forrest gump)

    -because this doesn’t have a legitimate claim

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem (attack on the person)
    “Frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn!”(Gone with the wind)

    -because it directly attacks the person

    3. complex queation
    “You talkin’ to me? You talkin’ to me? You talkin’ to me? Well, who the hell else are you talkin’ to? You talkin’ to me? Well, I’m the only one here. Who the f–k do you think you’re talkin’ to?”(Billion dollar baloney)

    -because multiple questions are sealed in a single question

    4. petition principii (begging the question)
    This isn’t flying. This is falling, with style!(Toy story)

    -because the conclusion is restated in other terms and then used it as a premise to prove the very same conclusion.

    5. accent
    This is where you fall down (Mortal combat)

    -because the tone of the voice Is uncertain
    6. equivocation
    God creates dinosaurs, God destroys dinosaurs, God creates man, man destroys God, man creates dinosaurs.(Jurassic park)

    -because the same word is used in different meanings
    7. false cause
    Every month at the quarter moon, there will be a monsoon in your lagoon.(Jumanji)

    -because it treats the cause of a thing what is not really its cause.

    8. argumentum ad baculum (appeal to force)
    Back off man. I’m a scientist.(Ghost buster)

    -because the reason is replaced with direct or insinuated threats.

    9. ignorantio elenchi (missing the point)
    In less than an hour, aircraft from here will join others from around the world. And, you will be launching the largest aerial battle in the history of mankind. “Mankind,” that word should have new meaning for all of us today. We can’t be consumed by our petty differences anymore. We will be united in our common interest. Perhaps, it’s fate that today is the Fourth of July, and you will once again be fighting for our freedom–not from tyranny, oppression, or persecution, but from annihilation. We’re fighting for our right to live–to exist. And, should we win the day, the Fourth of July will no longer be known as an American holiday, but as the day when the world declared in one voice: “We will not go quietly into the night. We will not vanish, without a fight. We’re going to live on. We’re going to survive. Today, we celebrate our Independence Day!” (Independence day)

    -when the premise miss the point

    10. argumentum misericordiam (appeal to pity)
    If you ladies leave my island, if you survive recruit training, you will be a weapon, you will be a minister of death, praying for war. (Full metal jacket)

    -because the reason is replaced with direct threats to bring out the acceptance of some conclusion.

    11. converse accident (hasty generalization)
    To destroy Batman, we must first turn him into what he hates the most . . . namely, us. (Batman returns)

    -because it is committed when one moves quickly from a single case to an indefensibly broad generalization

    12. red herring (missing the point)
    To destroy Batman, we must first turn him into what he hates the most . . . namely, us. (Demolition man)

    -because the discussion from the real subject is different to the other one.

    13. argumentum ad populum (appeal to popular to prejudice)
    You don’t want the truth because deep down in places you don’t talk about at parties you want me on that wall, you need me on that wall. We use words like honor, code, loyalty. We use then as the backbone of a life trying to defend something. You use them as a punchline. I have neither the time nor the inclination to explain myself to a man who rises and sleeps under the blanket of the very freedom I provide and then questions the manner in which I provide it. I would rather you just said “thank you,” and went on your way. Otherwise, I suggest that you pick up a weapon and stand a post. Either way, I don’t give a damn what you think you are entitled to.
    ( A few good men)

    -because it appeals to the popularly picked beliefs.

    14. slippery slope
    Please, sir, if you don’t get back on line . . .
    Then what?! I’ll be arrested?! Put in airport jail?! (Honeymoon in vegas)

    -because the conclusion depends on an unlikely chain

    15. argumentum ad ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance)
    File also said you’re heavy into martial arts, T’ai Chi and all that killer stuff. I suppose we have to register you as a lethal weapon. (lethal weapon)

    -because the argued proposition is true on the ground but not been proven yet

    16. accident (sweeping generalization)
    Although, so far there’s no known treatment for death’s crippling effects, still everyone can acquaint himself with the three early warning signs of death: one, rigor mortis; two, a rotting smell; three, occasional drowsiness.
    (the Kentucky fried movie)

    -because it applies a generalization to an individual but it does not properly govern.

    17. amphiboly
    The matrix is everywhere. It is all around us. Even now, in this very room. You can see it when you look out your window or when you turn on your television. You can feel it when you go to work, when you go to church, when you pay your taxes. It is the world that has been pulled over your eyes, to blind you from the truth. (the matrix)

    -because the statement has more than on plausible meaning

    18. division
    This is my Goddamn bachelor party, and I am not going to Goddamn watch–pardon my split infinitive–Funny Girl! (in and out)

    -because the reason mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to one of its parts

    19. composition
    Pimps?! Are you saying we should become pimps?
    Pimps is an ugly word. We could call ourselves love brokers! (night shift)

    -because the arguer mistakenly reasons from the attribute of a part to the attributes of the whole.

    20. false dilemma
    If things have gone wrong, I’m talking to myself, and you’ve got a wet towel wrapped around your head. (total recall)

    -because it claims when there are only two options.

  4. ░FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE░

    1┼Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)┼

    “No country has reduced its population growth without resorting to abortion.”

    ─Source─
    Tatad, Francisco S. (2008, August 16). “No place for the RH bill in our law”. Philippine Daily Inquirer.

    ─Explanation─
    This statement might be true but one can contradict or argue with this statement because there is no proof or recorded statistical data of other small and underdeveloped country or nation that can be evidence to such claim.

    2┼Argumentum Ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Authority)┼

    “Christianity honored the Jewish Sabbath of Saturday, but Constantine shifted it to coincide with the pagan’s veneration day of the sun”

    ─Source─
    Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code, 1st ed. Doubleday. p. 232-33.

    ─Explanation─
    The earliest Christians were Jewish and did celebrate the Sabbath on Saturday, but “the Lord’s day” has always been Sunday to commemorate the resurrection. Consider the words of Justin Martyr, 200 years before Constantine, “On the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits.” Hence, Dan Brown’s statement is false.

    3┼Argumentum Ad Populum (Appeal to Popular Prejudice)┼

    “Reader’s Digest survey shows that more Filipinos are really happy with Enervon, thus there really must be true to the line ”More Energy, Mas Happy”. The multivitamin was recently recognized by Reader’s Digest as a “Trusted Brand” in the Vitamins category. Reader’s Digest Trusted Brands is an annual survey of brand performance across Asia. Enervon’s high scores on these attributes reveal the brand’s positive effect on consumers. By taking Enervon, consumers acquire more energy. This allows them to do more, making them more fulfilled, and therefore making them happy.”

    ─Source─
    Reader’s Digest Special Advertising Section, July 2008 issue

    ─Explanation─
    Not just because of surveys could justify the claim that the product is the number one brand preferred by people, there are other factors which could influence the public’s preference such as the price as well as marketing aspects like advertisements and celebrity endorsements.

    4┼Argumentum Ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)┼

    “The Joker: [holds camera facing himself] See, this is how crazy Batman’s made Gotham! If you want order in Gotham, Batman must take off his mask and turn himself in. Oh, and every day he doesn’t, people will die, starting tonight. I’m a man of my word. [laughs]”

    ─Source─
    From the movie, The Dark Knight

    ─Explanation─
    The Joker is blaming Batman for all the chaos and bad things that is happening in Gotham city. He projected Batman as an evil person responsible for the crimes committed by other people in the city. This is a clear case of attacking a person by Joker against Batman to gain personal sympathy and be a hero to the public.

    5┼Argumentum Ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)┼

    “Anyone who insults the Fourth Hokage or Old Man Third in front of me, even if she’s a woman, deserves a punch in the face!”

    ─Source─
    From the manga, Naruto

    ─Explanation─
    This is an obvious case of threatening others. The emotion resulting from a threat rather than a pertinent reason is used to cause agreement with the purported conclusion of the argument.

    6┼Argumentum Ad Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)┼

    I will tell you just how it was sir……”My father and mother were dead, and my brothers and sisters were hungry and asked me for bread. At first, I earned it for them by working hard all day but somehow the times were hard sir, and the work fell away. I could get no more employment. The weather was bitter cold and the young one’s cried and shivered……Little Johnny’s but four-years-old. So what was I to do sir, I’m guilty…”

    ─Source─
    Guilty or Not Guilty, a declamation piece.

    ─Explanation─
    This is an evident case of appealing for mercy. The fallacy committed when pity or a related emotion such as compassion is appealed by the accused to the judge begging for sympathy for the reason why he committed the crime for the sake of getting a not guilty verdict.

    7┼Ignoratio Elenchi (Irrelevant Conclusion)┼

    “’Global Warming’ had a precursor in capturing the hearts and minds of the world. Michael Crichton, in his novel “State of Fear,” brilliantly relates the world’s current political embrace of “global warming” with the popular embrace of the “science” of eugenics a century ago. Believers in eugenics argued that we could improve the human race by controlling reproduction.”

    ─Source─
    Linder, John. (2008, February 18). “Global-warming theory and the eugenics precedent”. Washington Times.

    ─Explanation─
    First of all, eugenics was not about science, it was about applying science (genetics) to social engineering. But what does that have to do with climate science particularly global-warming?

    ░FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION░

    8┼Complex Question┼

    “Why are we so obsessed with what other people think of us? Why are we so concerned to fit in? Why do we submit so readily to the tyranny of the ‘they’?”

    ─Source─
    Fraser, Giles. (2003, December 30). “The Ultimate Miracle”. The Guardian.

    ─Explanation─
    The fallacy is harder to spot when people use a complex question, not to make an accusation, but to frame a discussion or enquiry. In the above statement, it started with three questions, all of which assume something that it has not established and which, on reflection, may well not be true. How many of us are really “obsessed with what other people think of us”? Most people are at least concerned about how they are seen by others. The questions encourage us simply to assume that we are all highly preoccupied with what other people think and only think about why this should be so.

    9┼False Cause (Non Causa Pro Causa)┼

    “I wore it on Wheel of Fortune the day I got it and I won P75,000 so I’m guessing that this jacket is a lucky jacket.” – Yael Yuzon

    ─Source─
    Yael Yuzon on Myx Magazine September 2008 Issue.

    ─Explanation─
    He assumed that the jacket was the main reason why he won in the game show but it could only be coincidental and has nothing to do with his winning.

    10┼Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)┼

    “I once overheard three brothers dividing two candy bars. The oldest one gave each of the two younger ones half of a candy bar, and kept a whole bar for himself. When asked why he got more candy, he said he was the smartest. A few minutes later, one of the younger ones asked why he was the smartest, and in reply the oldest said, ‘Because I have more candy.'”

    ─Source─
    Chave, Ernest J. (1937). Personality Development in Children. Univ. of Chicago. p. 151.

    ─Explanation─
    Obviously the eldest brother used the candy bar (primary subject being asked by his brothers) as also his final answer to the second question. Question and answer is just going around and around.

    11┼Accident (Sweeping Generalization)┼

    “THE MEDIA IS GUILTY OF BIAS AGAINST Muslims when words like ‘Muslim’ and ‘Islamic’ are used to describe criminals or terrorists in news reports, according to Sen. Edgardo Angara.
    “Some members of the local and national media continue to callously lambast the Muslim religious culture by referring to criminals and suspects as ‘Muslim criminals,’ ‘Muslim terrorists’ or ‘Muslim holduppers,’” said Angara Saturday.
    He said the use of these words referring to suspected or convicted criminals and unlawful acts were “prejudicial and extremely injurious” to the Muslim community and to their social well-being as respectable citizens of the country.”

    ─Source─
    Balana, Cynthia. (2008, August 10). “Angara hits media bias vs Muslims”. Philippine Daily Inquirer.

    ─Explanation─
    The article states that the media is prejudging all muslims as terrorists and criminals. Just because MILF, Abu-Sayyaf and even Al-Qaida are Islams, and Muslims are Islamic, it was presumed that all Muslims are terrorist for which I disagree.

    12┼Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)┼

    “Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago said, “the Chinese invented corruption for all human civilization,” during a public hearing at the Senate on the allegedly overpriced $329-million national broadband network (NBN) project between the government and ZTE Corp. of China.”

    ─Source─
    Calica, Aurea. (2007, September 29). “Chinese Embassy Accepts Miriam Apology for Senate Outburst”. The Philippine Star.

    ─Explanation─
    During the ZTE senate hearing, Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago accusses all Chinese as corrupt because ZTE is a company from China. Her statement was generalized and did not exempt any single Chinese citizen.

    ░FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY░

    13┼Equivocation┼

    “Who did you pass on the road?” the King went on, holding his hand out to the messenger for some hay.
    “Nobody,” said the messenger.
    “Quite right,” said the King; “this young lady saw him too. So of course Nobody walks slower than you.”

    ─Source─
    Carroll, Lewis. Alice in Wonderland.

    ─Explanation─
    The word “nobody” was first used to mean “no person.” But reference is then made using a pronoun (“him”), as though that word (“nobody”) had named a person. And when subsequently the same word is capitalized and plainly used as a name (“Nobody”), it presumably names a person having a characteristic (not being passed on the road) derived from the first use of the word.

    14┼Amphiboly┼

    “Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth.”

    ─Source─
    Shakespeare, William. Macbeth, Act 4, Scene 1.

    ─Explanation─
    The above example is the result of unfamiliar term: According to the novel, Macbeth’s enemy Macduff had been born by Caesarian section – “ripped untimely from his mother’s womb” – and thus was not “of woman born” in the normal sense.

    15┼Accent┼

    “[The senator] issued the statement in response to the removal of the Philippines by the New York-based Freedom House from its list of world democracies due to political killings.”

    ─Source─
    (2008, January 20). “2 US senators assure early passage of Filipino Veterans Equity Bill”. The Manila Times.

    ─Explanation─
    The problem with the sentence is that it has a seriously misplaced modifier. The subordinate phrase “due to political killings” seems to be modifying the noun phrase “list of world democracies,” which of course gives rise to an absurd idea: “a list of democracies due to political killings.” Indeed, the logical subject of that subordinate phrase should be the noun “removal. The usual recourse for fixing this problem is to apply the basic rule for dealing with misplaced modifiers: position the modifying word or phrase as close as possible to the noun it modifies. Hence, the sentence should be:
    “[The senator] issued the statement in response to the removal of the Philippines due to political killings by the New York-based Freedom House from its list of world democracies.”

    ░DISTRACTION FALLACIES░

    16┼Red Herring┼

    “No, no, he’s a friend of mine. He’s not a moron at all — he’s a friend. I had a good time with him today.”
    –Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien, responding to reports that his chief spokesman had called President George W. Bush a moron.

    ─Source─
    Newsweek, Dec. 2, 2002

    ─Explanation─
    Perhaps it’s true that Bush is his friend. Perhaps it’s true that they had a good time together. This information has nothing to do with answering the charge that Bush is a moron which is the main topic or issue being raised. Chretien is changing the subject instead of talking about Bush’s intelligence, which is the issue.

    17┼Slippery Slope┼

    “Rodriguez said the minority in the lower house would question the constitutionality of the MOA before the Supreme Court in the coming days. With the MOA requiring revision of the Constitution, he expressed the fear administration allies in both chambers of Congress could easily insert amendments ‘such as term extension for Ms Arroyo’ once they are convened as a constituent assembly.”

    ─Source─
    Esguerra, Christian V. (2008, August 19). “Opposition solon takes back federalism bill”. Philippine Daily Inquirer.

    ─Explanation─
    The main issue here is the MOA but subsequent issues and concerns might occur and were being feared by senators once the MOA was signed such as charter change and term extension of the president.

    18┼False Analogy┼

    “Women are like the police. They can have all the evidence in the world, but they still want the confession.” –Chris Rock

    ─Source─
    Reader’s Digest February 2008 Issue

    ─Explanation─
    Women cannot arrest and put their husband in jail, while policemen can.

    19┼Straw Man┼

    MMDA Chairman Bayani Fernando said, “You can drive as fast as you can in EDSA. There is no speed limit in EDSA. This will speed up the flow of traffic .“

    Senior Deputy Minority Leader Roilo Golez said, “It’s very reckless and irresponsible on the part of the MMDA chair to say that. If drivers heeded this statement, EDSA would become a death avenue with all the resulting deadly collisions.”

    ─Source─
    Esguerra, Christian V. (2008, September 27). “There’s no speed limit on EDSA – Bayani”. Philippine Daily Inquirer.

    ─Explanation─
    The position of Chairman Bayani Fernando is not acceptable to Rep. Roilo Golez, arguing that the position of the Chairman could cause accident and chaos in EDSA.

    20┼False Dilemma┼

    “Either you join the doctors to fight the plague, or you must join the priest and remain passive.”

    ─Source─
    Camus, Albert. “The Plague”

    ─Explanation─
    That is a painful choice, for if you don’t join those resisting the plague you would be inhumane. But to fight the plague would be to resist the God who sent it. Therefore, if humanitarianism is right, theism is wrong. To do good is to oppose God!

    Submitted by: ARDEL B. PESTAÑAS 1IT-3

  5. For Valour by Douglas Reeman

    1. COMPLEX QUESTION

    • “Not eaten lately?” He unclipped the case and took out a bar of chocolate. “Here, have a bit of nutty.”

    *It is a complex question. The question at hand “have not eaten lately?” presupposes that there is the admitted assumption on the hearer of such question that he had already eaten in the past.

    2. FALSE CAUSE (NON CAUSA PRO CAUSA)

    • He had too many gins the night before, hoping for one good night’s sleep, to prepare himself.

    *It simply means that we accept drinking many gins as the cause of good night’s sleep when actually it is not the cause.

    3. PETITIO PRINCIPII (BEGGING THE QUESTION)

    • A ship without a captain. A captain without a ship.

    *Begging the Question because it uses the conclusion as a premise and using it to prove the same conclusion.

    4. IGNORANTIO ELENCHI (MISSING THE POINT)

    • He heard footsteps and replaced the book in the drawer.

    *Ignorantio Elenchi because it proves some other conclusion rather than the one at issue.

    5. SLIPPERY SLOPE

    • “Lieutenant Mike Loring died in the hospital. This afternoon. So he had lost after all. We all did.”

    *Slippery slope because it involves the inclusion of other arguments which are not germane to the subject argument.

    6. ACCIDENT (SWEEPING GENERALIZATION)

    • Hard work, the captain had never been known to turn his back on a few extra pennies, and often enjoyable too; a few of the women passengers had found his rough humour irresistible.

    *Accident because it equates or confuses “hard work” with accidents like “never turning back” and “rough humour”.

    7. COMPOSITION

    • He straightened his back as a motor surged past, the throaty growl clearly audible above the whirr of fans and the noises of sea and metal.

    *Composition because the reasoning “as a motor gunboat…” proceeds from the statement “he straightened his back.”

    8. ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM (ATTACK ON THE PERSON)

    • “If the German runners don’t see that they must be blind!”

    *Argumentum Ad Hominem because the language takes an abusive form as it maligns the German runners as blind people.

    9. ARGUMENTUM AD MISERICORDIAM (APPEAL TO PITY)

    • You could not win a war with gestures, no matter what the reason. Humanity, saving people like yourself, was well down the list.

    *Argumentum Ad Misericordiam because “humanity” is pictured as the least concern and should be treated as unimportant.

    10. FALSE DILEMMA

    • “He was nice. I would have been annoyed, if I’d been him.”

    *False Dilemma because of the use of a false unexpressed premise “I am nice.” To draw the conclusion “I would have been annoyed.”

    11. ACCENT

    • Nothing in this man’s navy ever went according to plan.

    *Fallacy of Accent because the statement can mean two different things depending on which word is accented.

    12. FALSE ANALOGY

    • “If they can be tough, so can I!”

    * Fallacy of False Analogy because the speaker is overzealous to say that he is also tough because the others are tough.

    13. ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM (APPEAL TO IGNORANCE)

    • Kidd was staring at him, hanging on to every word, although he probably thought his captain had cracked at last.

    *Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam because the captain who had cracked has not been proved.

    14. ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM

    • Kidd shouted, “We did it, by God!”

    *Argumentum Ad Populum because it appeals to the prejudices of the crowd or the audience.

    15. ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM (APPEAL TO FORCE)

    • He removed his hand and snapped, “I don’t give a damn! Do it, and call me tomorrow!” He turned away and she saw him buttoning the top of his jacket. She said “I can do it, sir. It is part of my job.” He said “and this is my department! Ships, aircraft and men working like a machine. One faulty part, one weakness, and the whole structure is endangered!” She said wearily, “I know.”

    *Argumentum Ad Baculum because it appeals to force or the speaker persuades the listener to conform to the former’s thinking by the use of threat.

    16. CONVERSE ACCIDENT

    • Zigzagging when necessary, the ships would also be in danger of collision. It was foremost in everyone’s thoughts since the light cruises Curacao had been rammed and cut in half by the liner Queen Mary just two months back off Bloody Foreland while attempting a similar passage.

    *Converse Accident because out of a small incident that happened to Curacao, we jump to conclusion.

    17. RED HERRING (MISSING THE POINT)

    • It was bad luck to talk about sailing times. Like walking to the end of a pier.

    *Red Herring because of the refocusing of the argument into something trivial.

    18. EQUIVOCATION

    • Men had just died. Choking, crushed, obliterated. Men who would have shown no mercy if their cards had been played in the right order.

    *Equivocation because the word “men” is equivocally used, meaning, it has more than one meaning like “men” which refers first to those who were subjects of death and the other “men” which pertains to authors of death.

    19. DIVISION

    • “The ship! The ship! Is that all you can think about, Graham? They can manage without you, you’re not God!”

    *Division because the speaker assumes and concludes that everything that is thought about by Graham is nothing but ships.

    20. AMPHIBOLY

    • He bit his lip. Especially if it was somebody else’s.

    *Amphiboly because it lacks verbal clarity. How could he bit his lip when it is somebody else’s lip?

  6. 1.Agumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    “Dr. Johan Skarn says that abortion is always morally wrong, regardless of the situation. He has to be right, after all, he is a respected expert in his field.”

    -Here the arguer is implying that abortion is morally wrong because a famous doctor is know in his field said it. She let doctor skarn explain on the arguer’s behalf.

    2.Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack on the person)

    “The President’s budget proposal is absurd. After all, no real President would let himself be pushed around by his wife the way Clinton does. And if he can’t run his own household right, then he can hardly run the country right.

    -Here the arguer said that the president’s budget proposal is absurd, this is attacking the person because the arguer told that it is the president and no one else, he even included the name of the wifw so he is easily known.

    3.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    (Appeal to ignorance)
    “The government is hiding the remains of several UFO crashes, including alien bodies, in “Area 51,” a top secret area of an Air Force base in the Southwest. While the government has denied this claim, they’ve never proven that it was false. So I’m entitled to continue to believe that it is true”

    -Here the government is denying that they are hiding the remains of aliens and UFO crashes. The government has not yet proven false that they were involved in such incidents. So the arguer is continuing to believe that it is true.

    4.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    “We don’t want to break the law by serving alcohol to those in our social organization who are underage. But since the Epsilon Iota Quota’s serve alcohol to their underage members, I guess we can as well.”

    -Here the arguer is using the reason that the Epsilon Iota Quota is serving alcoholic drink to underaged members so they could also serve alcoholic drinks to minors in their social organizations.

    5.Argumentum ad Bacalum
    (Appeal to force)

    “More money or more problems”
    -Here the arguer is threatening the opponent that if he does not give money to him he will give him more problems. The opponent has a choice which are both not beneficial to him but only to the arguer.

    6.Argumantum Misericordiam
    (Appeal to pity)

    “If I don’t get there in time I could not save the world from obsolete destruction”

    -Here the hero is saying that he should leave at that time so that he could save the world from total destruction.

    7.Ignorantio Elenchi
    (Missing the Point)

    Girlfriend: “Honey, does this dress make me look fat?”
    Boyfriend: “Say, babe, your hair is really gorgeous! And those earrings are a knock-out!”

    -This fallacy is very common. Here the boyfriend changes the topic to the girl’s hair and earrings rather than answering the question , which if the boyfriend answered will hurt the feelings of hhis girlfriend.

    8.Complex Questions

    “Did you have sex with our classmate?

    -The arguer jumped to the conclusion that the opponent did have sex with their classmate.The arguer did not intend to really know if the opponent did have sex with theire classmate because he already knew it.

    9.False Cause
    (non causa pro causa)

    “I failed all my test because I dreamt about it last night”

    -This is a fallacy which the cause of something is not related to the other cause. Here the cause of his failing marks is because of the dreams.It has no relative connection.

    10.Petitio Principii
    (Begging the Question)

    “ Drifting is dangerous because you’ll just end up with only three wheels “

    -This is a fallacy of “begging the question” because statement “drifting is dangerous” is proving that “you’ll just end up with only three wheels”. Here dangerous is implying to ending up just crashing your car.

    11.Equivocation

    “ All men are mortals, mortals are volatile therefore All men are volatile “

    -This is a fallacy of equivocation because there are two premise with different meanings and not intended that the conclusion’s outcome is false.It is said in the first premise that all men are mortals, and in the second premise that mortals are volatile. In the conclusion All men are volatile ,here both the premises are combined which is meaningfully wrong thought they have same minor term and major term.

    12.Accent
    “No, it means I’m drunk yesterday “

    -This is a fallacy because the arguer might be saying that yesterday was just an hour ago, or the arguer is saying that he is having a hangover that moment it depends on his accent.

    13.Composition

    “All Players are black ,therefore Larry Bird is black”

    -It is a fallacy of composition because all players are black is universal ,so Larry Bird is also black. Because Larry Bird is particular is does not imply the same meaning as the universal.

    14. Division

    “Christians are all good. Judas Iscariot is a Christian, therefore Judas is good”

    -Here the premises are divided into two .which should be combined as one. In this case Judas Iscariot is also a Christian but he betrayed Jesus.So he could not be could because “the deepest circle of hell is reserved for traitors and mutineers.

    15. Red Herring
    (Missing the Point)

    “Heroes saves the world, But why are there still villains?

    -This is a fallacy of red herring because the examples says that heroes saves the world.changing the topic the arguer tells that if there are heroes why are there still villains.

    16.False Analogy

    “ How come coffee is not good and unhealthy if drank to much?. Cola has caffeine and is bad if you drink to much of it .So drinking coffee is not bad just as you have the exact amount of it”

    -This is definitely a bad analogy because coffee here is being likened to cola which is not actually right because cola and coffee are different beverages and has unmatched amount of caffeine in each of them.

    17.Straw Man

    “Good cars are from Italy, Toyota Trueno Is made from japan. Therefore Toyota trueno is not a good car”

    -In this example only good cars are made from italy. Well as we know Toyota trueno is a famous drifting car which makes it a good car, but in in the argument it is said that only cars made from Italy are good.Good cars here is universal reffering only to Italy.

    18.False Dilemma

    “ If we allow communism in our country, there will be no rights to each and every one and we are under the power of the prime minister or we could just implale them”

    – Here there are two choices either we are set under the prime minister’s power and we are under his control or we could impale communism to prevent them from destroying our rights as citizens.

    19.Slippery Slope

    “ If you do not study you fail the test.If you failed the test you will be scolded by your parent.If you are scolded by your parents they will send you to other school which you do not like.If you study in the school that you do not like you will have no interest in your studies anymore.If you lost your interest in your studies you will live your life a unproductive citizen”

    -This senario is like a chain reaction or a domino effect. If you do not study . . . until you will be unproductive citizen is a sequence of events that may happen.beginning from not studying.

    20.Amhiboly

    “When the messengers of xerxes approach king leonidas:

    If king lionidas wages war he will destroy a mighty kingdom.”

    -In this example we do not know what the arguer is talking about.Is it his kingdom or the kingdom of the foe?

  7. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

    01.) R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    From the movie: “Laura”

    “Love is eternal. It has been the strongest motivation for human actions throughout centuries. Love is stronger than life. It reaches beyond the dark shadow of death.”
    –Waldo Lydecker

    >No one could define exactly what eternal means as well as the word love. These words are so vague and can be described in ways how men perceive things. Eternal is synonymous with forever but how could you know that love is forever. Love is immeasurable too. Thus, one cannot say how strong love is. According to the statement, Love reaches beyond the dark shadow of death; but how could you know how far love goes?

    02.) R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    From the movie : Kill Bill Volume II

    Reading aloud some notes she made from the Internet: “In the bush, an elephant can kill you, a leopard can kill you, and a black mamba can kill you. But only with the mamba, and this has been true in Africa since the dawn of time, is death sure.”
    –Elle Driver

    >Nowadays, people depends so much information from the internet. People assume that all the information provided in the net is reliable. Whatever they learn from the internet, they presume this to be true. Elephant, leopard and black mamba can really cause man’s death if and only if the animals would act in a harmful way. But what if these animals didn’t cause you any harm? Is it still right to say that with the mamba, your death is sure?
    In the scene, Elle Driver collected Black Mamba to kill her foe. Because she trust the information she have gathered in the internet and she have concluded in her own that the best way to kill is with the mamba.

    03.) R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    From the movie : Sideways

    Jack’s future father-in-law (to Miles, whose novel manuscript runs to 750 pages): “I like nonfiction. There is so much to know about this world. I think you read something somebody just invented it, waste of time.”
    Miles: “That’s an interesting perspective.”

    >Jack’s future father-in-law is poisoning the well. It is like he is influencing Miles to never ever waste his time reading fictional books. Jack’s father in law may just have told his view about what he loves to read. He shouldn’t say anything awful into something that is contrary to his.

    04.) R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    From the movie: Kill Bill Volume I

    “I can tell you with no ego, this is my finest sword. If on your journey, you should encounter God, God will be cut.” –Hattori Hanzo

    >Hattori Hanzo may be the best sword creator ever existing. He may be famous for his creations. He made the most excellent sword during that time for a very special guest. The sword is really spectacular that it can cut you without any effort. But its great quality can’t be applied to all especially God. The creator’s fame and superior capability in creating a sword is still not an assurance that everything without any exemption could be torn into pieces.

    05.) R5 Argumentum Misericordiam

    From the Movie: Daniel Day-Lewis

    “I have a competition in me. I want no one else to succeed. I hate most people. – Daniel Plainview

    >Daniel admitted that he has been struggling for himself. He has been selfish by the way he views things. He wants no one but himself to thrive. Maybe he was carried by his emotions when he stated that he hate most people. If you will try to examine the statements very well, then you would see that the last statement is likely a threat. If someone would ever dare to compete with him, then probably Daniel must not just hate the competitor but worst Daniel might do evil things against that someone who tries to destroy him.

    06.) Argumentum ad Baculum

    From the Classic novel: And Then There Were None by Agatha Christie

    “There is no question of defense. I have always acted in accordance with the dictates of my conscience. I have nothing with which to reproach myself.”

    >In the statement, the persona states that there is no argument to deal with about his protection. He supports this with the statement pertaining to his conscience which of course is good. Maybe he is trying to defend himself about a certain issue. So if he will include the stand of his conscience then he may gain sympathy from the readers or listeners.

    07.) R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    From the Classic Novel: Anna Karenina (1877; trans. Constance Garnett), Leo Tolstoy

    Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.

    >The two statements may seem connected because of the same subject being described which is family. The first statement simply tells that happy families are alike but the second statement doesn’t support it. To make the statements work, the second should have stated what other characteristics have a happy family possess that would prove its similarities.

    FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    08.) P1 Complex question

    From the Movie: The City of Angels

    What good would wings be if you couldn’t feel the wind on your face? –Susan

    >Human doesn’t have any wings. No one could tell the feelings on how is it to fly with your very own wings and not by artificial means. The statement is concluding that flying doesn’t have any essence when done artificially because you can’t feel the real impression of the air. It is like asking but actually it is telling us something that flying would not mean a lot if we are not with that someone we wish to have.

    09.) P2 False Cause

    From the Novel: Alice in The Wonderland

    “‘I can’t explain myself, I’m afraid, Sir,’ said Alice, ‘because I’m not myself you see.'” –Alice

    >In Alice line, she cannot tell exactly what she means to say for the reason that she is not herself. Well, it is possible not to explain well what she has in her mind but she had stated a wrong cause of that complexity. You can never say that you are not yourself when actually you are speaking yourself.

    10.) P3 Petitio Principii

    From the Movie: Invisible Man (1952), Ralph Ellison

    I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, fiber and liquids — and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me.

    >The man is invisible. Invisible means unseen. It’s like he is telling us that he is invisible because people refuse to see him. Maybe the phrase “refuse to see me” may mean being ignores that is why he cannot be seen. But of course if you are invisible, then no one could ever notice your existence, so you will feel ignored and you could then say that people refuse to see you.

    11.) P4 Accident

    From the Classic Novel: Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet On The Western Front, Ch. 1

    “The wisest were just the poor and simple people. They knew the war to be a misfortune, whereas those who were better off, and should have been able to see more clearly what the consequences would be, were beside themselves with joy. Katczinsky said that was a result of their upbringing. It made them stupid. And what Kat said, he had thought about.”

    >Poor and simple people are everywhere around the world. Poor they maybe but not that idiot that you may think. In the novel those poor people are wise and could understand better than the fortunate ones. But to generalize that the word intelligent belongs only to the simple and poor people is not fair. How would you know that exactly? Have you done all kind of observation to prove that? Have you classified everybody properly? Maybe not. Maybe it could only apply to certain situations but not an all. and to generalize things without any consent is always unfair.

    12.) P5 Converse Accident

    From the Classic Novel: George Orwell, 1984, Book 1, Chapter 2

    “Nearly all children nowadays were horrible. What was worst of all was that by means of such organizations as the Spies they were systematically turned into ungovernable little savages, and yet this produced in them no tendency whatever to rebel against the discipline of the Party. On the contrary, they adored the Party and everything connected with it… All their ferocity was turned outwards, against the enemies of the State, against foreigners, traitors, saboteurs, thought-criminals. It was almost normal for people over thirty to be frightened of their own children.”

    >This is also a kind of wrong generalization. Is it right to say that all children nowadays are horrible? Maybe some, but it depends so much on the environment they grew up and on the values imparted on them. So it is not really normal to be frightened by your own children because it only reflects how irresponsible you are as a parent. Maybe this applies for some horrible children but it should not be generalize because there are still many distinctions between.

    FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    13.) A1 Equivocation

    From the Movie: Braveheart

    Every man dies. Not every man really lives.

    >Men are all the same in nature. Men live their lives. But life is not eternal meaning everyone dies. In the first statement although it isn’t mentioned that man has his so called life, still it is clear because only the living experience death. Right? The second one if it supports the first, it is erroneous. You cannot say that not every man lives because it’s like telling that some lives are not lives after all.

    14.) A2 Amphiboly

    From the Movie: Confessions of a Dangerous Mind

    “Think of it as a hobby—something you do to relax. You can be an assassination enthusiast.”–George Clooney

    >The combination of the statements is incompatible. A hobby of course is relaxing. But to be an assassination enthusiast is different and very far to be called as a hobby.

    15.) A3 Accent

    From the Movie: Sunset Boulevard

    Joe Gillis (William Holden)
    You’re Norma Desmond. You used to be in silent pictures. You used to be big.
    Norma Desmond (Gloria Swanson) I am big. It’s the pictures that got small.

    >The conversation is uncertain because the words used are unclear to what another word it pertains to. The word big and small pertains to a size. In the conversation it is indistinguishable if the big and small that they are talking about pertains to the size of the picture, or the size of the person or is it the level of fame of the person.

    16.) A4 Composition

    From the Movie: Raging Bull

    Jake (lamenting to his brother Joey): “I got these small hands. I got a little girl’s hands.”

    >The feature of the hands is small. But not all that is small really can be taken as hands that look like the hands of a little girl.

    17.) A5 Division
    From the Classic Novel: Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), Zora Neale Hurston

    Ships at a distance have every man’s wish on board.

    >Ships are not all the same. Not everyone on board has the same place and reason why are they exactly at that thing.Majorities of course pray to arrive safe and sound to their destination, but you never know that some ships travel with no exact place to go. Still there is a mystery on what runs on other people’s mind. You never know. And maybe, you’ll never know! Not all the ships traveling have the same goals and desires.

    FALLACIES OF DISTRACTION

    18.) D1 Red Herring

    From the Movie: American Pie

    Stifler to Jim: If you can’t photograph a naked chick, how the hell will you ever sleep with one??
    Finch: I don’t like the man, but he’s got a point.
    Stifler: See?? Even shit brick thinks you should

    >And so if you cannot photograph a naked chick? Maybe, there are reasons behind why. But then why would you go into the sense of sleeping with a naked chick? This is a different topic that leads the statement out.

    19.) D3 False Analogy

    From the movie: Adam Bede

    “No wonder man’s religion has so much sorrow in it: no wonder he needs a Suffering God.” – George Eliot

    >Faith is all about our trust to our God. Obstacles are present that sometimes it causes people too much sorrow. But this is only to test how far your faith can bring you and make you stand. If man is suffering, it is because for reasons explained in the bible and by the church. To compare this sorrow to a Suffering God is a wrong analogy because God and faith although goes hand in hand is still different with each other.

    20.) D5 False Dilemma

    From the Movie: Casablanca

    Tell me, who was it you left me for? Was it Laszlo, or were there others in between? Or … aren’t you the kind that tells? –Humphrey Bogart

    >Humphrey Bogart is asking his past sweetheart to whom he was exchanged with. But he already limits the choice of the girl. He includes Laszlo or if it is not Laszlo, who is that man then. If she won’t tell, then she could just say yes to the question that she is not the kind that tells. But what if the reason she left was not because of a third party? What if she doesn’t want to answer then because the reason behind is not that acceptable to defend her? Isn’t it that the question should just ask why and not giving any choice at hand because it seems that Humphrey knows everything about the girl?

  8. Missing the point (Fallacy of Distraction)

    “Of course I haven’t! He killed my mum and dad!
    -HARRY POTTER

    This statement commits fallacy because “Of course I haven’t! is different from He killed my mum and dad!. The two is connected to each other but a new topic is sneaked into the discussion.

    Accent
    -HARRY POTTER

    “Felix was telling him that Slughorn would remember nothing of this in the morning.”

    This statement commits fallacy because who’s him is referring Slughorn or Felix or anyone else that did not emphasize. And also the statement could mean that Slughorn would remember all before the morning come.

    Amphiboly
    -HARRY POTTER

    “He must have known a spell we didn’t”

    We can say that there are many meaning of spell. It can be the magic spell or spelling itself.

    Begging the Question
    -HARRY POTTER

    “It’s all my fault, all my fault because I know I did wrong”

    We can see in this statement that the speaker already that it’s already his fault and then he said again in that he know that he did something wrong. It’s all my fault is same as I know I did wrong.

    Argumentum ad Populum
    -HARRY POTTER

    “Near the window was an array of violent pink products around which a cluster of excited girls was giggling enthusiastically. Hermione and Ginny both like it.”

    Ginny and Hermione like it because many girls like it too. That product is the one that many girls look for.

    False Cause
    -SUKOB

    “Because of that gown her wedding did not happen.”

    This statement is one of the beliefs of Filipino but the truth is there is reason behind why the wedding did not happen.

    Complex Question
    -HARRY POTTER

    “So the things in the water won’t do anything to us if we cross in voldemort’s boat?”

    The statement composed of multiple questions. Like what kind of water I that? Is the water different from others?

    Attack on the person
    -HARRY POTTER

    “Fenrir Greyback is, perhaps the most savage werewolf alive today. He regards it as his mission in life to bite and to contaminate as many people as possible. He wants to create enough werewolves to overcome the wizards.”

    It’s like attacking a person they didn’t know personally.

    Missing the Point (fallacy of Relevance)
    -HARRY POTTER

    “Voldemort has threatened to unleash him upon people’s sons and daughters, it is a threat that usually produces good results.”

    There is missing point because how do we know that kind of threat produce good results. Its like jumping to a conclusion.

    Argumentum Misericordiam
    -HARRY POTTER

    “ My dear prime minister, you can’t honestly think I’m still minister of magic after all this? I was scared three days ago! The whole wizarding community has been screaming for my resignation for a fortnight. I’ve never known them so united in my whole term of office.”

    The person who wrote the letter wants some sympathy from the Prime Minister.

    Hastly Generalization
    -HARRY POTTER

    “Voldemort himself created his worst enemy, just as tyrants everywhere do I have you any idea how much tyrants fear the people they oppress? All of them realize that one day amongst their victims, there is sure to be one who rises against them and strikes back.”

    In this statement writer or the speaker already concluded the one who rises against them and strikes back even though it can be or it can’t be happen.

    Straw Man
    -MAGUINDANAO PEARLS

    “The jewels are not yet found. The accused has sworn she is innocent but she found guilty. Therefore he she must be punished because she is guilty.”

    The speaker attacked the accused person by his weakness and that is being guilty of the person.

    Accident
    -HARRY POTTER

    “It’s Voldemort’s fault that you were able to see into his thoughts, his ambitious, that you even understand the snakelike language in which he gives orders and yet, Harry, despite your privileged insight into Voldemort’s world.”

    Because it said that Voldemort is the reason for why Harry were able to see into his thoughts.

    Compostion
    -DAHONG PALAY

    “Mum, you have no strength so all the women here in Barrios have no strength too.”

    This fallacy is committed when arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part to the attributes of an individual member of some collection to the attributes of the totality of that collection in the statement. The speaker said all the women in their barrios have no strength which is basically wrong because the basis of this statement is only through hid mother.

    Appeal to Ignorance
    -GUNO AND KOYO

    “The flow of the river will never be stop because there is no person can tell me when it will happen.”

    Obviously it is fallacious because he already concluded that the flow of the river will never be stop even though there is no evidence yet.

    Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    -GUNO AND KOYO

    “The villagers said we cannot go near the dry riverbed because there is something wrong in that river.”

    There is no legitimate claim because the conclusion of the villager is necessarily true. The judgement was only made by the villager.

    False Dilemma
    -HANA YORI DANGO

    “If you’re not going to Europe with her, you’re love will end here, so better go with her.”

    This is false dilemma because its like there’s no other choice even is there is.

    Slippery Slope
    -MILA

    “Don’t ever follow what your dad will say, you can be stop from your study and you will not have a bright future.”

    It doesn’t mean that if he will not follow his dad he will not have bright future.

    Appeal to Force
    -DO OR DIE

    “You will do it or you will die”

    In this case you only have two option either you will do it or not.

    Division
    -HARRY POTTER

    “Lord Voldemort wanted to kill all his enemy, he wanted to kill Harry.”

    This statement can be taken as one because Harry is one of his enemy.

  9. 1.”There’s no way humans would trust me yet, why am i trying so hard for another human?!”
    – Naruto Chapter 1 -Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    2.”Surrender now or prepare to fight”
    – Pokemon – Appeal to Force

    3.”Harry Potter is dead because he’s not fighting.”
    – Harry Potter – Red Herring

    4.”Please don’t kill me”
    – Harry Potter – Appeal to Pity

    5.”I am nobody and nobody is perfect”
    – Coach Carter – Equivocation

    6.”Dont let him do this or else he’ll destroy it”
    – Ben 10 – Amphiboly

    7.”Sensei is great in martial arts. I can be like him in the future”
    – Samurai X – Division

    8. “Freedom’s just another word for nothing left to lose”
    – Anonymous – False Analogy

    9.”Dont believe in hollows? Then if you dont your own family will suffer”
    – Bleach – Appeal to Fear

    10.”Did he say that he will beat me? Are you kidding me?”
    – Eyeshield 21 – Appeal to Ridicule

    11.”We must lose something to gain something”
    – Full Metal Alchemist – Appeal to belief

    12.”They said that he is great. I want him to be in the team”
    – Eyeshield 21 – Appeal to popular prejudice

    13.”I’m not joining”
    – Eyeshield 21 – Accent

    *sir ala nco maicp eh

  10. (Source: Spongbob Squarepants Movie and television series)

    Fallacy of Presumption:

    1. Complex Question:

    Mr. Krabs: Spongebob and Patrick, both of you look so pale, did you mess my first ever dollar?

    * It is a complex question because Mr krabs asked them by jumping to a conclusion that Spongbob and Patrick messed with his dollar without having an evidence.

    2. False Cause:

    (Patrick ate his ice cream unconciously)
    Patrick: Where did my ice cream go?
    (looking at the fire hydrant) Did you ate my ice cream?
    Spongebob: Patrick what’s going on?
    Patrick: This thing ate my ice cream. Now i forgot the taste of it.

    *It is a False Cause because Patrick blamed the fire hydrant for having him forgot the taste of the ice cream.

    3. Petito Principii:

    Spongbob: Krabby Patty is very good.
    Squidward: And how did you say so!?
    Spongebob: bacause, ahhh…it’s delicious.

    *It is a petito principii because the premise “krabby patty is good” is same as “it is delicious”.

    4. Accident:

    (at the contest)
    Spongebob: Wow! Our first opponent is the Chum Bucket!
    Plankton: Prepare for the doom Krabs!
    Mr. Krabs: Dont be scared by him, he’s just from chum bucket the home of the losers!

    *Mr Krabs insult chum bucket by insulting an individual member of it.

    5. Converse accident:

    Squidward: (cooking kraby patty but the patty burns)
    Patrick: Mr. Krabs, i think Squids can’t cook. Please fire him and let me cook.

    *Patrick saw squidward that he can’t cook. But he said squids can’t cook. Eventhough he saw Squidward the can’t cook, it doesn’t mean that all squids can’t cook.

    Fallacy of Relevance:

    6. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam:

    Spongebob: When you use your imagination you can do anything!

    *It is a Argumentum ad Ignorantiam because there’s no proof that when you have imagination, you can do anything.

    7. Argumentum ad Verecundiam:

    Squidward: May i have that sausage Spongbob?
    Spongebob: Let’s ask the mgic conch.
    Magic conch: No.
    Spongebob: Sorry you can’t have it Squidward.
    Squidward: and why is that?
    Spongebob: because the magic conch say so.

    *This fallacy is committed because the premise of the argument appeal to the judgment of the magic conch.

    8. Argumentum ad Hominem:

    Mrs Puff: (whispering) Officer don’t give that license to that spongeboy.
    Officer: Why Puff?
    Mrs Puff: He can’t even start the car.

    *This is in the 2nd form. Attacking indirectly against the person. Mrs Puff suggested to the officer that he should not give the license to Spongebob.

    9. Argumentum ad Populum:

    Spongebob: Hi Sandy! What are you doing?
    Patrick: You look so angry.
    Sandy: No Patrick. Im just practicing ka-ra-te.
    Spongebob: what is ka-ra-te?
    Sandy: It’s a kind of martial art and can defend you from bad fish.
    Spongebob and Patrick: Wow Sandy! We want ka-ra-te!

    *It is an argumentum ad populum because Sandy influenced Spongebob and Patrick.

    10. Argumentum ad Baculum:

    Mr Krabs: Kids! (talking to Spongebob and Patrick) if you don’t stop playing with hose hooks, you will become like tuna in can.

    *It is fallacious because mr Krabs threat Spongebob and Patrick that if they dont stop playing with the hooks, they will become tuna in can.

    11. Argumentum Misericordiam:

    Plankton: Spongebob, if you don’t give me the krabby patty formula, i won’t beo feed myself. (crying)

    *It is an appeal to pity because Plankton is pleasing Spongebob.

    Fallacy of Ambiguity:

    12. Equivocation:

    Squidward: (playing clarinet)
    Patrick: What’s that noise?
    Spongbob: Squidward just playing his clarinet.
    Parick: oh barnacles!
    Spongbob: It’s ok patrick. Squidward loves playing clarinet and playing clarinet is a hobby.
    Patrick: (thinking) aahhh…so when i play with Squidward, it’s a hobby?

    *It is an Equivocation because Patrick thought that Squidward and hobby is equal.

    13. Amphiboly:

    Squidward: Forget the book! I spent the whole day with you, doing all kinds of ridiculous things, because you were SUPPOSED TO EXPLODE!
    SpongeBob SquarePants: Why would I do that?
    Squidward: Because the pie you ate was a bomb!

    *It is Amphiboly because it is not clear wether the pie or Spongebob will explode.

    14. Accent:

    Patrick: What!? Spongebob is sick?

    *It is accent because the premise may change its meaning by is tone. It may mean that Spongebob is sick or he has some disorder or disease. I may also mean that Spongebob is sick of something of he is tired of something and he cant take it anymore.

    15. Composition:

    Squidward: Patrick! Stop annoying me.
    Patrick: Am I annoying you?
    Squidward: Yes you are!
    Patrick: Am I?
    Squidward: I hate pink ! (pink is the color of Patrick)

    *It is a composition because Squidward hate all things that are pink because of only one creature which is Patrick.

    16. Division

    Fish kid: Hi! I’m from Rock Bottom.
    Spongebob: Nice to meet you. Im Spongebob from Bikini Bottom.
    Fish kid: Wow! You must have been eaten in Krusty Krab.
    Spongebob: Actually, i work there as a cook.

    *It is division because when the fish kid heard that Spongebob is from Bikini Bottom, he come up with a conclusion that Spongebob has been eaten in the Krusty Krab.

    Distraction Fallacy:

    17. Red Herring:

    Squidward: Stop it Spongebob! King Neptune is just a myth.
    Spongebob: No Squidward I saw him.
    Squidward: He’s not true! If he really exist, why is that Plankton rule our world?

    *It is a red herring because it diverts the issue from the existence of King Neptune to a different one why Plankton rule their world. The ruler of plankton doesn’t deny that king Neptune is not real.

    18. Slippery Slope:

    Spongebob: Squidward! How many Krabby Patties are you eating?
    Squidward: Why are you asking!?
    Spongebob: Do not eat too much. It is dangerous!
    Squidward: Why? Am i gonna explode?
    Spongebob: Worst! The krabby Patties will go straight to your tighs and you cannot walk, then you’ll gonna explode!

    *It is a slippery slope because it is like a chain reaction. Spongebob said that the patties will go t the tighs and can’t walk and then will explode. It is like a sequence mode.

    19. False Analogy:

    Patrick: Spongebob do not go to the doctor!
    Spongebob: But why? Patrick i am sick. I need to see a doctor.
    Patrick: No! The doctor will bring with him his stethoscope and it will touch your skin. It is like a leech sucking a blood from you. So seeing a doctor is a bad idea.

    *it is a false analogy because Patrick is comparing two significantly incomparable cases.

    20. Straw Man:

    Patrick: What is that stick you are holding Spongebob?
    Spongebob: Patrick, this is not just an ordinary stick. This is a spatula. All fry cooks is holding this. Spatula is the symbol of our dignity as a cook. So if you see someone holding like this, call me. They are fry cook. I want to meet them.

    *it is Straw Man because arguments diverts the attentio from the use of spatula. That is all creatures that holding a spatula is a fry cook.

  11. [*] INFORMAL FALLACIES [*]
    __________________________________________
    A.FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE:

    A.1 ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM
    (APPEAL TO IGNORANCE)

    Bob Murch, spirit board collector:
    “There have been thousands of years of accounts of ghosts and hauntings, and if those are true, you know, surely a spirit board can work.”

    Penn Jillette:
    “So, if those aren’t true, a spirit board can’t work? Cool!”

    (Source: Penn & Teller, “Ouija Boards/Near Death Experiences”)

    ANALYSIS:
    The first statement tells us that if ghosts and hauntings are true, therefore spirit board can work, it shows appeal to ignorance because the first premise reports that nothing is known or proved, yet the conclusion is drawn.
    __________________________________________
    A.2 ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    (APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY)

    “…The Terminator knew; he tried to tell us. But I didn’t want to hear it. Maybe the future has been written. I don’t know; all I know is what the Terminator taught me – never stop fighting. And I never will. The battle has just begun.”

    [Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003)]

    ANALYSIS:

    This line from the movie Terminator shows the fallacy of appeal to inappropriate authority because not just because the terminator has taught you things such as never to stop fighting, you will never stop because he said so.
    __________________________________________
    A.3 ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    (ATTACK ON THE PERSON)

    A.3.1
    “We spend two hundred and fifty billion dollars a year on defense, and here we are, the fate of the planet is in the hands of a bunch of retards I wouldn’t trust with a potato gun!”

    (Keith David (General Kimsey) in Armageddon)

    ANALYSIS:
    This is a good example of argumentum ad hominem because it attacks the person by his capabilities by calling them a bunch of retards.

    A.3.2
    Lola: You talk to me like a woman, you think like a woman. Nick, come on, admit it. You’re totally and completely gay!

    [What women want (2000)]

    ANALYSIS:
    Calling someone a gay by the means of his manner of talking and thinking is a direct attack on the person.
    __________________________________________
    A.4 ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    (APPEAL TO POPULAR PREJUDICE)

    You are the children of destiny, the greatest generation of racial purity ever witnessed on earth. You are the blood of our revered forefathers and the guardians of the fatherland. Your great destiny, however, carries an equally great responsibility. You must rise up, claim your rightful position as masters of the earth, and conquer the enemies of racial purity—the Jews, Catholics, gypsies, homosexuals, and other degenerate sub humans. Embark on your appointed crusade with the joy of cruelty in your heart! With a steel-like romanticism in your soul for the glorious Reich.

    (Adolf Hitler, addressing an Aryan youth Rally)

    ANALYSIS:
    This statement of Adolf Hitler shows appeal to popular prejudice because these youth he is talking to are sons and daughters of great men and because their ancestors did something great, therefore they should rise up and do what their forefathers did.
    __________________________________________
    A.5 ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    (APPEAL TO FORCE)

    A.5.1
    “If I talk to you and you turn me into a fag, I’m gonna kill ya, understand?”

    [Robert De Niro (Paul Vitti”) in Analyze This! ]

    ANALYSIS:

    This line from the movie “Analyze This” obviously Robert de Niro forces the person he is talking to, to talk to him properly or else he will kill him.

    A.5.2
    Wallace: Lower your flags and march straight back to England, stopping at every home to beg forgiveness for a hundred years of theft, rape, and murder. Do this and your men shall live. Do it not, and every one of you will die today.

    [Braveheart (1995)]

    ANALYSIS:
    Wallace forces the people to go to each and every house in England and beg for forgiveness, and if they do not follow this instruction, they will be killed.
    __________________________________________
    A.6 ARGUMENTUM MISERICORDIAM
    (APPEAL TO PITY)

    You better take care of me Lord, if you don’t you’re gonna have me on your hands.

    (Raoul Duke in Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas)
    ANALYSIS:
    The statement shows appeal to pity, he asks the Lord to take care of him, because if the Lord does not take care of him the boy will surely die.
    __________________________________________
    A.7 IGNORANTIO ELENCHI
    (MISSING THE POINT)

    “The 52 former hostages are seen as national heroes. I consider them survivors. A hero is one who is admired for his achievements and qualities. Therefore, the true heroes are those servicemen who volunteered for the failed rescue mission.”

    (Irene Coyne, “Letters” Time (Vol 117, No. 7), 4)

    ANALYSIS:
    Ms. Coyne is arguing that the servicemen who failed to rescue the hostages are heroes for the reason that heroes are admired for their achievements and qualities. For this premise to be relevant to the conclusion, we must assume that the servicemen who failed are admired for their achievements and qualities. If this assumption were to be supported by further reasons, the ignoratio elenchi need not have occurred.
    __________________________________________
    B. FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    B.1 COMPLEX QUESTION

    “Hunger strike, eh? How long has this been going on?”

    [It Happened One Night (1934)]

    ANALYSIS:

    This statement shows the fallacy of presumption because the first question has still not yet been answered but it was already followed by another question which assumes that the first question was already answered.
    __________________________________________
    B.2 FALSE CAUSE
    (NON CAUSA PRO CAUSA)

    Paul Rusesabagina: Who will tell them? You need me to tell them how you helped at the hotel. They blame you for all their misfortunes.

    [Hotel Rwanda (2004)]

    ANALYSIS:
    Having misfortunes in our lives does not mean that someone is to be blamed, therefore blaming someone for the misfortune we experience; we commit the fallacy of false cause.
    __________________________________________

    B.3 PETITIO PRINCIPII
    (BEGGING THE QUESTION)

    Mulder: It is if we fail to anticipate the unforeseen then expect the unexpected in a universe of infinite possibilities.

    [The X-Files: Fight the Future (1998)]

    ANALYSIS:

    The statement has a term being restated in the conclusion, the word unforeseen and unexpected are synonymous to each other.
    __________________________________________
    B.4 CONVERSE ACCIDENT
    (HASTY GENERALIZATION)

    Jerry: David Berkowitz, Ted Bundy, Richard Speck…

    Alice: What about them?

    Jerry: Serial killers. Serial killers only have two names. You ever notice that? But lone gunmen assassins, they always have three names. John Wilkes Booth, Lee Harvey Oswald, Mark David Chapman…

    Alice: John Hinckley. He shot Reagan. He only has two names.

    Jerry: Yeah, but he only just shot Reagan. Reagan didn’t die. If Reagan had died, I’m pretty sure we probably would all know what John Hinckley’s middle name was.

    (Later in the movie.)

    Jerry: I just thought of another one: James Earl Ray, the guy who got Luther King. Then of course, there’s Sirhan Sirhan. I still haven’t figured that one out. Maybe it’s Sirhan Sirhan Sirhan, I don’t know.

    [Conspiracy Movie (1997)]

    ANALYSIS:

    The generalization that was made in the conversation is that if a person has two names, they are serial killers while those with three names are gunmen assassins. It does not follow that if a person has two names he or she is already a serial killer and same with having three names, it does not automatically mean that he is already a gunman assassin.
    __________________________________________
    C. FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    C.1 EQUIVOCATION

    Ian: God creates dinosaurs. God destroys dinosaurs. God creates man. Man destroys God. Man creates dinosaurs…

    [Jurassic Park (1993) line spoken by: IAN]

    ANALYSIS:
    The premise shows equivocation because the same words and phrases are used with different meanings.
    __________________________________________
    C.2 AMPHIBOLY

    I’ll be back.

    [The Terminator (Terminator 1)]

    ANALYSIS:
    The statement I’ll be back has many other plausible meaning, it could mean that, I’ll be back today, I’ll be back in a year, or I’ll be back as soon as I finish something.
    __________________________________________
    C.3 ACCENT

    Captain Billy Tyne: I always find the fish. Always.

    (The Perfect Storm 2000)

    ANALYSIS:
    The intended tone of voice is uncertain because we do not know if Captain Billy is angry because he still has no catch or if he is just sharing his experience to other fisherman.
    __________________________________________
    C.4 COMPOSITION

    Kitty: You want to save the duck, you need to save the lake.

    (“Dharma & Greg” (1997))

    ANALYSIS:
    This shows the part-whole problem, if you need to save a duck, it does not mean you have to save the whole lake where the duck is.
    __________________________________________
    D.DISTRACTION FALLACIES

    D.1. RED HERRING
    (MISSING THE POINT)

    The operation cost just under $500, and no one was killed, or even hurt. In that same time the Pentagon spent tens of millions of dollars and dropped tens of thousands of pounds of explosives on Viet Nam, killing or wounding thousands of human beings, causing hundreds of millions of dollars of damage. Because nothing justified their actions in our calculus, nothing could contradict the merit of ours.

    (Source: Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers, from his memoir Fugitive Days, defending a bombing attack by the Weathermen on the Pentagon. Quoted in “Radical Chic Resurgent”, by Timothy Noah, Slate, 8/22/2001)

    ANALYSIS:
    The statement shows the fallacy of red herring because they compared two related things but still different from each other. Because an operation is different from the issue with pentagon
    But the same in the part where they spent money.
    __________________________________________
    D.2 SLIPPERY SLOPE

    D.2.1
    “That makes me angry, and when Dr. Evil gets angry, Mr. Bigglesworth gets upset. And when Mr. Bigglesworth gets upset….people DIE!!!”

    (Mike Myers (Dr. Evil) in Austin Powers 1: International Man of Mystery)

    ANALYSIS:
    The first event is that when dr. evil gets angry, from this, a series of events automatically follows and ends up with the conclusion that people die. It’s like a domino effect as described by the book.

    D.2.2
    …If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Once begin upon this downward path, you never know where you are to stop. Many a man has dated his ruin from some murder or other that perhaps he thought little of at the time.

    (Source: Thomas De Quincey, “Second Paper on Murder”)

    ANALYSIS:
    From murdering to robbing, drinking, Sabbath-breaking, procrastinating, many other events was drawn from a single one.
    __________________________________________
    D.3 FALSE ANALOGY

    WASHINGTON (AP)–The only exterminator in Congress told his colleagues Wednesday that it would be a short-sighted move to ban use of chlordane and related termiticides that cause cancer in laboratory animals.

    “This bill reminds me of legislation that ought to be introduced to outlaw automobiles” on the grounds that cars kill people, said Rep. Tom DeLay, R-Texas, who owns an exterminating business.

    (Source: Associated Press, June 25th, 1987)

    ANALYSIS:
    Representative DeLay attempts to argue against a bill banning chlordane by comparing it to a bill banning automobiles, but this analogy is very weak. Here are some of the relevant differences:
    •Banning automobiles would be economically and socially disruptive in a way that banning a single pesticide would not.
    •There are many alternative pesticides available to replace a banned one, but there are few modes of transportation available which could replace cars.
    •Automobiles play a significant role in our society, whereas chlordane was used only to prevent termite damage to houses, which is of comparatively minor importance.
    __________________________________________
    D.4 STRAW MAN

    “Why, apart from moral considerations, do you think teenagers should be taught to abstain from sex until marriage?”

    “…Not one of 800 sexologists at a recent conference raised a hand when asked if they would trust a thin rubber sheath to protect them during intercourse with a known HIV infected person. … And yet they’re perfectly willing to tell our kids that “safe sex” is within reach and that they can sleep around with impunity.”

    (Source: James C. Dobson, in a fund-raising letter for “Focus on the Family”, February 13, 1992)

    ANALYSIS:
    Dobson is arguing against the “safe sex” idea of promoting condom usage as a way to limit the spread of HIV. In order to more easily knock down his target, Dobson portrays the sexologists he’s criticizing as telling kids “that they can sleep around with impunity”. The most prominent proponent of condom usage was Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, who testified before Congress to the following:
    Scientific evidence indicates that abstinence is the only completely safe way to avoid acquiring AIDS sexually. Except for mutually faithful monogamous relationships with uninfected partners, the use of a condom is the best method of reducing or preventing HIV infection known at this time for those who for one reason or another will not practice abstinence or monogamy.
    __________________________________________
    D.5 FALSE DILEMMA

    D.5.1
    Gerda Reith is convinced that superstition can be a positive force. “It gives you a sense of control by making you think you can work out what’s going to happen next,” she says. “And it also makes you feel lucky. And to take a risk or to enter into a chancy situation, you really have to believe in your own luck. In that sense, it’s a very useful way of thinking, because the alternative is fatalism, which is to say, ‘Oh, there’s nothing I can do.’ At least superstition makes people do things.”

    (Source: David Newnham, “Hostages to Fortune”)

    ANALYSIS:
    Fatalism is not the alternative to superstition; it is an alternative. Superstition involves acting in Fatalism is not the alternative to superstition; it is an alternative. Superstition involves acting in ways that are ineffective, whereas fatalism involves failing to act even in situations in which our efforts can be effective. Fortunately, there are other alternatives, such as recognizing that there are some things we can control and other things we cannot, and only acting in the first case.

    D.5.2
    Do I trust the word of a madman and forget the lessons of September the 11th, or take action to defend America? Given that choice, I will defend America every time.

    (President George W. Bush, 9/3/04)

    ANALYSIS:
    The second argument is a classic example of a false dilemma or false choice. A world of possibilities exists beyond the ridiculously narrow and prejudicial choices President Bush presents.
    __________________________________________

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    ++++++++++++++++++++JAJA++++++++++++++++++
    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

  12. sir 24 lahat yun, ung iba kasi dalawang example nilagay ko…=)

    thnx thnx..= )

  13. Ampiboly

    Peter Parker
    Not everyone is meant to make a difference. But for me, the choice to lead an ordinary life is no longer an option.

    Accent

    Peter Parker
    Who am I? You sure you want to know? The story of my life is not for the faint of heart. If somebody said it was a happy little tale… if somebody told you I was just your average ordinary guy, not a care in the world… somebody lied.

    division

    Peter Parker: Spiderman Quotes
    Whatever life holds in store for me, I will never forget these words: “With great power comes great responsibility.” This is my gift, my curse. Who am I? I’m Spiderman.

    argumentum ad ignorantiam

    Green Goblin
    No matter what you do for them, eventually, they will hate you.

    red herring

    Green Goblin
    Here’s the real truth. There are eight million people in this city. And those teeming masses exist for the sole purpose of lifting the few exceptional people onto their shoulders. You and me… We’re exceptional.

    Converse accident

    Peter Parker
    Some spiders change colors to blend into their environment. It’s a defense mechanism. If you do not change colors to blend into their environment. It’s not a defense mechanism

    false analogy

    Peter Parker: Spiderman Movie Quotes
    No matter what I do, no matter how hard I try, the ones I love will always be the ones who pay…

    accident

    Peter Parker and Aunt May
    Peter Parker(about Uncle Ben): I can’t help thinking about… the last thing I said to him. He tried to tell me something important, and I threw it in his face.
    Aunt May: You loved him. And he loved you. He never doubted the man you’d grow into; how you were meant for great things. You won’t disappoint him.

    argumentum ad hominem

    Green Goblin and Spider Man
    Green Goblin: Spider Man. This is why only fools are heroes… because you never know when some lunatic will come along with a sadistic choice. Let die the woman you love… or suffer the little children. Make your choice, Spider Man, and see how a hero is rewarded.
    Spider Man: Don’t do it, Goblin.
    Green Goblin: We are who we choose to be… now choose!

    argumentum ad misericordiam

    May Parker and Spider Man
    May Parker: Too few characters out there, flying around like that, saving old girls like me. And Lord knows, kids like Henry need a hero. Courageous, self-sacrificing people. Setting examples for all of us. Everybody loves a hero. People line up for them, cheer them, scream their names. And years later, they’ll tell how they stood in the rain for hours just to get a glimpse of the one who taught them how to hold on a second longer. I believe there’s a hero in all of us, that keeps us honest, gives us strength, makes us noble, and finally allows us to die with pride, even though sometimes we have to be steady, and give up the thing we want the most. Even our dreams…

    argumentum ad verecundiam

    Dr. Davis and Spider Man
    Dr. Davis: You say you can’t sleep. Heart break? Bad Dreams?
    Spider Man: There is one dream where in my dream, I’m Spider Man. But I’m loosing my powers. I’m climbing a wall but I keep falling.
    Dr. Davis: Oh. So you’re Spider Man…
    Spider Man: (interrupts Dr. Davis) In my dream… Actually, it’s not even my dream, it’s a friend of mine’s dream.
    Dr. Davis: Oh. Somebody else’s dream. What about this friend? Why does he climb these walls? What does he think of himself?
    Spider Man: That’s the problem, he doesn’t know what to think.
    Dr. Davis: Kind of makes you mad not to know who you are? Your soul disappears, nothing is bad as uncertainty. Listen, maybe you’re not supposed to be Spider Man climbing those walls? That’s why you keep falling. You’ll always have a choice Peter.
    Spider Man: (whispers) I have a choice.

    Mary Jane and Spider Man
    Spider Man: You don’t understand! I’m not an empty seat anymore. I’m different!

    ignorantio elenchi

    Mary Jane and Spider Man
    Mary Jane: (on the giant spider web) I think I always knew all this time who you really were.
    Peter Parker: Then you know why we can’t be together. Spider Man will always have enemies. I can’t let you take that risk. I will always be Spider Man. You and I can never be…

    complex question

    Dr. Otto Octavius
    Before we start… did anyone lose a bunch of twenties rolled up in a rubber band? Because we found the rubber band.

    slippery slope

    Peter Parker
    But she can never know. I made a choice once to live a life of responsibility. A life she can never be a part of. Who am I? I’m Spider Man, given a job to do. And I’m Peter Parker, and I too have a job.

    Petition principii

    Dr. Otto Octavius to Peter Parker
    Dr. Otto Octavius: If you want to get a woman to fall in love with you, feed her poetry.
    Peter Parker: Poetry?
    Dr. Otto Octavius: Never fails.

    argumentum ad baculum

    J. Jonah Jameson to Peter Parker
    Get your pretty little portfolio off my desk before I go into a diabetic coma!

  14. 1. > Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    A. “There’s no life in mars because there is no reports of life there.” – My favorite Marshall
    B.Because there are no reports of life in Mars, it doesn’t really mean that there’s no life there. The fallacy that a proposition is true simply on the basis that it has not been proved false or that it is false simply because it has not been proved true. This error in reasoning is often expressed with influential rhetoric.

    2. > Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    A. “You should wear that red polka dot dress… it’s really looks good to you… because I said so.” – Because I said so
    B. The statement above shows that other people reason out on the other’s behalf.

    3. > Argumentum as Hominem
    A. “You should not believe her. She’s from teamrocket” – Pokemon
    B. The statement above shows that Ash, doesn’t believe whatever Jessie is doing because teamrocket’s character in the series is bad.

    4. > Argumentum ad Baculum
    A. “Give me the car I requested or I will kill this girl!” – Hancock
    B. The statement above shows that the recommendations of the arguer are to avoid harm.

    5. > Argumentum ad Populum
    A. “Everybody says this album rocks, so I bought a copy.” – One tree Hill
    B. The statement above says that even if Peyton Sawyer doesn’t know what the album is she still bought a copy because of popularity.

    6. > Argumentum Misericordiam
    A. “Oh, Officer, There’s no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed.”
    B. The fallacy was committed because pity or a related emotion such as sympathy or compassion is appealed to for the sake of getting a conclusion accepted.

    7. >Ignorantio Elenchi
    A. “The 52 former hostages are seen as national heroes. I consider them survivors. A hero is one who is admired for his achievements and qualities. Therefore, the true heroes are those servicemen who volunteered for the failed rescue mission.” – Irene Coyne, “Letters” Time (Vol. 117, No. 7), 4.
    B. For this premise to be relevant to the conclusion, we must assume that the servicemen who failed are admired for their achievements and qualities. If this assumption were to be supported by further reasons, the ignoratio elenchi need not have occurred.

    8. > Complex Question
    A. “None of the boys in town your type, eh? So you must really like that guy. (EDWARD)”- Twilight
    B. Charlie Swann jumped into the conclusion that Bella really likes Edward without prior warrant.

    9. > non causa pro causa
    A. “Dear ABBY: If GOING BALD doesn’t have any sighs of rash, or sores on her head, she should make a mixture of castor oil and sheep dung, and plaster it on her head every night. (Tell her to wear a shower cap so she won’t mess up her pillow.) I started losing my hair after the birth of my child. My grandmother gave me this remedy and it worked. Index Journal (02.01.80).
    B. If this were a causal inference then it will work to all people.

    10. > Petitio Principii

    A. “Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree.” Oscar Wilde, De Profundis.
    B. There is a repetition of same words in the same order in both premises and conclusion.

    11. > Amphiboly
    A. “Save soap and waste paper.”-From Copi, p. 115
    B. The statement has two meanings. And the logical fallacy amphiboly occurs when the construction of a sentence allows it to have two different meanings.

    12. > Straw Man
    A. …Not one of 800 sexologists at a recent conference raised a hand when asked if they would trust a thin rubber sheath to protect them during intercourse with a known HIV infected person. … And yet they’re perfectly willing to tell our kids that “safe sex” is within reach and that they can sleep around with impunity. -James C. Dobson, in a fund-raising letter for “Focus on the Family”, February 13, 1992.
    B. The argument diverts attention from safe sex. This fallacy is deceptive. It was committed because the arguer makes a position appear stronger by making the opposing position appear weaker
    13. >Accent
    A. “The Captain was sober today.” -From Copi, p. 117
    B. He suggests, by his emphasis, that the Captain is usually drunk.

    14. > Red Herring
    A. “I think there is great merit in making the requirements stricter for the graduate students. I recommend that you support it, too. After all, we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affected.” – His and Her Circumstances
    B. A Red Herring is a fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to “win” an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.

    15.> Hasty Generalization
    A. It’s a story, say, about the New York City public schools. In the first paragraph a parent, apparently picked at random, testifies that they haven’t improved. Readers are clearly expected to draw conclusions from this. But it isn’t clear why the individual was picked; it isn’t possible to determine whether she’s representative; and there’s no way of knowing whether she knows what she’s talking about. Calling on the individual man or woman on the street to make conclusive judgments is beneath journalistic dignity. If polls involving hundreds of people carry a cautionary note indicating a margin of error of plus-or-minus five points, what kind of consumer warning should be glued to a reporter’s ad hoc poll of three or four respondents- Daniel Okrent, “13 Things I Meant to Write About but Never Did”, New York Times, 5/22/2005
    B. In this example, it was presumed that what is true of a few things is true of everything of that kind. Hasty generalization, is a fallacy committed when one moves carelessly or too quickly from a single case to a broad generalization.

    16. .> Equivocation
    A.“The humanity of the patient’s appendix is medically undeniable.
    Therefore, the appendix has a right to life and should not be surgically removed.”
    B. The statement accidentally used a word with a double meaning, and accidentally formulates a wrong conclusion.

    17. >Composition
    A. Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?- Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Martin Ostwald, translator (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962), p. 16.
    B. Some properties are such that, if every part of a whole has the property, then the whole will too. It consists in taking words or phrases as a unit but should be taken separately.

    18 > Division
    A. All Kryptonians can fly Clark. And you are a Kryptonian, so you can fly too! – Chloe (Smallville)
    B. The statement above says that when Chloe knew that Clark is a Kryptonian she assumed that Clark can fly, because all krptonians do.

  15. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

    A. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    “No mathematician has ever been able to demonstrate the truth of the variants of the Goldberg conjecture, so they cannot all be true.” (Lander)

    –From the fact that something has not been proved, no conclusion can be drawn.

    B. Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    “United Nations as presently constituted has serious defects.” — Ely Culbertson

    –Mr. Culbertson is cited as an authority on bridge, not international affairs, so it is an appeal to inappropriate authority.

    C. Argumentum ad Hominem

    “I saw a flying saucer in my farm, but I never got beyond the fourth grade in school and can hardly read or write.” (The Nutshell)

    –One does not have to be well educated in order to see well. Brown’s character is irrelevant to what he claimed to see. The accusation of being ignorant is a character attack.

    D. Argumentum ad Populum

    “Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be.” (Obstacle)

    –Simply because many people believe something is true, this fact does not make it true

    E. Argumentum Misericordiam

    “My client is an integral part of this community. If he is sent to prison not only will this city suffer but also he will be most missed by his family. You surely cannot find it in your hearts to reach any other verdict than ‘not guilty’.” (Out of Ditch)

    –Most probably, a client’s guilt or innocence of a crime is not determined by being a part of the community or being missed by his family. Since we are to feel sorry for the client, it is an appeal to pity.

    F. Argumentum ad Baculum

    “You will back up my story and tell the committee I am reasoning logically; because if you don’t I will do everything in my power to see that you are fired.” (Back Day)

    –The use of a threat of force is being used to gain the acceptance of a conclusion.

    FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION

    A. Complex Questions

    “If you could go back and change just one thing about your life, would you?
    But if you did would that change make your life better
    Or would that change ultimately break your heart
    Or break the heart of another
    Would you choose an entirely different path?
    Or would you change just one thing
    Just one moment, one moment that you always wanted back.” (One Tree Hill)

    –The propositions illicitly conjoined and show that one doesn’t mean the others. Previous questions were not yet answered yet it is already followed by another question assumed that the first question was answered already.

    B. False Cause

    “It should be no surprise to you that if a Democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by Democratic administrations.” (Third Party)

    –The reasoning is that since recessions are preceded by Democratic administrations, the Democrats cause them.

    C. Petitio Principii

    “I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.” (The Nature of Prophets and Prophecy)

    –The argument goes around from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible.

    D. Accident

    “Since the Bible says, ‘Thou shall not kill,’ it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.” –R. Burton

    –The general rule is being used in an instance not meant to be covered by the rule; hence, the fallacy of accident occurs.

    E. Converse Accident

    “As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.” (Wofford College)

    –The locator is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances.

    FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    A. Equivocation

    “I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.” (America, Always Armed)

    –The word ”right” is used in two different senses, what is ethically right and what is politically right–equivocation.

    B. Amphiboly

    “Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.” –McCain

    –Because of the loose and awkward sentence construction the fallacy of amphiboly occurs.

    C. Accent

    “I don’t often see him.” (Twayne)

    –The anticipated quality of voice is doubtful because we don’t know if he’s just informing us that she’s not seeing him often or she’s sad or somewhat irritated because of not seeing him frequently.

    D. Composition

    “Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.” (A Call to Reclaim the Church)

    –The argument moves from part to whole, committing the fallacy of composition.

    E. Division

    “Water extinguishes fire. Oxygen is part of water. Therefore, oxygen will extinguish fire.” (Fire Fighting Foams)

    –The argument moves from whole to part.

    FALLACIES OF DISTRACTION

    A. Red Herring

    “I want to have everything with you and I want it all just because I want us, Peyton”
    (One Tree Hill)

    –It switches the idea of wanting everything with Peyton to a different one about wanting them being together.

    B. Slippery Slope

    “You should not date him because you might fall in love with him and later might get hurt, then, you’ll go back to me and ask me why I set up him to you.” (One Tree Hill)

    –It does not automatically follow that dating on the opposite sex ends up in being heartbroken. It jumps into doubtful conclusion from an idea that doesn’t not necessarily entail it.

    C. Straw Man

    “Intuition only involves feelings and not structured ideas and the use of defined principles. Only things that use defined principles are valid, and therefore intuition is not valid.” (D. Rury)

    –This argument switches the thought from the idea that intuition is used of defined principles. That is, by making it come out that intuition is used of defined principles is the same as intuition being valid because only things that use defined principles are valid.

    D. False Dilemma

    “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.” (The Nizkor Project)

    –It switches the concern of the person from buying the stereo product into suffering about having no music for a while if he doesn’t buy the product.

  16. I. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)
    “ Should you choose to test my resolve in this matter, you will be facing a finality beyond your comprehension, and you will not be counting days, or months, or years, but millenniums in a place with no doors.”
    -Joe Black, Meet Joe Black

    • This line is fallacious because Joe was trying to scare the man into submission.

    II. False Dilemma
    “It all depends on whether he is strong enough or not. Either he’ll kill her himself,” – she turned to meet my gaze again, glaring – “which would really irritate me, Edward, not to mention what it would do to you – “ she faced Jasper again, “or she’ll be one of us someday.”
    –Alice Cullen, Chapter 4, Midnight Sun by Stephenie Meyer

    • Alice makes it appear as if Edward has but two choices. Either he would kill Bella or he would turn her into a vampire someday. Edward hopes for neither and would rather stay away but Alice insists that staying away is a lost cause because she knows he couldn’t do it.

    III. Appeal To Pity
    “It’s not fun for me, Nakatsu, if we don’t do it together.”
    –Ashiya Mizuki, Episode 9, Hanazakari no Kimitachi e

    • Ashiya knows that Nakatsu couldn’t bear to see her sad that’s why she said the above words to convince him to sing with her.

    IV. Ad Hominem
    (After Haruhi breaks an 8 million yen vase.)
    Haruhi: Uhmm… about paying for this…
    Hikaru and Kaoru: Are you able to — someone who couldn’t even buy our designated uniform? Besides, What’s with that stupid outfit?
    – Episode 1, Ouran High School Host Club

    • Haruhi was about to propose how she would pay for the broken vase but the twins cut her off and insinuated that she wouldn’t be able to, all because she couldn’t even buy a school uniform.

    V. False Cause
    (During Halloween)
    Haruhi: Ahh. So it was a witch. Then the person who was us at the top floor of Central Hall this morning was also someone in costume… ara? Still there!
    (Others rush by the window to look)
    Hikaru: Really? Where? Lemme see. Where is it? I can’t see anything…
    Haruhi: Why can’t anyone else see tha…?
    (Window panes crack)
    Classmates: It’s… it’s a curse! Haruhi received the witch’s curse!
    -Ouran High School Host Club Manga, Chapter 11

    • It all started when Haruhi thought she saw someone in a witch costume up in the tower. Nekozawa proceeded to tell them about a witch’s curse, resulting to Haruhi being blamed for all he bad things that happened that day. In the end, they found out that it was just a prank played by the twins.

    VI. Slippery Slope
    Tamaki: He asked of Honey-senpai to never fight with 100% force in public.
    Haruhi: Why?
    Tamaki: If Honey-senpai’s true powers were to be shown in public, our country would be suspected of hiding weapons of mass destruction, and there would be fears of us being victimized by showers of missiles from the U.N.!
    Hikaru and Kaoru: How scary!
    -Ouran High School Host Club, Episode 18

    • Honey may have been very good in martial arts but no single person could be mistaken for a weapon of mas destruction. In this part of the episode, Tamaki went from exaggerating the situation to foreseeing a string of unlikely events.

    VII. Complex Question
    “ Isn’t everyone suffering because of your selfishness?”
    -Lady Eclair Tonerre, Ouran High School Host Club, Episode 25

    • Tamaki was not able to answer when Lady Eclair asked him this. She could have just asked him if people were suffering and why. But in this question, she was implying that people were already suffering as if it were because Tamaki was selfish.

    VIII. Begging the question
    “Whatever I’m not, Hikaru is… and whatever Hikaru is not, I am.”
    -Kaoru Hitachiin, Ouran High School Host Club Manga, Chapter 37

    • This commits the fallacy of petitio principii because it is going in circles. You can ask what Kaouru is but that would only be answered by what Hikaru isn’t. You can ask what Hikaru is and that would be what Kaoru isn’t.

    IX. Red Herring (Missing the point)
    Jimmy: Even if you get past me the others will get you.
    Haley: Are there others, Jim?
    Nathan: No, no, no. I was out there. It’s just you.
    Jimmy: You think so? You really think I am the only one? Then ask yourself this. Have you ever treated someone like crap in this school or left anyone out? Have you ever broken up with someone in the time it takes to pass a note and disappear? Or talk trash behind their back? Or maybe you just ignored it all? You know why you worry about the big game or the prom or the bake sale for the pep club. You ask yourself that and then you tell me if there is anyone else out there.
    -One Tree Hill Season 3, Episode 16

    • The hostages were aking Jimmy whether there were more students with guns roaming the school. Jimmy was hysterical, recounting all his terrible experiences and telling them that he couldn’t possibly be the only one “out there” who were holding the same grudges as him.

    X. Argumentum Ad Populum (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    A mammoth crowd of about 15,000 pro-Estrada supporters filled Velez st. all the way to the City Bandstand calling for Estrada’s immediate release from prison.
    (‘Piso’ rally turns into pro-Erap movement, 2001)

    • Objecting the verdict about Erap’s case by thousands of his fans doesn’t mean that they’re right. Although many believe that he shouldn’t be accused guilty of plunder, it doesn’t necessarily mean that Erap should be innocent just because his supporters said it.

    XI. Hasty Generalization
    “Adele, listen. My letters to you. You did burn them, didn’t you?”
    There was a momentary hesitation before Adele Fortescue said:
    “Of course. I told you I was going to do so.”
    “That’s all right, then. Well I’ll ring off now. Don’t phone and don’t write. You’ll hear from me in good time.”
    He put the receiver back on its hook. He stroked his cheek thoughtfully. He didn’t like that moment’s hesitation. Had Adele burnt his letters? Women were all the same. They promised to burn things and then they didn’t.
    -A Pocket Full of Rye by Agatha Christie, Chapter 11

    • Ths is a fallacy of converse accident because after Adele lied about burning Vivian’s letters to her, Vivian proceeded to accuse all women of not burning letters when they promised to. Just because it’s true for one woman, it doesn’t mean that it’s true for all the others.

    XII. Falalcy of Modus Tollens

    Tie a Yellow Ribbon by Tony Orlando

    • The summary of the song is “If you still want me, then tie a yellow ribbon round the old oak tree. But, there are hundreds of yellow ribbons round the the old oak tree. Therefore, you still want me.” It commits a fallacy of modus tollens because of the fault in conditional reasoning. If A, then B. But it is B, therefore A. That’s not how modus tollens works.

    XIII. Composition
    Blair: Don’t ever go to high school, Dorota. The girls are spoiled, stupid and ungrateful! One snapshot with a socialite and it’s all Serena, Serena, Serena!
    — Blair Waldorf, Gossip Girl season 2, The Serena Also Rises

    • Blair says that the girls in all high schools are spoiled, stupid and ungrateful because girls in her high school are like that.

    XIV. Accent
    Luke 23:43 says, “And he said to him, ‘Truly I say to you today you shall be with me in Paradise.’”
    • If a comma were placed before the word ‘today’, then the sinner would be with Jesus in paradise that same day. But if the comma were placed after the word ‘today’, it would mean that the sinner would be with Him in paradise some time in the future and he was only being informed that day.

    XV. Appeal to Ignorance
    Defense Attorney: You claim you threw your gun into the Royal River before the murders took place. That’s rather convenient.
    ANDY: It’s the truth.
    Defense Attorney: You recall Lt. Mincher’s testimony? He and his men dragged that river for three days and nary a gun was found. So no comparison can be made between your gun and the bullets taken from the bloodstained corpses of the victims. That’s also rather convenient, isn’t it, Mr. Dufresne?
    ANDY: (faint, bitter smile) Since I am innocent of this crime, sir, I find it decidedly inconvenient the gun was never found.

    • Andy claimed to have thrown his gun into the river before the murder (of which he knew nothing about) took place but the defense attorney insists otherwise. He believes that Andy threw the gun after committing the murder, and that the issue of the gun not having been found is a matter of convenience to him. They needed the gun to prove his innocence but since they couldn’t find it, Andy was sentenced guilty.

  17. FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    1. Complex Question

    “You haven’t been coming home lately. Are you enjoying your gang and the crime on the streets?”-Gridiron Gang (movie)

    This is a fallacy of complex question because the statement jumps to a conclusion from the premise without sufficient evidence or proof for the conclusion to be true.

    2. False Cause

    “I think I just got lucky because you are with me.“-Just My Luck (movie)

    This is a fallacy of false cause because one should not assume right away that he/she gets lucky because of another just because he/she is with the person. More supporting details and proof are needed.

    3. Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)

    “You are wrong because you are not right!”- (movie)

    This is a fallacy of begging the question because you are stating something or arguing something in circles. You can not be right because you are wrong is just the same thing, said in two different statements.

    4. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)

    “That chump’s a crepe. He’s either killed a dozen of foes or assassinated a couple of the innocent.”-Gridiron Gang (movie)

    This is a fallacy of sweeping generalization because of coming to a conclusion of a group that is known for something to a person or someone in particular.

    5. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    “Since you are unworthy and a disgrace to the race, all of your kind should be treated as slaves!”-Troy (movie)

    This is a fallacy of hasty generalization because similar to the former, this one concludes a particular to the whole without sufficient evidence to prove the conclusion.

    FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

    6. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)

    “There is no god because there is no proof of his existence in terms of hard evidence.”

    This is a fallacy of appeal to ignorance because it is argued that a proposition is true on the ground that it has not been proven false, or when it is argued that a proposition is false because it has not been proved to be true.

    7. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    “Mutants are criminals because the congress says so.”-Xmen (movie)

    This is a fallacy of appeal to inappropriate authority because the premises of an argument appeal to the judgment of some party or parties having no legitimate claim to authority in the matter at hand.

    8. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)

    “I have no talent at all. But this rat knows everything. He is the cook. He’s the real cook. He’s been hiding on my head. He is the reason I can cook what is exciting everyone. The reason Ego is outside that door.” Ratatouille (movie)

    This is a fallacy of attack on the person because attack is leveled not at the claims being made or merits of the argument, but at the person of the opponent.

    9. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to the People)

    “Everybody in the neighborhood joined a gang, so I did too.” Gridiron Gang (movie)

    This is a fallacy of appeal to people because one appeals to popularly held beliefs as premises to a conclusion.

    10. Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)

    “Look this works. It’s crazy but it works. We can be the greatest restaurant in Paris and this rat can lead us there. What do you say? You with me?” Ratatouille (movie)

    This is a fallacy of appeal to pity because careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.

    11. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)

    “Surrender, or die!”-Small Soldiers (movie)

    This is a fallacy of appeal to force because careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion and arguer threatens reader or listener.

    12. Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)

    “Waiter telling Linguini: All the guests are waiting for the order.
    Linguini: Tell them we’re all out.”

    This is a fallacy of missing the point because premises miss the point, purporting to support one conclusion while in fact supporting or establishing another.

    FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    13. Equivocation

    “If they are gods, why would they commit errors? Then wouldn’t that make them mortals?”-300 (movie)

    This is a fallacy of equivocation because it is formulating a conclusion from two statements that not necessarily refer to the same thing but are used to formulate a conclusion.

    14. Amphiboly

    “Would you want to find pleasure with me?”-Sex and the City (series,movie)

    This is a fallacy of amphiboly because the question/ sentence does not clearly state what kind of pleasure it is implying. It can be pleasure in the sense that they want to find happiness. It can also be pleasure sexually.

    15. Accent

    “Chuck is not dunk today.”-Good Luck Chuck (movie)

    This is a fallacy of accent because it arises from an ambiguity produced by a shift of spoken or written emphasis.

    16. Composition

    “Brian is such a loser therefore all guys are losers.”

    This is a fallacy of composition because the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part to the attributes of the whole.

    17. Division

    “We all know that guys are losers. He is a guy, therefore he must be a loser as well.”

    This is a fallacy of division because the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its parts.

    FALLACIES OF DISTRACTION

    18. False Analogy

    “Why say drugs are bad? If you take too much soft drinks, it is bad for you too. So drugs aren’t bad. It’s just bad if you overdo it.”

    This is a fallacy of false analogy because it is coming to a conclusion from a premise without much evidence or proof.

    19. Straw Man

    “Men who go out with lots of girls are players. Players are athletes. Men who go out with lots of girls are athletes.” Sex and the City (movie)

    This is a fallacy of straw man because coming to a conclusion that players who go out with lots of girls are athletes because of the other premise that says players are athletes. There is not enough evidence to prove the conclusion is true.

    20. False Dilemma

    “If we fight, then we die. But if we don’t fight, we live. So what would you do? I would rather live.”-Small Soldiers (movie)

    This is a fallacy of false dilemma because it claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable so the other should be chosen.

    submitted by Adrian M. Francisco of 1IT3.

  18. 1. Complex Question
    Frondoso: “Ngayon minamahal ko, sino ang pumatay sa komendador?!”
    Laurencia: “Si munting Fuento Ovejuna mahal.”
    Frondoso: “Eh ako? Paano kita… ‘papatayin’?”
    Laurencia: “Sa pamamagitan ng pagmamahal. Lubos na pagmamahal.”
    (Frondoso, Fuente Ovejuna)
    –His question branches out other different questions with other meanings. Multiple questions are concealed in his question. Therefore, it is a fallacy.

    2. False Cause
    “Habang patuloy na isinusumpa ang isang tao ay humahaba ang buhay niya.” (Laurencia, Fuente Ovejuna)
    –cursing a person does not really prolong his/her life. It is not really the cause of one thing. Therefore, it is a fallacy.

    3. Petitio Principii
    “Ang pagkakaisa ay purong pagibig dahil ang pagmamahal ay pagkakaisa.” (Barrildo, Fuento Ovejuna)
    –it is a circular arguement, he only used a different term for his reasoning. Therefore, it is a fallacy.

  19. Fallacies of Ambiguity

    1. Amphiboly

    “The enemies of Islam are facing defeat”

    Source: Al Qaeda, CNN.com

    Explanation:
    Here the Al Qaeda did not specify the enemies of Islam but in reality, they are actually pertaining to United States because of their economic meltdown.

    2. Equivocation

    The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.

    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24.

    Explanation:
    Applying this to Alvaré’s argument, it is true that the “humanity” of an embryo or fetus is medically undeniable, in the second sense of “human”—that is, it is a “human embryo or fetus”. It is, however, an equivocation on “human” to conclude, as Alvaré did, that it “has a right not to be killed”. Parts of the human body are “human” in this sense, but it is only a whole human being who has a right to life.

    3. Accent

    I resent that letter.

    Explanation:
    This sentence could mean either that one sent the letter again, or that one has a feeling of resentment towards it. So, the sentence could be a boobytrap. If you concluded, falsely, on the basis of the sentence, that the speaker sent the letter again, then you would have committed a fallacy of accent.

    Source: Aristotle, On Sophistical Refutations

    4. Composition

    Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?

    Explanation:
    The function of an organ is definable in terms of what the organ does to help the whole organism to live, however, one cannot define a function for the organism as a whole in this way. For this reason, “function” is not expansive. If it were true that human beings as a whole have a function, this would be a very different notion of function than that of the function of a human organ.

    Source: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Martin Ostwald, translator (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962), p. 16.

    5. Division

    The universe has existed for fifteen billion years.
    The universe is made out of molecules.
    Therefore, each of the molecules in the universe has existed for fifteen billion years.

    Source: Thomas Mautner (Editor), A Dictionary of Philosophy (Blackwell, 1996).

    Explanation:
    Even though that the universe existed for fifteen billion years, there is no proof that the molecules has also existed evidently for fifteen billion years. Thus, it had excluded the molecules to conclude that the whole unit was also the conclusion of the partial.
    Fallacies of Relevance

    6. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)

    Colonel North’s convictions were thrown out Sept. 16 because special prosecutor Lawrence Walsh could not prove that the convictions were not influenced by the 1987 testimony North gave to Congress while under immunity from prosecution.

    Explanation:
    Because of the lack thorough investigation, the prosecutor could not prove the convictions of the colonel thus the case were dismissed. Therefore it is an ignorance to comply with such evidence.

    Source: “North Case Dismissal Seen Aiding Chances of Gates Nomination,” Christian Science Monitor, Wednesday, September 18, 1991, p. 9

    7. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    Our Time is not a peaceful one. God
    has left it to us to make it so.

    Explanation:
    Here God did not wage us to make war and he did not permit us to leave this time not to make peace because of the temptations that the man has. Thus, God did not give us the authority to kill to glorify him.

    Source: From the script of the movie “The Kingdom”

    8. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    “The Democrats are literally bewitched by feminists, whose agenda is simple: teach women to hate their husbands, kill their children, and become lesbians. A vote for the Democrats is a vote against family and for immorality.”

    Explanation:
    Democrats are not devoted to make immorality to the nation because they are economists and there is no proof that there will be immorality if we vote them but because of prejudgment and hatred of the speaker to Democrats.

    Source: http://www.drury.edu

    9. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to Popular Prejudice)

    Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier. The recognition of that can take most of the sting out of accusations that you’re being “selfish.” Why should you feel guilty for seeking your own happiness when that’s what everyone else is doing, too?

    Explanation:
    Here because of the influence of others, he distinctively assert that selfishness is a good thing for us to benefit and reach our happiness and because we should stay away from our guilt and do what would benefit for us

    Source: Harry Browne, “The Unselfishness Trap”, from How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World (1973).

    10. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)

    Students stormed the stage at Columbia University’s Roone auditorium yesterday, knocking over chairs and tables and attacking Jim Gilchrist, the founder of the Minutemen, a group that patrols the border between America and Mexico. Mr. Gilchrist and Marvin Stewart, another member of his group, were in the process of giving a speech at the invitation of the Columbia College Republicans. They were escorted off the stage unharmed and exited the auditorium by a back door. … The student protesters…booed and shouted the speakers down throughout. They interrupted Mr. Stewart…. A student’s demand that Mr. Stewart speak in Spanish elicited thundering applause and brought the protesters to their feet. The protesters remained standing, turned their backs on Mr. Stewart for the remainder of his remarks, and drowned him out by chanting, “Wrap it up, wrap it up!” … On campus, the Republicans’ flyers advertising the event were defaced and torn down.

    Explanation:
    The example is an instance of the second type of ad baculum, that is, the use of force and the threat of it to prevent the other side of a debate from being heard.

    Source: Eliana Johnson, “At Columbia, Students Attack Minuteman Founder”, The New York Sun, 10/5/2006
    Fallacies of Presumption

    11. Complex Question

    Why should merely cracking down on terrorism help to stop it, when that method hasn’t worked in any other country? Why are we so hated in the Muslim world? What did our government do there to bring this horror home to all those innocent Americans? And why don’t we learn anything, from our free press, about the gross ineptitude of our state agencies? about what’s really happening in Afghanistan? about the pertinence of Central Asia’s huge reserves of oil and natural gas? about the links between the Bush and the bin Laden families?

    Explanation:
    The American government did something to bring about the terrorist attacks.
    The public doesn’t learn anything from the press about that government’s mistakes.
    The public is not learning about what’s happening in Afghanistan.
    Central Asia’s oil reserves are somehow pertinent.
    There are some unspecified links between the Bush and bin Laden families.

    Source: Mark Crispin Miller, “Brain Drain”, Context, No. 9

    12. False Cause ( non causa pro causa)

    Charging that welfare causes child poverty, [Gary Bauer] cites a study showing that “the highest increases in the rate of child poverty in recent years have occurred in those states which pay the highest welfare benefits. The lowest increases—or actual decreases—in child poverty have occurred in states which restrain the level of AFDC payments.”

    Explanation:
    Bauer uses specious statistical studies to discredit the welfare system. … But this study by two Ohio State University sociologists overlooked the fact that median income declined or was flat in the ten states where welfare costs and child poverty rose, while income rose substantially in nine of the ten states where welfare payments and poverty showed the least increase. The data showed that economic decline caused an increase in both welfare and child poverty.

    Source: John B. Judis, “The Mouse That Roars”, The New Republic, August 3rd, 1987, p. 25.

    13. Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    To cast abortion as a solely private moral question,…is to lose touch with common sense: How human beings treat one another is practically the definition of a public moral matter. Of course, there are many private aspects of human relations, but the question whether one human being should be allowed fatally to harm another is not one of them. Abortion is an inescapably public matter.

    Explanation:
    This argument begs the question because it assumes that abortion involves one human being fatally harming another. However, those who argue that abortion is a private matter reject this very premiss. In contrast, they believe that only one human being is involved in abortion—the woman—and it is, therefore, her private decision.

    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy, Greenhaven, 1995, p. 23.
    14. Accident

    Birds normally can fly.
    Tweety the Penguin is a bird.
    Therefore, Tweety can fly.

    Explanation:
    Not all birds can fly like the ostrich because it is just a mere accident that birds can normally fly but because of exceptions we cannot conclude that all birds can fly.

    Source: S. Morris Engel, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies (5th Edition), (St. Martin’s, 1994).
    15. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    Of course your columnist Michele Slatalla was joking when she wrote about needing to talk with her 58-year-old mother about going into a nursing home. While I admire Slatalla’s concern for her parents, and agree that as one approaches 60 it is wise to make some long-term plans, I hardly think that 58 is the right age at which to talk about a retirement home unless there are some serious health concerns. In this era, when people are living to a healthy and ripe old age, Slatalla is jumping the gun. My 85-year-old mother power-walks two miles each day, drives her car (safely), climbs stairs, does crosswords, reads the daily paper and could probably beat Slatalla at almost anything.

    Source: Nancy Edwards, “Letters to the Editor”, Time, 6/26/00.

    Distraction Fallacies

    16. Red Herring (Missing the Point)

    Has TIME considered the human toll that could be involved in some of its recommendations to prevent the greenhouse effect?
    You suggest that the U.S. raise its automobile fuel-efficiency requirements to 45 m.p.g. by the year 2000.
    But a Brookings-Harvard study indicates that even a 27.5 m.p.g. standard (the current congressional goal) could result in the deaths of 22,000 to 39,000 auto occupants over the next decade as car producers shift to lighter, and therefore less crashworthy, vehicles.

    Explanation:
    The statement here makes the reader off track because the suggestions about the main topic are not related with the topic.

    Source: Sam Kazman, General Counsel, Competitive Enterprise Institute (Washington)

    17. Slippery Slope
    If we don’t stop the Communists in South Vietnam, they’ll take over the whole country.
    If they take over Vietnam, next they’ll conquer Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand.
    Once they have Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand – they’ll overrun Indonesia and the rest of the Pacific Rim.
    Once they conquer the Pacific Rim, they’ll take Japan – and the next thing you know, they’ll be off the coast of California!
    [implicit: Communists invading California is unacceptable]
    [explicit] We must stop the Communists in South Vietnam.

    Explanation:
    This statement exaggerates that the communists in South Vietnam are planning to take the whole country but it predicts that they will also conquer the world but this prediction is not possible to happen but it is rather a hoax.

    Source: http://www.drury.edu

    18. False Analogy
    Amy Carter was found innocent of trespassing charges because she was just trying to explose the atrocities that the CIA supposedly perpetrates and the false advertising it engages in when not telling recruits about supposed attempts to destabilize foreign governments.

    Explanation:
    If she is found innocent then Lt. Col. Oliver North should also be found innocent of any wrongdoings. He was, after all, just trying to help the people of Nicaragua gain their freedom.
    If a person can plead innocence because he or she is trying to stop a larger crime from being committed, North should be given a medal.

    Source: http://www.drury.edu

    19. Straw Man
    A. Darwin’s theory of evolution asserts that human beings developed after a long process of change, from pre-hominid ancestors who are also the source for our primate relatives – chimpanzees, gorillas, etc.. If Darwin’s theory is correct, then we can no longer assert with such arrogance that we are above the animals: rather, human beings and human intelligence are simply different, but related results of the same evolutionary process that has produced the rest of the animal kingdom.

    Explanation:
    A is stating theclaim that human beings are descended from monkeys. But this is clearly nonsense. Clearly, God’s word reveals the truth about human origins: we are created in the image of God.

    Source: http://www.drury.edu

    20. False Dilemma
    I’m not pro-abortion, I’m pro-choice

    Explanation:
    It says here that he is not pro-abortion but he is pro-choice meaning to say that if he is not in favor of abortion and he says that he is pro-choice then he can choose abortion as a choice to let himself to abolished all of his wrongdoings.

    Source: http://www.drury.edu

  20. sir..bkit di ko maupload ung skin??HELP..tnx

  21. sir ako din po nung oct 1 ku pa po na upload pero d lumalabas nag retry po ako nakalagay duplicate daw po…. what should i do sir?

  22. 1) Argumentum ad ignoration
    – Old man Brown claims that he saw a flying saucer in his farm, but he never got beyond the fourth grade in school and can hardly read or write. He is completely ignorant of what scientists have written on the subject, so his report cannot possibly be true.

    -Brown’s education is irrelevant to his ability to observe(.philosophy.lander.edu)

    2) Argumentum Ad misericordiam
    -My client is an integral part of this community. If he is sent to prison not only will this city suffer but also he will be most missed by his family. You surely cannot find it in your hearts to reach any other verdict than “not guilty.”

    -The pity being invoked for the client is not relevant to his guilt or innocence.

    3) Argumentum Ad baculum
    -You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re slipping

    -The reasons for Samuel to study should be independent of the threat to inform his parents.

    4) Petitio principii
    – I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.

    -The premiss and final conclusion are equivalent statements.

    5) Complex question
    -I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?

    -Buying a Pinto is being presupposed.

    6) False cause
    – It should be no surprise to you that if a Democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by Democratic administrations.

    -No causal mechanism is shown for the relation between events

    7) Converse accident
    – As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.

    -A generalization is reached from one incident; here, there is a lack of sufficient evidence for the conclusion

    8) Argumentum Ad populum
    -Those who say that extra-sensory perception is not reliable are mistaken. The police, Hollywood stars, and politicians have all relied on it.

    -Simply because many persons believe something does not make the belief true. On might argue here, as well, the fallacy of ad verecundiam occurs since these persons are not authorities in the field being mentioned.

    9) Accident
    -Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.

    -The reasoning goes from a general principle to an atypical application of the rule not meant to be subsumed under the rule

    10) Division
    -Water extinguishes fire. Oxygen is part of water. Therefore, oxygen will extinguish fire.

    -The parts of a whole do not necessarily have the same qualities

    11) Composition
    -Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.

    -The parts do not necessarily have to have the same characteristics as the whole.

    12) Equivocation
    -I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.

    -The word “right” is being used in two different senses

    13) Amphiboly
    -Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more

    -The loose combination of words leads to two different interpretations for the phrase “more of your time.”

    14) Argumentum ad hominem
    -The testimony of the defendant accused of manslaughter in this indictment should be disallowed because she has been arrested for shoplifting on many occasions.

    -Strictly speaking, one should evaluate the cogency of the testimony and evaluate it on its own merit.

    15) Argumentum ad populum
    -If we took a poll right now, almost every American would agree that a vaccine for AIDS will soon be found. Therefore there can be little doubt that AIDS will be practically wiped out in the near future.

    -Simply from the fact that most persons believe a statement is true, it does not follow logically that the statement is true

    16) Red Herring
    -Girlfriend: “Honey, does this dress make me look fat?”

    Boyfriend: “Say, babe, your hair is really gorgeous! And those earrings are a knock-out!”

    -the boyfriend did not answer the question of ger girlfriend,instead he diverts the discussion from another subject

    17) Hasty Generalization
    – A friend of mine got food poisoning from MacDonald’s last week. I’m never going there again!

    -it doesnt mean that mcdonalds stil have the food poison until she eats at mcdonalds

    18) Slippery slope
    – If you don’t get to bed early, you’ll be too tired to do well on the GRE tomorrow – and then you won’t get accepted into a decent graduate school and then you’ll end up a washed-out alcoholic living in a trash-bin.

    19) Straw man
    -A: Abortion is wrong because it is the murder of human life. A child in the womb has as much right to live as any child outside the womb. A fetus has most all of his human features intact before birth and even kicks his mother.

    20) FAlse dilemma
    -The homicide problem results from a decay in social and cultural values, not the availability of guns. Killings are indiscriminant. That is more a reflection on society’s lack of values than anything else. Stricter gun control would not help: we must have a change in society’s values.

  23. 1. .”You’re either with us, or against us,”
    [Gaston tells fellow citizens of his village in Beauty and the Beast]
    -False Dilemma
    2. ”Do no believe in him,he’s a liar!”
    (Abarai Renji)
    -Poisoning the Well
    3. Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan believes that spiders are insects. Therefore, spiders are insects.
    (Garth Kemerling)
    -Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    4. “A man cannot think without his brain,
    Therefore a man’s brain is the cause of his thought.” – Fallacy of False Cause
    5. “All in this room are wearing uniform,
    But Ally is in this room,
    Therefore Ally is wearing a uniform.” – Fallacy of Petitio Principii:
    6. “I saw that jinny got off on the 7th floor last night, do you guys live together?” – complex question.
    7. “I will not go because Mr. Duba said so –gan” (hunter x hunter) – Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    8. “ How come coffee is not good and unhealthy if drank to much?. Cola has caffeine and is bad if you drink to much of it .So drinking coffee is not bad just as you have the exact amount of it” – False Analogy
    9. “If you don’t agree with me you’ll get hurt!” – Ad baculum (Veiled threat)
    10. “Mutants are not a human being! It is a freak!” – X-men – Argumentum ad Hominem
    11. “I will get myself killed if I told you anything.” – Righteous kill – Argumentum Misericordiam
    12. A guy was caught speeding. The police walked to the window of the driver asking for his license.
    “Hey Officer, don’t you give me a ticket. I pay my taxes you know?” – MIB – Ignorantio Elenchi
    13. “ He is either a pervert or a moron…. why? Because he’s a high school boy” – Shuffle – Accident
    14. “ They say ‘idiots don’t catch cold’, then you must be an idiot” – GTO – Converse Accident
    15. “Every course I took in college was well-organized. Therefore, my college education was well-organized.” – Composition
    16. “We all know how intelligent Shinichi Kudo is. And since he is a great detective like me, I must be intelligent too!”–Mr. Mouri Detective Conan – Division
    17. “Is there really a God? If so, why there still war in the country? – TIME MAGAZINE Aug. 2007 – Red Herring
    18. “Those who kill innocent people are bad. and those who have swords kill people.”
    -samurai x- – Straw Man

  24. 1. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)
    Devastator: Give up or prepare for extermination. (Transformers)
    The Terminator: Come with me, if you want to live. (Terminator 2)
    Jumanji: They grow much faster than bamboo, take care or they’ll come after you.
    * The reasoning is replaced with threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusions.

    2. Division
    Galvatron: First Prime, then Ultra Magnus, now you, it’s a pity you Autobots die so easily, or else I might have a sense of satisfaction now. (Transformers)

    * The reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its parts

    3. Complex Questions
    Kay: Human thought is so primitive, it’s looked upon as an infectious disease in some of the better galaxies. That kind of makes you proud, doesn’t it? (Men in Black)

    *The question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in that question.

    4. Amphiboly
    Han Solo: Everything’s under control. (Star Wars)

    5. False Analogy
    Castor Troy: “Hello, Doctor. I hope you don’t mind I took a few of your groovy painkillers few will not hurt me right? I’m just enjoying some of your greatest hits here. Oh God, this is excellent. Oh, bravo.

    6. Equivocation
    Seth: Hello Maggie! It’s nice to see you again.
    Maggie Rice: It’s weird to see you again.
    Seth: Weird is nice.(City of Angels)

  25. 1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    In spite of all the talk, not a single flying saucer report has been authenticated. We may assume, therefore, there are not such things as flying saucers.

    -Since it is not proven true that there are flying saucers, then it is false that they exist.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    -Grandfather told me I was eight. (Heidi, Johanna Spyri, 1992)

    -Since Heidi’s grandfather (inappropriate authority) told her that she was eight years old, and she depends and believes in him, she too thinks that that was her age.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem

    Prof. Smith says to Prof. White, “You are much too hard on your students,” and Prof. White replies, “But certainly you are not the one to say so. Just last week I heard several of your students complaining.”

    -Prof. White attacks Prof. Smith not because of his statement, but because he is Prof. Smith, the professor who most students complain at.

    5. Argumentum ad Populum

    It is well recognized by most persons that the present technological revolution has affected the ethical basis of the nation’s institution of education. Since this belief is so widely held, there can be little doubt of its accuracy. (It is well recognized by most persons that the present technological revolution has affected the ethical basis of the nation’s institution of education. Since this belief is so widely held, there can be little doubt of its accuracy.

    -Since the masses generally accept that the present technological revolution has affected the ethical basis of the nation’s institution of education, he strongly holds on to that belief.

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum

    Chairman of the Board: “All those opposed to my arguments for the opening of a new department, signify by saying, ‘I resign.'”

    -Instead of analyzing the situation, the chairman of the board declares that all those who oppose to his arguments for the opening of the new department will resign.

    7.Argumentum Misericordiam

    Oh, Officer, There’s no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed.

    -Instead of analyzing his and the officer’s situation, he replaces it with pitiful threats (wife with serious condition, lost job, repossessed car) so the officer will not give him a traffic ticket.

    8. Ignorantio Elenchi

    The 52 former hostages are seen as national heroes. I consider them survivors. A hero is one who is admired for his achievements and qualities. Therefore, the true heroes are those servicemen who volunteered for the failed rescue mission.

    -the concept was not clear if whether he was discussing about heroes, or if he was talking about the former hostages. The topic was completely bleak.
    9. Complex Question

    How can we save our country from the bureaucratic dictatorship, the corruption, and the creeping socialism of the present administration?

    -Even though it is only one sentence, it asks multiple questions like how can we save our country from dictatorship, corruption and the socialism of the present administration.
    10. False Clause

    Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.

    -The speaker concludes Napoleon being a great emperor because he was so short, not because he is a really great leader or has the potential of being an emperor. If this statement was true, then all small people would be great emperors.

    11. Petitio Principii

    The soul is simple because it is immortal, and it must be immortal because it’s simple.

    -The sentence seems to have a very complicated and long explanation, but it only expresses that the soul is simple and immortal. It has no further explanation; the soul is simple and immortal because it is immortal and simple. Both of the terms simple and immortal used each other to explain why they deserved to be a characteristic of a soul, and nothing more.
    12. Accident

    The U.S. is a true democracy; therefore, children and criminals should be allowed to vote.

    -The democracy issue in U.S. which is a general topic is applied and is used to generalize a very specific issue which is children and criminals.

    13. Converse Accident
    “Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”

    -The speaker immediately generalized that teenage drivers are pathetic from a very small piece of evidence which is that a teenager ran a red light. He didn’t consider if that teenager was drunk or hurt or had a very urgent meeting and not all teenagers are like that.

    14. Equivocation

    All dog organs are dogs.
    Any dog must be on a leash.
    Therefore, all dog organs must be on a leash.

    -There are two descriptions of dogs, dog organs are dogs, and dogs must be on leashes which are completely two different sentences about dogs. Despite of this, the writer uses the two completely different descriptions to form the conclusion which makes it non sensible.

    15. Amphiboly

    Last night I caught a prowler in my pajamas.

    -The sentence was not clear. Was the person in his pajamas when they caught the prowler, or was the prowler stealing the pajamas?

    16. Division

    The universe has existed for fifteen billion years.
    The universe is made out of molecules.
    Therefore, each of the molecules in the universe has existed for fifteen billion years.

    -The first premise says that the entire universe has existed for fifteen billion years, which is a whole, and the second premise is that the universe is made out of molecules, which is only partial. But the conclusion generalizes the whole part with the partial. Not all molecules that survived from the beginning of time existed until now, but the molecules were of course continually dying and while others are just welcomed into the world which made each and every molecule a part of the entire universe.

    17. Red Herring

    “No, no, he’s a friend of mine. He’s not a moron at all-he’s a friend. I had a good time with him today.”

    -Canadian Prime Minister Jean, Newsweek, December 2002

    The issue here is about his friend’s intelligence, whether his friend is a moron or not. Maybe it is true that they are good friends and they had a good time that day, but it has nothing to do with answering the question of whether his friend is a moron or not. He answers the question by completely changing the subject and talking about their friendship and their good times together which is considered an emotional and social issue contrasting the ‘moron’ question which is a cognitive subject.

    18. Slippery Slope

    If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Once begin upon this downward path, you never know where you are to stop. Many a man has dated his ruin from some murder or other that perhaps he thought little of at the time.

    -Thomas De Quincey, “Second Paper on Murder”

    Of course if a man indulges himself on watching murder movies or reading suspense books, it does not necessarily mean that he will rob, then drink, then break Sabbath, then move to incivility and finally to procrastination. It states that if a man is watching prison break then it is automatic that he will lead to procrastination. It is more appropriate to conclude B from A, not Z from A.

    19. False Analogy

    Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must employees.

    – Barker: 192, 26 May 1995

    -Employees are compared to nails, and they are similar in their ways. But it does not mean that if nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so are the employees. They have differences and that makes them incomparable in some aspects.

    20. Straw Man

    People who think abortion should be banned have no respect for the rights of women. They treat them as nothing but baby-making machines. That’s wrong. Women must have the right to choose.

    -Philosophy 2801

    The idea of ‘people who think abortion should be banned’ is made strong by adding the conclusion of people that are having no respect for women. It does not necessarily mean that banning abortion jumps to the conclusion of having no respect for women.
    21. False Dilemma

    “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.”

    The speaker gives the buyer two options like there are no other alternatives. The buyer can do whatever he wants, because it is his money. He can buy a cheaper stereo, save first until he has enough money to buy that stereo, etc.

    Other sources:
    http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/false-dilemma.html
    philosophy.lander.edu/logic/ignorance.html

  26. ARGUMENTUM MISERCORDIAM
    (Appeal to Pity)

    “All my life I am hurting. I even thought that it was my destiny to be alone. But you came and made me feel that I was born to be loved by you. I built my dreams around you and if time will come that you’ll leave me, it will kill me.”

    -Absolute Boyfriend-

    ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM
    (Appeal to Ignorance)

    “He is real, he is human because he has life.”

    -Absolute Boyfriend-

    ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    “A boyfriend doesn’t force his girlfriend to do anything she’s not ready for.”

    -Absolute Boyfriend-

    ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    (Appeal to Popular Prejudice)

    “Knight is the hottest guy in the campus, every girl loves him. Therefore, I love him too.”

    -Absolute Boyfriend-

    ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    (Appeal to force)

    “Don’t you ever hurt my girlfriend again or else, you’ll die!”

    -Absolute Boyfriend-

    FALSE CAUSE
    (Non Causa Pro Causa)

    “Ever since you walked into my life, everything turned out so right.”

    -Perfect Strangers-

    PETITIO PRICIPILI
    (Begging the Question)

    “Love is a great feeling because it makes people happy.”

    -How to Deal-

    ACCIDENT
    (Sweeping Generalization)

    “He is from a family of corrupt people, he is either a fraudulent or a wasted guy.”

    -Five Easy Pieces-

    ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    (Attack on the Person)

    “He was from my village. He was the village idiot!”

    -Love and Death-

    COMPLEX QUESTION

    “I’ve often speculated why you don’t return to America. Did you abscond with the church funds? Did you run off with a senator’s wife? I like to think that you killed a man. It’s the romantic in me.”

    -Casablanca-

    ACCENT

    “Is it safe?”

    -Marathon Man-

    DIVISION

    “He belongs to the family of murderers, his father is a criminal. I supposed he is a killer.”

    -Thelma and Louise-

    STRAW MAN

    “Guns are dangerous because it can kill people, and whoever kills someone is considered criminal. Therefore, those who have guns are slaughterers.”

    -Mata Hari-

    FALSE DILEMMA

    “I f I am going to choose him over Yossef, my life won’t be better because love is not enough to conquer all. So I’ll just prefer Yossef and forget about him.”

    -Big Heart-

    AMPHIBOLY

    “Better wed than dead.”

    -Love with the Proper Stranger-

  27. ayaw tlga lmbas sir..pakipost nlng po e-mail nio..send ko po tnx sir

  28. 1. ~Argumentum ad Verecundiam~

    “You are not to wander is this forest, as Professor Snape said so”
    – Argus Filch (Harry Potter and The Sorcerer’s Stone)

    This is an informal fallacy because ,Filch (Argus) is reprimanding a student who is wandering at the forbidden forest. No one said that they couldn’t wander at the forest except for Snape which has NO AUTHORITHY AT ALL.

    2. ~Argumentum ad Ignorantum~

    Reporter: Were now live here at Father Johan’s farm where crop circles are made by UFOs.
    -Scary Movie 3

    There’s no proof that UFOs exist… yet.

    3. ~Argumentum ad Baculum~

    Bully: “Talk to me again and I’ll kick your ass” –Mean Girls

    The bully is appealing to force due to the fact that Cady spoke to her even though that they’re not acquaintances. I think the bully did that so that she won’t be bothered by Cady again and thus making Cady afraid of her.

    4. False Cause~

    *Cady bumps her teacher and accidentally her coffee spills onto her*
    Teacher: “It’s not you, it’s bad luck” -Mean Girls

    In real life, people would usually think that when bad things happen to them, it’s because of bad luck. Which is illogical and doesn’t have a clear explanation like karma.

    5. ~Argumentum ad Hominem~

    Ash: You’re not a worthy of being called a Pokemon Trainer if you can’t even take care of this Charmander!!
    (Ash Ketchum, Pokemon)

    A fallacy due to Ash’s rudeness and directly attacking the opposed trainer resulting in losing confidence in pokemon training.

    6. ~Argumentum ad Populum~

    SFA (Special Forces Alliance) hates DMDL (Demented, Mayhem, Defiance, Legion of Doom) and VVL (Vae Victus Legacy). And since I’m a SFA fanatic so therefore I SHOULD hate DMDL and VVL! – Mougeen,RB

    Appeals to the feelings of SFA which is hating DMDL and VVL, not because she idolizes SFA she should hate DMDL and VVL also.

    7. ~Argumentum Misercordiam~

    “I’ll cry if you don’t eat my cooking!”

    A fallacy because the woman is using her last resort (which is her tears) to make the guy eat her cooking. In other words making herself pitiful or appealing to piety.

    8. ~Ignorantio Elenchi~

    “Why should I drink my medicine If you could drink it for me, yaya?”

    A fallacy because it’s out of the question that the girl is sick and refuses to drink her medicine and thus making her Yaya drink it for her. She doesn’t see the point that the medicine will make her feel better and thus saying rather out of the topic replies.

    9. ~Petitio Principii~

    “Camping is not stupid but it’s also dumb!” –Patrick Star, Spongebob Squarepants

    How can camping be stupid and at the same time dumb? The subject is camping and is described by stupid and dumb which are synonyms.

    10. ~Converse Accident~

    “You speak good Japanese, you must be from Japan” Brotherbeat

    Not only people in Japan can speak good Japanese.

    11. ~Equivocation~

    “Suffering is when bad things happen, people die when bad things happen.” –Legend of Legaia

    If suffering is equivalent to bad things and bad things is equivalent to death, Then suffering is equivalent to death.

    12. ~Red Herring~

    “If you’re from Africa, why are you white?” – Mean Girls

    Africa is known as the dark continent because “black” is dominant there. But it doesn’t apply to all of the people that are from there.

    13. ~Slippery slope~

    “ If you start playing Ragnarok, you’ll get addicted, and once you get addicted you won’t have any time for your studies anymore, once you won’t have time for your studies anymore, You’ll fail!” -JASMS Chronicles

    This doesn’t apply to all people. Not everyone who plays that game gets addicted. It’s just a statement
    to discourage players from playing Ragnarok.

    14. ~Accident~

    “Don’t have sex, cause you will get pregnant and die” –Mean Girls

    Not everyone who uses sex gets pregnant. It’s 50-50 chance, and NO ONE DIES BECAUSE OF PREGNANCY.
    The teacher missed the point which is “Don’t have sex” and Jumped to another statement that “You will get pregnant and die”

    15. ~Division~

    “In the girl world, Halloween is the only day in the year where girls can wear lingerie and make a total slut out of yourself, and since its Halloween I can wear only lingerie.” – Mean Girls

    . Not all girls can wear lingerie for Halloween. It would be immoral if they did that. (But this statement is true for other countries)

    16. ~Complex Question~

    “It seems that you enjoy playing those war games. Do you enjoy killing people?”
    -Saved

    -The question can’t be answered by yes or no. The statement has a deeper meaning for example is he implying that the person that he’s talking to already killed someone?

    17. ~False Dilemma~

    Drake: “Let’s make Megan Suffer!”
    Josh: “Yeah! Let’s!”
    Drake: “Wait…, if we make Megan suffer. She will make us suffer because were the one who made her suffer in the first place!!”
    Josh: “On second thought, let’s NOT make her suffer…”
    -Drake and Josh

    -They’re stating that they’re going to make Megan suffer. If we analyze this statement they’re only looking at the two choices they have which is make Megan suffer or not.

    18. ~Accent~

    “What is it Noa?”

    If we change the tone of “What” the statement will change it’s expression.

    19. ~Composition~

    “Because of clowns, I am now afraid of circus people…”
    -Rugrats

    -Chuckie hates ALL circus people because of clowns.

    20. ~False Analogy~

    “Students of DDS have this badge that lets them enter crime scenes; any student without this badge will not be able to help in solving crimes scenes. So therefore always bring your badges”
    -Detective School Q

    -Students who heard this might say that, ONLY students from DDS wear those badges which the teacher is explaining. (Which is not true)

  29. APPEAL TO IGNORANCE
    1.”Raptors where socially sophisticated and they were the dominants of humans. They were even more intelligent than dolphins.”

    because this statement report that nothing isknown or proved, yet a conclusion is drawn.

  30. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

    R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    (Appeal to Ignorance)
    Samantha: When the earth turns once around the sun, let the crone go forth til the day is done. Another’s form she’ll take and her form leave, from 6 in the morn til 6 in the eve. And in this guise if she can secure, a willing kiss from a mortal pure. To her will pass the mortal’s youth, to him will pass her age forsooth.
    (Bewitched)

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    Nikki: But, do you think that men and women can really just be friends? Like you and Aunt Ava you’re just friends and there’s obviously more going on there, no offense. But do you think that you can have those feeling for someone, and forget about them?
    (Summerland)

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack the person)
    Janis: That one there, that’s Karen Smith. She is one of the dumbest girls you will ever meet. Damien sat next to her in English last year.
    Damian: She asked me how to spell orange.
    (Mean Girls)

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum
    (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    Britney: I would never. Some of my best friends used to live next door to black people.
    (Bring It On: All or Nothing?)

    R5 Argumentum ad Misericordiam
    (Appeal to pity)
    Carson: No! I need to focus, and that means no cute guys. Right now, beating the Jets is my top priority.
    (Bring It On: In It to Win It)

    R6 Argumentum ad Baculum
    (Appeal to force)
    Bren: Yeah, but I was hoping she was expelled, or into hard drugs.
    (Juno)

    FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    P1 Complex question
    Rufus: Since when were you the patron saint of former rock stars?
    (Gossip Girl)

    P2 False Cause
    (non causa pro causa)
    Wilhelmina: Snow is a magical blanket — it hides what’s ugly and makes everything beautiful.
    (Ugly Betty)

    P3 Petitio Principii
    (Begging the Question)
    Mameha: We don’t become geisha to pursue our own destinies. We become geisha because we have no choice.
    (Memoirs of a Geisha)

    P4 Accident
    (Sweeping Generalization)
    Phoebe: Well, maybe he’s not a demon. Maybe he’s a mortal.
    (Charmed)

    P5 Converse Accident
    (Hasty Generalization)
    Gretchen: Irregardless, ex-boyfriends are just off limits to friends. I mean that’s just like the rules of feminism!
    (Mean Girls)

    FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    A1 Equivocation
    Auntie: Geisha needs an elegant wardrobe, just like an artist needs ink. If she is not properly dressed, then she is not a true geisha.
    (Memoirs of a Geisha)

    A2 Amphiboly
    Chuck: Something as beautiful deserves to be seen on someone worthy of its beauty.
    (Gossip Girl)

    A3 Accent
    Chief Sindelar: Tell him he’s not in Kansas anymore.
    (Volcano)

    A4 Composition
    Mameha: Remember Chiyo, geisha are not courtesans, and we’re not wives. We sell our skills, not our bodies. We create another secret world, a place only of beauty. The very word “geisha” means artist, and to be a geisha is to be judged as a moving work of art.
    (Memoirs of a Geisha)

    A5 Division
    Betty: Give it to me or I will beat you! And everyone knows I’m from Queens, so don’t think I won’t!
    (Ugly Betty)

    FALLACIES OF DISTRACTION

    D1 Red Herring
    Gossip Girl: Unlike the rest of us, sex lies and scandal never take a vacation. Instead, they take the Long Island Expressway and head east – to the Hamptons! Some of us would say summer is the busiest season. Think Park Avenue, but with Tennis whites, and Band de Soleil. The players change, but the game remains the same.
    (Gossip Girl)

    D2 Slippery Slope
    Piper: Don’t say that! The moment somebody says that everything always goes south!
    (Charmed)

    D3 False Analogy
    Chuck: Which is why I have to get to know him. No one is that perfect. Once I get him outta the way, I’ll have a clear shot with Blair.
    (Gossip Girl)

    D5 False Dilemma
    Chuck: If I knew his name, I would hunt him down and kill him.
    (Gossip Girl)

  31. –Appeal to Ignorance
    “Dinosaurs are not real because evidences are not yet enough to prove their existence.”
    ~Dead Dinosaur, Martin Oliver
    (people does not believe in the existence of Dinosaurs centuries ago because of lack in evidence)
    –Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    “You did not have the ability to fly because the Elders said so.”
    ~Jonathan Livingston Seagull
    (the speaker gives another comment pertaining to someone in behalf of the other speaker who said the original comment)
    –Appeal to Force
    “You should forget about faith because what you need is a wide understanding of learning to fly.”
    ~Jonathan Livingston Seagull
    (this is interpreted as “faith is not important in learning how to fly.” This forces the listener to obey and do what he/she said)
    –Red Herring
    “If Jesus lived at your house, I am going to come and live with you for the next two weeks.”
    ~Filled with all the Fullness of God, Guy P. Duffield
    (these states irrelevance about the first topic the speaker said)
    –Complex Question
    “Could Joseph Ratzinger be sending a similar signal to the world by his choice of name?”
    ~Readers Digest
    (this asks a complex question that cannot be answered specifically and without sense of humor)
    –Composition
    “I’m not a bad person. I’ve adopted a dolphin from the World Wide Life Fund. I buy organic milk, free-range eggs and always put recycling out at Thursday.”
    ~Readers Digest
    (states that the speaker wants to prove that he does good things for him not to be considered as a bad and unconcerned citizen)
    –Begging the Question
    “Dinosaurs bring disaster because they are dangerous.”
    ~Dead Dinosaur
    (the word “disaster” and “dangerous” is somehow similar in meaning and how they are both constructed in the sentence)
    –Accident
    “She was born and raised in China. Therefore, she’s not fluent in English.”
    ~The Joyluck Club
    (this concludes that people in China are not that good in English)
    –Accent
    “Jonathan cannot fly.”
    ~Jonathan Livingston Seagull
    (this generalizes that Jonathan really can’t fly without any explanation)
    –Division
    “31 complete skeletons have been found and reconstructed. Two kinds of Iguanodon were identified – presumably male and female – but there was no young Dinosaur.”
    ~Dead Dinosaur
    (this states the fact and proven researches about Dinosaurs)
    –False Analogy
    “Before they grow so big, the Baobabs start out by being little.”
    ~The Little Prince, Antoine de Saint-Exupery
    (states a contradiction between the words “big” and “small”)
    –Sweeping Generalization
    “Killing is bad: therefore, it was wrong for us to go to war against the terrorist.”
    ~Readers Digest
    (this statement ague from another statement which is generally true)
    –Appeal to Pity
    “Instead of proving the innocence of an accused person, a lawyer portrayed the unfortunate life of the accused and the more unfortunate life his family will live without him.”
    ~Readers Digest
    (appeals to our instinct to have compassion on the unfortunate)
    –False Cause
    “Night comes before day. Therefore, night causes day.”
    ~Readers Digest
    (states that something is concluded as an effect)
    –Slippery Slope
    “Legalizing marijuana will lead to the legalization of other drugs like cocaine. If we legalize other drugs like cocaine, then people can cocaine and every other drug at any local stores.”
    ~Readers Digest
    (this states that if marijuana is legalize, other drugs will be also legalize)
    –False Analogy
    “Metaphysics is a philosophy subject and it discusses topics that are out of this world. Ethics is also a philosophy subject, so it also discusses topics that are out of this world.”
    ~Readers Digest
    (it is difficult to evaluate because of the weak comparison between Metaphysics and Ethics)
    –False Dilemma
    “Either we elect Mr. X or the economy goes down the tubes. The choice should be obvious.”
    ~Readers Digest
    (this states that X should be accepted)
    –Hasty Generalization
    “I had a bad experience with my former husband, and from that experience I have learned that all men are not good.”
    ~The Joyluck Club, Amy Tan
    (it argues the qualified statement to the truth of absolute or general statement)
    –Appeal to Person
    “Hey, everyone speeds. So speeding isn’t wrong.”
    ~The Joyluck Club, Amy Tan
    (this attempts to convince someone)
    –Appeal to inappropriate Authority
    “Marriage between same sexes is not allowed according to Pope Benedict XI.”
    ~Panorama
    (this states that marriage between the same sexes is prohibited)

  32. 1.DIVISION

    Bleach episode 132

    Ririn: “We’re originally made for battle, we’re modified souls. We cant just stop because we’re up against someone we cant defeat.”

    2. False Analogy

    Bleach episode 132

    Renji: “What do you plan on using the Hougyoku for?”

    Patros: “I will defeat Aizen. I will eliminate SoulSociety. So that I will hold the world in y grasp!”

    3.ACCIDENT

    Bleach episode 132

    Toushirou Hitsugaya: “I dont have anymore time to waste on someone who’s not even an ESPADA!!”

    4.ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM

    Bleach Episode 136

    Patros: “Ulquiorra, why dont you use the Hougyoku to rule over this world ourselves?”

    Ulquiorra: “I wouldn’t.”

    Patros: “I’m going to gather supporters…”

    Ulquiorra: *sigh

    Patros: “Then I have no choice”

    Ulquiorra was killed.

    5.COMPLEX QUESTION

    Bleach episode 136

    Reporter from SoulSociety: “Arrancar movement in Karakura town has been confirmed!”

    Ayasegawa: “Looks like we get to have some fun again.”

    6.ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM

    Bleach episode 136

    Arrancar1: “Bwhahaha! The difference in our strength should be obvious! You’re not even worth fighting seriously so you will die today!”

    7.COMPOSITION

    Bleach episode 138

    Arrancar1:”… we ended up in a good spot! there’s a bunch of guys with pretty reiatsu out there. I guess they’ll do for starters, eh?”

    Arrancar2: “What are you talking about? Shinigami? Hahahahah….”

    8.PETITIO PRINCIPII

    Bleach episode 139

    Ichigo: “One thing Grimmjow, what happened to your arm?”

    Grimmjow: ” I cut it off. I dont need both hands to kick your ass.”

    9.AMPHIBOLY

    Bleach episode 139

    Urahara Kisuke: ” Our friend seems to be an odd one.”
    (He was referring to his opponent, a retarded arrancar.)

    10.HASTY GENERALIZATION

    Bleach episode 141

    Asano:”Dont you think it’s strange? that Ichigo, Chad, Inoue-san, and Kuchiki-san were all absent on the same day?.. Argh! It cant be! Maybe they’re doing something fun together! They were ignoring us after all!”

    11.FALSE CAUSE

    Bleach episode 141

    Kuchiki, Rukia:”Uh, well… I, uh, I guess I’ll have some scince you made it anyway.”

    end.

    Sir! ayan talaga yung exact words nila. Baka isipin nyo mahina ako sa English.. haha..

    good day.

  33. as you can see Sir. I choose BLEACH manga for my examples.. yun lang.. haha

  34. COMPLEX QUESTION
    2. A prosecutor states to the jury: “You cannot let this man go free because our society is not safe with him at large. Who knows who his next victim will be?”

    The prosecutor is not warranted in presupposing without proof that the defendant is guilty.
    ACCIDENT
    3. “He is from India, maybe he’s a terrorist who killed my beloved daughter.”

    The arguer applies a generalization to an individual case, which is the terrorist from India who killed his daughter.
    COMPOSITION
    4. “She was a slight but womanish girl with the air of calm animal, quiet and suspicious but unafraid, so every woman is like her.”

    The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of part to the attributes of the whole.
    APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY
    5. President Smith: How did you able to do something like that?
    Agent: because sir, this how I am taught to do it by my instructor during my training.

    the arguer appeals to the authority of his instructor and also his admitted authority is not within a strict field of knowledge.
    DIVISION
    6.”Since I was born in this great country, maybe I am great too?”

    the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes of its parts.
    AMPHIBOLY
    7. “I should accept the challenge, we might destroy life.”

    the arguer said he might destroy life, it’s not clear for me whether what life the arguer will destroy: the life of nature or the life of humans.
    ACCENT
    8. “May always calls dad when she’s alone.”

    the arguer reasons mistakenly because I don’t know who is alone, if May or the dad.
    SLIPPERY SLOPE
    9. “If you don’t follow me sooner or later your dream of becoming a top student will not become true to you and you’d just waste your time!”

    in my opinion, it doesn’t necessarily mean to follow others as they command it’s a play to discourage one from exercising a right.
    FALSE DILEMMA
    10.”Surrender the gun or prepare for a fight?”

    this is an example of false dilemma because as if there is no other choice than accept a lesser evil or alternative in dealing the problem.
    FALSE CAUSE
    11. “It should be no surprise to you that if a democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by democratic administrations.

    no cousal mechanism is shown for the relation between events.
    CONVERSE ACCIDENT
    12.”As I walk to the library from the learning center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I led to believe.

    a generalization is reached from one incident; here, there is lack of sufficient evidence for the conclusion.
    ATTACK ON THE PERSON
    13. “Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.

    reasons should be evaluated on their own merits not the character of the persons issuing them.
    BEGGING THE QUESTION
    14. “In recent studies researchers have show that women have more accurate intuition than men do. The reason cited is that men’s intuition is more often mistaken.

    the premise an conclusion are equivalent propositions.
    APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE
    15. ” Those who say that extra extra-sensory perception is not reliable are mistaken. The police,Hollywood stars, and politiocians have all relied on it.”

    simply because many perons believe something does not make belief true.
    APPEAL TO FORCE
    16. “You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare parents the embarrasment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re slipping.”

    the reasons for Samuel to study should be independent of the threat to inform his parents.
    APPEAL TO PITY
    17. “My client is an integral part of this community. I f he is sent to prison not only will this city suffer but also he will be most missed by his family. You surely cannot find it in your hearts to reach any other verdict than guilty.”

    the pity being invoked for the client is not relevant to his guilt or innocence.
    EQUIVOCATION
    18.” According to the law, a man is innocent until proved guilty. So he must be innocent of the charge of bribery, since he has not yet been proved guilty. Therefore, since he is innocent, it would be wrong to convict him.”

    the two distinct senses of innocent are being used.
    FALSE ANALOGY
    19.”Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must employees.”

    Identify the two objects or events being compared and the property which both are said to possess. Show that the two objects are different in a way which will affect whether they both have that property
    RED HERRING
    20.”We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.”

    an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to “win” an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.

  35. APPEAL TO IGNORANCE
    1.”Raptors where socially sophisticated and they were the dominants of humans. They were even more intelligent than dolphins.”

    because this statement report that nothing isknown or proved, yet a conclusion is drawn.

  36. sir, nakuha ko po yan sa jurassic park3, pokemon, moon gap at crooked house..haha..

  37. 1. Complex Question
    A: Where did you steal all your wealth?
    B: Often, the complex question are such that no matter how you answer them, you may be acknowledging something you might not want to acknowledge
    C: Kyo Kara Maou

    2. False Cause
    A: If one drinks liquor he will get drunk, if he gets drunk, he will fall asleep, if he fall asleep he will not commit a sin, if he does not commit a sin, he will go to heaven. Hence, if one drinks liquor, he will go to heaven
    B: Wrong cause to certain effect
    C: (Dko lam title ng book haha, sorry sir hehe)

    3. Red Herring
    A: The death penalty is the only way to punish rebels. Because the system of justice in the country has gone straight to hell. It has got to change!
    B: Involves diverting the listener`s attention by changing subject than the one that should be used.
    C: Code Geass

    4. Ad Hominem
    A: You`ve claimed that smoking is bad for health, but you smoke
    B: One passes the buck so to speak, to the opponent
    C: One Piece

    5. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    A: The use of high sounding words to sway once audience to being convinced more than any amount of cogent reasoning
    B: Relies on the lack of knowledge on the part of the hearers to hinder them from seeing through the emptiness of one`s arguments.
    C:Special A

    6. Sweeping Generalization
    A: Every man has a right to his property, so suspect still has a right to take his weapon used in crime
    B: Arguing from the truth of an absolute statement to the truth of a qualified statement
    C: Detective Conan

    7. Hasty Generalization
    A: Since some capitalists are unjust to labor, capitalism then is unjust
    B: Arguing from the truth of qualified statement to the truth of absolute statement
    C: Code Geass

    8. Accident
    A: You say that you ate the fruit? but that fruit is from Grand Line. Therefore, you must have eaten a devil`s fruit
    B: This fallacy rests on a confusion of what is essential to a thing and what is merely accidental to it.
    C: One Piece

    9. Equivocation
    A: Spirits are immaterial substances, but humans are spirits, hence, Humans are immaterial substances
    B: Equivocal term is used in the argumentation
    C: Shaman King

    10. Composition
    A: A man who is lying down can stand up. And so a man can lie down and stand up at the same time.
    B: Major premise takes certain items in a divided sense but the minor premise and the conclusion take the items in a conjoined sense
    C: Shaman King

    11. Accent
    A: If you think our nakama is weak, wait till you see our captain
    B: Ambiguous use of a word that may result to a different meaning when accented differently .
    C: One Piece

    12. Argumentum ad baculum
    A: I`m sure you don`t want to be lonely, so you better join us
    B: Appeal to a moral pressure
    C: One Piece

    13. Pertitio Principii
    A: Miracles are impossible, because they cannot happen(fave line from code geass!!with zero, miracles can happen!! ALL HAIL LELOUCH!!)
    B: Cannot be true unless the conclusion is first to known to be true
    C: Code Geass

    14. False Dilemma
    A: If you are not of the solution, then you are part of the problem
    B: The conclusion is only implied and not stated
    C: After war, Gundam X

    15. Argumentum ad hominem
    A: How could that idiot be a captain, he looks innocent
    B: attacking the person of an oppenent rather than attack his argument
    C: One Piece

    16. Ad Hominem-circumstantial
    A: Of course he is opposed to control, did we hear he owns that whole force of the holy empire, brittania?
    B: Indirect attack on the person
    C: Code Geass

    17. Division
    A: All soldiers are an army, but the commanding general is a soldier, Therefore, the commanding general is an army
    B: Major premise takes certain items in a conjoined sense but the minor premise and the conclusion take the items in a divided sense
    C: Gundam Seed Destiny

    18. Amphiboly
    A: Shiki attacked the man with a knife
    B: Can be interpreted in several ways(who has a knife? shiki or the man?
    C: Shiki Tohno

    19. Figures of speech
    A: What is immaterial is not material and what is insoluble is not soluble, therefore lloyd, what is inflammable is not flammable
    B: Arises from the false notion that words that look similar in structure are also similar in meaning
    C: Tales of Symphonia

    20. Ignoratio elenchi
    A: Hey, everyone speeds. So speeding isn`t wrong
    B: attempt to convince others by appealing to the natural desire we all have to be included or recognized
    C: The Law of Ueki

    Thx sir, for giving some insentives ^^

    All Hail sir. Odchimar!!

  38. 1. Appeal to Ignorance

    “This world is rotten”
    -Death Note-

    It shows that the speaker concludes a premise to be true (“the world is rotten”) because it is not proven to be false. Maybe because at his point of view the world is truly rotten.

    2. Appeal to Force

    “Shut up or I’ll kill you!”
    -Saiyuki Reload-

    It tells someone to do something by threatening him/her.

    3. Begging the Question

    Human beings are unique. Humans are definitely not all the same, therefore there must be a change.
    -Death Note-

    It is a fallacy because it only runs in a circular argument in which the thought is only restated. Stating that humans are unique and then restating that human are different to each other.

    I am Justice! I am the God placed here to save the weak and create a prefect world!
    -Death Note-

    4. False Cause

    The demon fox almost destroy konoha, the demon fox is inside Naruto, and Therefore Naruto is evil.
    -Naruto-

    It is a false cause because it conclude based on minor relation on the premises. Telling that naruto is evil

    5. Equivocation

    Hunter Patch Adams: “You treat a disease, you win, you lose. You treat a person I’ll guarantee you’ll win.”
    -Patch Adam-

    6. Slippery Slope

    Robert the Bruce: Now, I know you’ve sacrificed much. But fighting these odds looks like rage, not courage.
    William Wallace: It’s well beyond rage. Help me. For Christ’s sake, help yourselves! If we join, we can win. If we win, well then we’ll have what none of us has ever had before: a country of our own.
    -Braveheart-

    It is a fallacy because the speaker William is persuading Robert to fight, by stating his point and jumping into another point or conclusion as if the first premises are true. William is asking for join and if he joins they would win and if they would win they have a country of their own

    7. Attack on the Person

    Fowler: Pushy Americans, always showing up late for every war. Overpaid, oversexed, and over here!
    -Chicken Run-

    This is a fallacy because it directly attack a person. In this fallacy, name calling is present. Like in this example the chicken are calling names on the humans specifically Americans.

    8. Complex Question

    Will Turner: You want me to find this?
    Jack Sparrow: No. You want you to find this, because the finding of this finds you
    incapacitorially finding and or locating in your discovering the detecting of a way to save your dolly belle, ol’ what’s-her-face. Savvy?
    Will Turner: This is going to save Elizabeth?
    Jack Sparrow: How much do you know about Davy Jones?
    Will Turner: Not much.
    Jack Sparrow: Yeah, it’s going to save Elizabeth.
    This is a fallacy because captain Jack jumps on another question without a proof weather the first idea is true or false. It means as if the main idea is considered true without any proof which leads to another question and concluded.

    9. Missing Point

    Fletcher: “You scratched my car!”
    Motor Pool Guy: “That was already there.”
    Fletcher: “YOU LIAR! You know what I’m going to about this….Absolutely nothing, because if go to court, it’ll just drain eight hours of my life I’ll never get back, and you’ll probably stiff me anyway. So I’m just going to moan and complain like some impotent jerk, and take it up the tailpipe.”
    Motor Pool Guy: “You’ve been here before, haven’t you?”
    -Liar Liar-

    This is a fallacy of the missing point because it attempts to change the subject based on different premises. Like what Fletcher had done, he diverted the argument about the car to the court hearing and stated that there is no point. Fletcher concluded based on different premise.

    10. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority

    The Iron Giant: Soul?
    Hogarth Hughes: Mom says it’s something inside of all good things, and that it goes on forever and ever.
    The Iron Giant: Souls don’t die.
    -Iron Giant-

    In this case it is telling that it is a fallacy because of a judgement of another party. In Hogarth’s case, her mom told him that soul exist inside good things, which is true based on his point of view and which also could be false on others.

    11. Division

    Babe: This is ridiculous, Mom!
    Fly: Nonsense, it’s only your first try. But you’re treating them like equals. They’re sheep, they’re inferior.
    Babe: Oh, no they’re not.
    Fly: Of course they are. We are their masters, Babe. Let them doubt it for a second and they’ll walk all over you.
    -Babe-

    This is a fallacy in the term that it quickly concludes something or someone because they are branded. In this particular example Fly is labeling all sheep to be inferior, and the dogs are masters, which should not always be case, although makes a powerful point.

    12. Hasty Generalization

    Luffy: Why are you all laughing?! What’s so funny? You should have fought back, it doesn’t matter how strong they look or how many of them they are. You just laugh it up. You’re not a man or a pirate.
    -One Piece-

    This is a fallacy because it moves carelessly from a single case to a broader generalization. In this case, Luffy was carelessly judge the action of Shanks (person he is talking to) based on what he know is right or what he know is true.

    13. Sweeping Generalization

    Nami: Pirates are all the same!!!!..crushing everything precious to others!
    Luffy: hmmm??……
    Nami: Before you get pirate pals over to raid this village why don’t you just go to hell!!
    -One Piece-

    In this case, fallacy is present because of the application of the general rule is applied to an individual. In this example, Nami is pertaining to Luffy as if all pirates are the same, ruthless and vicious, while the truth is only some are really bad and some are good.

  39. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

    1. AD HOMINEM (AGAINST THE PERSON)
    ~ If you were my kids, I’d punish you.~ – Mr.Welling (The Little Rascals)

    -attacking the person making an argument rather than the argument or position the person is supporting.

    2. AD HOMINEM TU QUOQUE (AGAINST THE PERSON, YOU TOO)
    ~ If we were YOUR kids, we’d punish ourselves!~ -Stymie (The Little Rascals)

    – challenging an opponent’s argument on grounds of hypocrisy.

    3. APPEAL TO IMPROPER AUTHORITY
    ~Jesus Christ, he’s tiny! I’ve had bigger chunks of corn in my crap.~
    – Mike Myers as Fat Bastard (Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me”)

    -Because he attempts to capitalize upon feelings of respect or familiarity with a famous individual.

    4. AD HOMINEM CIRCUMSTANCIAL
    ~ I… Stymie… Member in good standing of the He-Man Woman Haters Club… Do solemnly swear to be a he-man and hate women and not play with them or talk to them unless I have to. And especially: never fall in love, and if I do may I die slowly and painfully and suffer for hours – or until I scream bloody murder.~ – Stymie (The Little Rascals)

    – claiming that one only holds an opposing position because of vanity, self-interest, or other similar causes of bias

    5. ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    ~ You just need people with a desire to better themselves, and we got that by the shitload at South Harmon. So you can go ahead, sign your forms, reject us and shoot us down, and do whatever you gotta do. It doesn’t really matter at this point. Because we’ll never stop learning, and we’ll never stop growing, and we’ll never forget the ideals what were instilled in us at our place. ‘Cause we are SHIT heads now, and we’ll be SHIT heads forever and nothing you say can do or stamp can take that away from us! So go!~(accepted)

    – the direct or indirect appeal to the perceptions or impressions of a group of people as support for the truth of one’s conclusion when such an appeal is irrelevant.

    6. STRAW MAN
    ~ What is education? It’s paying attention, it’s opening yourself up to this great big ball of shit that we call life, and what’s the worst thing that can happen? You get bit in the ass! Well let me tell you, my ass looks like hamburger meat, but I can still sit down!~(accepted)

    – attacking a diminished or absurdly weak version of an opponent ‘s argument and claiming victory over his real argument.

    7. RED HERRING
    ~Rejection. That’s what makes a college great. The exclusivity of any university is judged primarily by the amount of students it rejects.~(accepted)

    -distracting the reader or listener with an argument against a related, but essentially different, argument.

    8. IGNORANTIO ELENCHI
    ~ There are plenty of successful people who didn’t go to college. Albert Einstein, Pocahontas never went to college. Harriet Beecher Stowe… Both Lewis and Clark, Suzanne Somers, Bono…~(accepted)

    – drawing an alarmingly extreme conclusion from premises which would support a different or more moderate one.

    9. ACCIDENT
    ~ It’s dogmatic law. If the church says it’s so, God must adhere. This thing has a papal sanction.~ – Bartleby (Dogma)

    – applying a general rule to a case to which the rule should not apply.

    10. AD BACULUM
    The world will know that free men stood against a tyrant, that few stood against many, and before this battle is over, that even a god-king can bleed.~(300)

    – threatening directly or indirectly an opponent in order to get her or him to affirm your conclusion.

    FALLACIES OF OMISSION

    11. APPEAL TO LACK OF EVIDENCE
    “I see dead people.” – Haley Joel Osment as Cole Sear, in “Sixth Sense”

    -Lacks information to prove a point, or arguing that, since the opposition cannot disprove a claim, the opposite stance must be true.

    FALLACIES OF WEAK INDUCTION

    12. OVERSIMPLIFIED CAUSE
    ~ No retreat, no surrender. That is Spartan law. And by Spartan law we will stand and fight, and die.~(300)

    – Underestimating the complexity of causes that bring about some event or fact by selectively picking out one of them and asserting that it is the only or the most important cause.

    13. POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC
    ~ The whole book’s gender-biased. A woman’s responsible for original sin. A woman cuts Samson’s coif of power. A woman asks for the head of John the Baptist. Read that book again sometime. Women are painted as bigger antagonists than the Egyptians and Romans combined.~ – Serendipity (Dogma)

    -claiming that simply because one fact follows another that the preceding event or fact is the cause.

    14. NON CAUSA PRO CAUSA
    ~ Spartans! Ready your breakfast and eat hearty, for tonight we dine in Hell!~- King Leonidas(300)

    – claiming that two events or facts are causally linked simply by virtue of correlation.

    15. ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    ~ [After Xerxes offered to make Leonidas Warlord of his Empire, if he would only kneel before him] You are generous, as you are divine, oh king of kings. Such an offer, only a madman would refuse. But the idea of kneeling, it’s, uh, you see, slaughtering all those men of yours has left a nasty cramp in my leg so kneeling will be hard for me.~- King Leonidas(300)

    -Appeal to an overtly biased or otherwise unqualified person in support of one’s argument.

    16. SLIPPERY SLOPE
    ~ You know a lot of people say that college is a time when young men and women expand the way that they look at their world when they open their mind to new ideas and experiences and when they begin that long journey form the innocence of Youth, to the responsibilities of Adulthood… now isn’t that a load of horse shit! AHAHAHAHA!~(accepted)

    – alleging that accepting the conclusion of an opponent’s argument will invariably lead to an increasing series of dastardly consequences.

    17. WEAK ANALOGY
    ~ In this country, you gotta make the money first. Then when you get the money, you get the power. Then when you get the power, then you get the women.~- Tony Montana (Scarface)

    – overstating the importance of similarities between two otherwise different events, or claiming a likeness between two circumstances or events which does not hold.

    18. HASTY GENERALIZATION
    ~ So you were an artist. Big deal! Elvis was an artist, but that didn’t stop him from joining the service in time of war. That’s why he’s “the King”… and you’re a schmuck.~- Serendipity (Dogma)

    -drawing a conclusion from an inadequate or unrepresentative sample.

    FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY AND PRESUMPTION

    19. EQUIVOCATION
    “You couldn’t have it if you did want it,” the Queen said. “The rule is jam tomorrow and jam yesterday – but never Jam today.”
    “It must come sometimes to Jam today,” Alice objected.
    “No, it can’t,” said the Queen. “It’s jam every other day: today isn’t every other day, you know”
    (Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass)

    -The author used the same word or phrase in different senses within one line of argument.

    20. COMPLEX QUESTION
    ~ What do you think? Too diabolical? Give me some feedback!~ – Count Olaf (Lemony Snickets A Series of Unfortunate Events)

    – deviously asking two questions disguised as one such that one cannot answer one with answering the other.

  40. **Sir ung 15th example ko po, ung sa appeal to ignorance, galing po un sa The Shawshank Redemption (Movie). Nakalimutan ko lang po ilagay. 🙂

  41. SIR!!! AYAW!!!

  42. 1. FALSE CAUSE
    Non Causa Pro Causa

    The only policy that successfully reduces public shooting is right-to-carry laws. Allowing citizens to carry covered handguns reduces violent crime. In the 31 states that have passed right-to-carry laws since the mid-1980s, the number of multiple-victim public shootings and other violent crime has dropped dramatically. Murders fell by 7.65%, rapes by 5.2%, aggravated assaults by 7%, and robberies by 3%. [E]vidence shows that even state and local handgun control laws work. For example, in 1974 Massachusetts passed the Bartley-Fox Law, which requires a special license to carry a handgun outside the home or business. Studies by Glenn Pierce and William Bowers of Northeastern University documented that after the law was passed handgun homicides in Massachusetts fell 50% and the number of armed robberies dropped 35%.

    * It says there that the reason why handgun homicides in Massachusetts fell 50% and the number of armed robberies dropped 35% is allowing citizens to carry concealed handguns reduces violent crime. We can see that the mere meaning of the reduced public shootings may have its deeper cause. The assailant who wishes to have a crime will be terrified to do it so because of the thought that the one who’ll be the victim may fought back using their firepower.

    Source: “The Media Campaign Against Gun Ownership”, The Phyllis Schlafly Report, Vol. 33, No. 11, June 2000.

    2. AMPHIBOLY

    [A]n adjective placed before two juxtaposed nouns is apparently the servant of either master. So “Fabulous Christmas Bargains” is taken to mean fabulous…bargains for Christmas, whereas “Continental Holiday Brochures” are brochures for continental holidays. It is no answer to say that commonsense will guide us to the right interpretation; bargains for a wonderful Christmas and continental leaflets for holidays are both real concepts. And what of the shop’s apology based on “Temporary Assistant Shortage”?―is this a shortage of temporary assistants…or a temporary shortage of assistants (whether they are permanent or not)?

    * It will be realized that this seemingly pithy form of expression is always technically open to two meanings, is sometimes actually so, and is occasionally bizarre…. The statement “Fabulous Christmas Bargains” has its different meanings which will depend on how a person understands it.

    Source: Basil Cottle, The Plight of English: Ambiguities, Cacophonies and Other Violations of Our Language (Arlington House, 1975), pp. 33-34.

    3. RED HERRING

    The al Qaeda Cheering Section. The most telling moment in last night’s [State of the Union] speech came after the president noted that “key provisions of the Patriot Act are set to expire next year.” In response, notes the New York Times, “some critics in Congress applauded enthusiastically.” If Osama bin Laden watched the speech, one imagines him applauding too.

    * Guilt by association is the attempt to discredit an idea based upon disfavored people or groups associated with it. This is the reverse of an Appeal to Misleading Authority, and might be justly called “Appeal to Anti-Authority”. An argument to authority argues in favor of an idea based upon associating an authority figure with the idea, whereas Guilt by Association argues against an idea based upon associating it with disreputable people or groups.

    Source: James Taranto, “The al Qaeda Cheering Section”, Best of the Web Today, 1/21/2004

    4. ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    Attack on the person

    The phrase “poisoning the well” ultimately alludes to the medieval European myth that the black plague was caused by Jews poisoning town wells—a myth which was used as an excuse to persecute Jews.
    The phrase was first used in its relevant sense by Cardinal John Henry Newman during a controversy with Charles Kingsley:
    …[W]hat I insist upon here…is this unmanly attempt of his, in his concluding pages, to cut the ground from under my feet;—to poison by anticipation the public mind against me, John Henry Newman, and to infuse into the imaginations of my readers, suspicion and mistrust of every thing that I may say in reply to him. This I call poisoning the wells.
    “I am henceforth in doubt and fear,” he says, “as much as any honest man can be, concerning every word Dr. Newman may write. How can I tell that I shall not be the dupe of some cunning equivocation?” …
    * Poisoning the Well is not, strictly speaking, a logical fallacy since it is not a type of argument. Rather, it is a logical boobytrap set by the poisoner to tempt the unwary audience into committing an ad hominem fallacy. As with all forms of the ad hominem, one should keep in mind that an argument can and must stand or fall on its own, regardless of whom makes it.

    Source: John Henry Newman, Apologia Pro Vita Sua

    5. PETITIO PRINCIPI
    Begging the question

    Probably the greatest American speech of our century was Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s address to Congress on his return from Korea. Search all others, read this masterpiece, and you will recall what I mean. Many men are full of good language…. But a truly great speech requires not only superb language but great wisdom and great truth at a great moment from the heart of a great man….
    Gen. MacArthur wrote this speech flying in the “Bataan” from San Francisco to Washington…and in longhand…. He could compose it because he understood it. He spoke the truth because he knew it…. This speaker’s great calling was liberty. Events full of terror and sorrow were at hand. Here was the needed reminder to his countrymen that the people who were in this war all the way were our men who ennoble the high, sharp Korean walls and live on Heartbreak Ridge every day. And die.
    Here was prophecy as revealing as a beacon light…. Here was hope: the dedication that we will live in a world where those of us who are Americans can be proud…. Here was history tolling like an old and important bell: the mighty warning that mighty America, once having entered this major war, must not let it end in impasse….

    *A word or phrase is “loaded” when it has a secondary, evaluative meaning in addition to its primary, descriptive meaning. When language is “loaded”, it is loaded with its evaluative meaning. A loaded word is like a loaded gun, and its evaluative meaning is the bullet.

    Source: Henry J. Taylor, San Francisco News

    6. COMPLEX QUESTION
    Plurium Interrogationum

    Why should merely cracking down on terrorism help to stop it, when that method hasn’t worked in any other country? Why are we so hated in the Muslim world? What did our government do there to bring this horror home to all those innocent Americans? And why don’t we learn anything, from our free press, about the gross ineptitude of our state agencies? About what’s really happening in Afghanistan? About the pertinence of Central Asia’s huge reserves of oil and natural gas? About the links between the Bush and the bin Laden families?

    *A “loaded question”, like a loaded gun, is a dangerous thing. A loaded question is a question with a false or questionable presupposition, and it is “loaded” with that presumption. The question “Have you stopped beating your wife?” presupposes that you have beaten your wife prior to its asking, as well as that you have a wife. If you are unmarried, or have never beaten your wife, then the question is loaded.

    Source: Mark Crispin Miller, “Brain Drain”, Context, No. 9

    7. ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    Appeal to Inappropriate Authority

    [I]t is not what the man of science believes that distinguishes him, but how and why he believes it. His beliefs are tentative, not dogmatic; they are based on evidence, not on authority or intuition.

    *Since not all arguments from expert opinion are fallacious, some authorities on logic have taken to labelling this fallacy as “appeal to inappropriate or irrelevant or questionable authority”, rather than the traditional name “appeal to authority”. For the same reason, I use the name “appeal to misleading authority” to distinguish fallacious from non-fallacious arguments from authority.

    Source: Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy (Book-of-the-Month Club, 1995), p. 527.

  43. SIR WAIT LANG. 😀

  44. 8. ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIUM
    Appeal to Ignorance

    Joe McCarthy] announced that he had penetrated “Truman’s iron curtain of secrecy” and that he proposed forthwith to present 81 cases… Cases of exactly what? “I am only giving the Senate,” he said, “cases in which it is clear there is a definite Communist connection…persons whom I consider to be Communists in the State Department.” … Of Case 40, he said, “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”

    *An appeal to ignorance is an argument for or against a proposition on the basis of a lack of evidence against or for it. If there is positive evidence for the conclusion, then of course we have other reasons for accepting it, but a lack of evidence by itself is no evidence.

    Source: Richard H. Rovere, Senator Joe McCarthy (Methuen, 1960), pp. 106-107. Cited in: Irving M. Copi, Introduction to Logic (Fourth Edition) (1972), p. 88.

    9. ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    Appeal to Force

    Students stormed the stage at Columbia University’s Roone auditorium yesterday, knocking over chairs and tables and attacking Jim Gilchrist, the founder of the Minutemen, a group that patrols the border between America and Mexico. Mr. Gilchrist and Marvin Stewart, another member of his group, were in the process of giving a speech at the invitation of the Columbia College Republicans. They were escorted off the stage unharmed and exited the auditorium by a back door. … The student protesters…booed and shouted the speakers down throughout. They interrupted Mr. Stewart…. A student’s demand that Mr. Stewart speak in Spanish elicited thundering applause and brought the protesters to their feet. The protesters remained standing, turned their backs on Mr. Stewart for the remainder of his remarks, and drowned him out by chanting, “Wrap it up, wrap it up!” … On campus, the Republicans’ flyers advertising the event were defaced and torn down.

    *The name “argumentum ad baculum” alludes to the use of a stick, or club―a “baculum” was a walking-stick or staff―to beat someone. As a logical fallacy, “ad baculum” or “appeal to force” applies to the use of force and, by extension, the use of threats of force to “win” a debate.

    Source: Eliana Johnson, “At Columbia, Students Attack Minuteman Founder”, The New York Sun, 10/5/2006

    10. SLIPPERY SLOPE

    …[I]f once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Once begin upon this downward path, you never know where you are to stop. Many a man has dated his ruin from some murder or other that perhaps he thought little of at the time.

    • An expressive example of the causal slippery slope fallacy. In over seventy-five years as the Scopes trial, which Darrow lost, few if any of the horrors that he paraded before the judges have taken place.

    Source: Eugene Volokh, “The Mechanisms of the Slippery Slope”, Harvard Law Review 116 (2003), pp. 1026-1134.

    11. STRAW MAN

    Why, apart from moral considerations, do you think teenagers should be taught to abstain from sex until marriage?

    * Dobson is arguing against the “safe sex” idea of promoting condom usage as a way to limit the spread of HIV. In order to more easily knock down his target, Dobson portrays the sexologists he’s criticizing as telling kids “that they can sleep around with impunity”. The most prominent proponent of condom usage was Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, who testified before Congress to the following:
    Scientific evidence indicates that abstinence is the only completely safe way to avoid acquiring AIDS sexually. Except for mutually faithful monogamous relationships with uninfected partners, the use of a condom is the best method of reducing or preventing HIV infection known at this time for those who for one reason or another will not practice abstinence or monogamy.
    Dobson chose to attack a straw man rather than the Surgeon General.

    Source: C. Everett Koop, “Statement of C. Everett Koop”, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, 2/10/1987 (PDF)

    12. ACCENT

    I resent that letter.
    This sentence could mean either that one sent the letter again, or that one has a feeling of resentment towards it. So, the sentence could be a boobytrap. If you concluded, falsely, on the basis of the sentence, that the speaker sent the letter again, then you would have committed a fallacy of accent.

    * Morris Engel cites the similar ambiguity of “invalid”, meaning “a chronically ill person”, or “not truth-preserving”. However, it’s difficult to imagine a situation in which these different meanings would be confused.

    Sources:
    • Aristotle, On Sophistical Refutations
    • S. Morris Engel, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies (5th Edition) (St. Martin’s Press, 1994), pp. 102-7.

    13. ACCIDENT

    No rule is so general, which admits not some exception.

    * Consider the generalization “birds can fly” from the example. Now, it isn’t true that all birds can fly, since there are flightless birds. “Some birds can fly” and “many birds can fly” are too weak. “Most birds can fly” is closer to what we mean, but in this case “birds can fly” is a “rule of thumb”, and the fallacy of Accident is a fallacy involving reasoning with rules of thumb.
    Common sense is full of rules of thumb which do not hold universally, but which hold “generally” or “as a general rule”, as is sometimes said. Logicians have tended to ignore rules of thumb, probably because of their unscientific vagueness. However, in the past couple of decades, primarily due to research in artificial intelligence, which has shown the importance of such general rules for practical reasoning, there has been growing interest in so-called “default” or “defeasible” reasoning, of which rules of thumb are a part. As a consequence, there has also been a rebirth of interest in the fallacy of Accident.

    Source: S. Morris Engel, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies (5th Edition), (St. Martin’s, 1994).

  45. 14. EQUIVOCATION

    The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.

    *Equivocation is the type of ambiguity which occurs when a single word or phrase is ambiguous, and this ambiguity is not grammatical but lexical. So, when a phrase equivocates, it is not due to grammar, but to the phrase as a whole having two distinct meanings.
    Of course, most words are ambiguous, but context usually makes a univocal meaning clear. Also, equivocation alone is not fallacious, though it is a linguistic boobytrap which can trip people into committing a fallacy. The Fallacy of Equivocation occurs when an equivocal word or phrase makes an unsound argument appear sound.

    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24.

    15. ARGUMENTUM AD NATURAM
    Appeal to Nature

    You’ll never find any additives in our tobacco. What you see is what you get. Simply 100% whole-leaf natural tobacco. True authentic tobacco taste. It’s only natural.

    *You’ll never find any additives in our tobacco. What you see is what you get. Simply 100% whole-leaf natural tobacco. True authentic tobacco taste. It’s only natural.

    Source: Julian Baggini, Making Sense, Oxford, 2002, pp. 181-182.

    16. ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    Appeal to the People

    Charley Garment was a methodical little man with a beard who had been producer of the Monitor show on NBC radio. … [He] came to supervise a series of endorsements… There were two kinds: political and celebrity. …[T]he day [he] started, the only names on the celebrity list were Art Linkletter, Connie Francis, Pat Boone, John Wayne, and Lawrence Welk. … The first job [he] was given was to film a commercial with Connie Francis.

    “I don’t know whether it’s better to have her come on straight or open up with a scene of her listening to the end of her own recording of the Nixon jingle,” [he] was saying. “Then we could have the announcer come out and say, ‘Well, Connie, we know you like Richard Nixon. How about telling us why?’ And then she could go into it.” …

    Connie Francis once had been very popular with those records where her voice was recorded on several different tracks and then all the tracks were played together so she sounded like the McGuire Sisters. Later, when that novelty wore off, she began to make records of Italian songs. Much later, when even the Italian songs were not getting played much on the radio, she started to show up at places like the Merv Griffin Show…

    The commercial ran on the Laugh-In show in September. The next day, in the Times, Jack Gould wrote that it “embraced all the ills of the oversimplified campaign spot announcement. … Admittedly, it is a forlorn hope but one could wish that the supporters of Mr. Nixon, Vice President Humphrey and Mr. Wallace would keep tawdry advertising pitches out of the business of choosing a President.”

    *Appealing to celebrity is one of the most common forms of fallacious appeal to authority. Celebrity endorsement of products is so common that we hardly notice it or wonder why Michael Jordan is trying to sell us underwear. Moreover, in addition to products, celebrities often endorse political candidates, and during every presidential election year each candidate rounds up his own stable of famous supporters. In addition, celebrities publicly espouse every political, religious, and charitable cause, and some has-beens build second careers in the public eye as spokespeople for causes.

    Source: Joe McGinniss, The Selling of the President 1968 (Pocket Books, 1972), pp. 74-76.

    17. COMPOSITION

    Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?

    *Some properties are such that, if every part of a whole has the property, then the whole will too—for example, visibility. However, not all properties are like this—for instance, invisibility. All visible objects are made up of atoms, which are too small to see. Let’s call a property which distributes from all of the parts to the whole an “expansive” property, using Nelson Goodman’s term. If P is an expansive property, then the argument form above is validating, by definition of what such a property is. However, if P is not expansive, then the argument form is non-validating, and any argument of that form commits the fallacy of Composition.

    Source: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Martin Ostwald, translator (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962), p. 16.

    18. DIVISION

    The universe has existed for fifteen billion years.
    The universe is made out of molecules.
    Therefore, each of the molecules in the universe has existed for fifteen billion years.

    *Some properties are such that, if a whole object has the property, then all of its parts will, too—for example, invisibility. However, not all properties are like this—for instance, visibility. Let’s call a property which distributes from a whole object to each of its parts a “dissective” property, using Nelson Goodman’s term. If P is a dissective property, then the argument form above is validating, by definition of what such a property is. However, if P is not dissective, then the argument form is non-validating, and any argument of that form commits the fallacy of Division.

    Source: Thomas Mautner (Editor), A Dictionary of Philosophy (Blackwell, 1996).

  46. 19. AMBIGUITY

    President Clinton should have been impeached only if he had sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky.
    He did not have sexual relations with Lewinsky.
    Therefore, he should not have been impeached.

    *Because of the ubiquity of ambiguity in natural language, it is important to realize that its presence in an argument is not sufficient to render it fallacious, otherwise, all such arguments would be fallacious. Most ambiguity is logically harmless, a fallacy occurring only when ambiguity causes an argument’s form to appear validating when it is not.

    Source: Howard Kurtz, Spin Cycle: Inside the Clinton Propaganda Machine (Touchstone, 1998), p. 297.

    20. BLACK-OR-WHITE Fallacy

    Gerda Reith is convinced that superstition can be a positive force. “It gives you a sense of control by making you think you can work out what’s going to happen next,” she says. “And it also makes you feel lucky. And to take a risk or to enter into a chancy situation, you really have to believe in your own luck. In that sense, it’s a very useful way of thinking, because the alternative is fatalism, which is to say, ‘Oh, there’s nothing I can do.’ At least superstition makes people do things.”

    *The problem with this fallacy is not formal, but is found in its disjunctive—”either-or”—premiss: an argument of this type is fallacious when its disjunctive premiss is fallaciously supported.

    Source: David Newnham, “Hostages to Fortune”

  47. SIR DIEGO ¡!! Sorry po, napuno ko to. Hehe. Eton a talaga. Final na. 😀

    1. FALSE CAUSE
    Non Causa Pro Causa
    The only policy that successfully reduces public shooting is right-to-carry laws. Allowing citizens to carry covered handguns reduces violent crime. In the 31 states that have passed right-to-carry laws since the mid-1980s, the number of multiple-victim public shootings and other violent crime has dropped dramatically. Murders fell by 7.65%, rapes by 5.2%, aggravated assaults by 7%, and robberies by 3%. [E]vidence shows that even state and local handgun control laws work. For example, in 1974 Massachusetts passed the Bartley-Fox Law, which requires a special license to carry a handgun outside the home or business. Studies by Glenn Pierce and William Bowers of Northeastern University documented that after the law was passed handgun homicides in Massachusetts fell 50% and the number of armed robberies dropped 35%.
    * It says there that the reason why handgun homicides in Massachusetts fell 50% and the number of armed robberies dropped 35% is allowing citizens to carry concealed handguns reduces violent crime. We can see that the mere meaning of the reduced public shootings may have its deeper cause. The assailant who wishes to have a crime will be terrified to do it so because of the thought that the one who’ll be the victim may fought back using their firepower.
    Source: “The Media Campaign Against Gun Ownership”, The Phyllis Schlafly Report, Vol. 33, No. 11, June 2000.
    2. AMPHIBOLY
    [A]n adjective placed before two juxtaposed nouns is apparently the servant of either master. So “Fabulous Christmas Bargains” is taken to mean fabulous…bargains for Christmas, whereas “Continental Holiday Brochures” are brochures for continental holidays. It is no answer to say that commonsense will guide us to the right interpretation; bargains for a wonderful Christmas and continental leaflets for holidays are both real concepts. And what of the shop’s apology based on “Temporary Assistant Shortage”?―is this a shortage of temporary assistants…or a temporary shortage of assistants (whether they are permanent or not)?
    * It will be realized that this seemingly pithy form of expression is always technically open to two meanings, is sometimes actually so, and is occasionally bizarre…. The statement “Fabulous Christmas Bargains” has its different meanings which will depend on how a person understands it.
    Source: Basil Cottle, The Plight of English: Ambiguities, Cacophonies and Other Violations of Our Language (Arlington House, 1975), pp. 33-34.
    3. RED HERRING
    The al Qaeda Cheering Section. The most telling moment in last night’s [State of the Union] speech came after the president noted that “key provisions of the Patriot Act are set to expire next year.” In response, notes the New York Times, “some critics in Congress applauded enthusiastically.” If Osama bin Laden watched the speech, one imagines him applauding too.
    * Guilt by association is the attempt to discredit an idea based upon disfavored people or groups associated with it. This is the reverse of an Appeal to Misleading Authority, and might be justly called “Appeal to Anti-Authority”. An argument to authority argues in favor of an idea based upon associating an authority figure with the idea, whereas Guilt by Association argues against an idea based upon associating it with disreputable people or groups.
    Source: James Taranto, “The al Qaeda Cheering Section”, Best of the Web Today, 1/21/2004
    4. ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    Attack on the person
    The phrase “poisoning the well” ultimately alludes to the medieval European myth that the black plague was caused by Jews poisoning town wells—a myth which was used as an excuse to persecute Jews.
    The phrase was first used in its relevant sense by Cardinal John Henry Newman during a controversy with Charles Kingsley:
    …[W]hat I insist upon here…is this unmanly attempt of his, in his concluding pages, to cut the ground from under my feet;—to poison by anticipation the public mind against me, John Henry Newman, and to infuse into the imaginations of my readers, suspicion and mistrust of every thing that I may say in reply to him. This I call poisoning the wells.
    “I am henceforth in doubt and fear,” he says, “as much as any honest man can be, concerning every word Dr. Newman may write. How can I tell that I shall not be the dupe of some cunning equivocation?” …
    * Poisoning the Well is not, strictly speaking, a logical fallacy since it is not a type of argument. Rather, it is a logical boobytrap set by the poisoner to tempt the unwary audience into committing an ad hominem fallacy. As with all forms of the ad hominem, one should keep in mind that an argument can and must stand or fall on its own, regardless of whom makes it.
    Source: John Henry Newman, Apologia Pro Vita Sua
    5. PETITIO PRINCIPI
    Begging the question
    Probably the greatest American speech of our century was Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s address to Congress on his return from Korea. Search all others, read this masterpiece, and you will recall what I mean. Many men are full of good language…. But a truly great speech requires not only superb language but great wisdom and great truth at a great moment from the heart of a great man….
    Gen. MacArthur wrote this speech flying in the “Bataan” from San Francisco to Washington…and in longhand…. He could compose it because he understood it. He spoke the truth because he knew it…. This speaker’s great calling was liberty. Events full of terror and sorrow were at hand. Here was the needed reminder to his countrymen that the people who were in this war all the way were our men who ennoble the high, sharp Korean walls and live on Heartbreak Ridge every day. And die.
    Here was prophecy as revealing as a beacon light…. Here was hope: the dedication that we will live in a world where those of us who are Americans can be proud…. Here was history tolling like an old and important bell: the mighty warning that mighty America, once having entered this major war, must not let it end in impasse….
    *A word or phrase is “loaded” when it has a secondary, evaluative meaning in addition to its primary, descriptive meaning. When language is “loaded”, it is loaded with its evaluative meaning. A loaded word is like a loaded gun, and its evaluative meaning is the bullet.
    Source: Henry J. Taylor, San Francisco News
    6. COMPLEX QUESTION
    Plurium Interrogationum
    Why should merely cracking down on terrorism help to stop it, when that method hasn’t worked in any other country? Why are we so hated in the Muslim world? What did our government do there to bring this horror home to all those innocent Americans? And why don’t we learn anything, from our free press, about the gross ineptitude of our state agencies? About what’s really happening in Afghanistan? About the pertinence of Central Asia’s huge reserves of oil and natural gas? About the links between the Bush and the bin Laden families?
    *A “loaded question”, like a loaded gun, is a dangerous thing. A loaded question is a question with a false or questionable presupposition, and it is “loaded” with that presumption. The question “Have you stopped beating your wife?” presupposes that you have beaten your wife prior to its asking, as well as that you have a wife. If you are unmarried, or have never beaten your wife, then the question is loaded.
    Source: Mark Crispin Miller, “Brain Drain”, Context, No. 9
    7. ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    [I]t is not what the man of science believes that distinguishes him, but how and why he believes it. His beliefs are tentative, not dogmatic; they are based on evidence, not on authority or intuition.
    *Since not all arguments from expert opinion are fallacious, some authorities on logic have taken to labelling this fallacy as “appeal to inappropriate or irrelevant or questionable authority”, rather than the traditional name “appeal to authority”. For the same reason, I use the name “appeal to misleading authority” to distinguish fallacious from non-fallacious arguments from authority.
    Source: Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy (Book-of-the-Month Club, 1995), p. 527.
    8. ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIUM
    Appeal to Ignorance
    Joe McCarthy] announced that he had penetrated “Truman’s iron curtain of secrecy” and that he proposed forthwith to present 81 cases… Cases of exactly what? “I am only giving the Senate,” he said, “cases in which it is clear there is a definite Communist connection…persons whom I consider to be Communists in the State Department.” … Of Case 40, he said, “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”
    *An appeal to ignorance is an argument for or against a proposition on the basis of a lack of evidence against or for it. If there is positive evidence for the conclusion, then of course we have other reasons for accepting it, but a lack of evidence by itself is no evidence.
    Source: Richard H. Rovere, Senator Joe McCarthy (Methuen, 1960), pp. 106-107. Cited in: Irving M. Copi, Introduction to Logic (Fourth Edition) (1972), p. 88.
    9. ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    Appeal to Force
    Students stormed the stage at Columbia University’s Roone auditorium yesterday, knocking over chairs and tables and attacking Jim Gilchrist, the founder of the Minutemen, a group that patrols the border between America and Mexico. Mr. Gilchrist and Marvin Stewart, another member of his group, were in the process of giving a speech at the invitation of the Columbia College Republicans. They were escorted off the stage unharmed and exited the auditorium by a back door. … The student protesters…booed and shouted the speakers down throughout. They interrupted Mr. Stewart…. A student’s demand that Mr. Stewart speak in Spanish elicited thundering applause and brought the protesters to their feet. The protesters remained standing, turned their backs on Mr. Stewart for the remainder of his remarks, and drowned him out by chanting, “Wrap it up, wrap it up!” … On campus, the Republicans’ flyers advertising the event were defaced and torn down.
    *The name “argumentum ad baculum” alludes to the use of a stick, or club―a “baculum” was a walking-stick or staff―to beat someone. As a logical fallacy, “ad baculum” or “appeal to force” applies to the use of force and, by extension, the use of threats of force to “win” a debate.
    Source: Eliana Johnson, “At Columbia, Students Attack Minuteman Founder”, The New York Sun, 10/5/2006
    10. SLIPPERY SLOPE
    …[I]f once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Once begin upon this downward path, you never know where you are to stop. Many a man has dated his ruin from some murder or other that perhaps he thought little of at the time.
    • An expressive example of the causal slippery slope fallacy. In over seventy-five years as the Scopes trial, which Darrow lost, few if any of the horrors that he paraded before the judges have taken place.
    Source: Eugene Volokh, “The Mechanisms of the Slippery Slope”, Harvard Law Review 116 (2003), pp. 1026-1134.
    11. STRAW MAN
    Why, apart from moral considerations, do you think teenagers should be taught to abstain from sex until marriage?
    * Dobson is arguing against the “safe sex” idea of promoting condom usage as a way to limit the spread of HIV. In order to more easily knock down his target, Dobson portrays the sexologists he’s criticizing as telling kids “that they can sleep around with impunity”. The most prominent proponent of condom usage was Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, who testified before Congress to the following:
    Scientific evidence indicates that abstinence is the only completely safe way to avoid acquiring AIDS sexually. Except for mutually faithful monogamous relationships with uninfected partners, the use of a condom is the best method of reducing or preventing HIV infection known at this time for those who for one reason or another will not practice abstinence or monogamy.
    Dobson chose to attack a straw man rather than the Surgeon General.
    Source: C. Everett Koop, “Statement of C. Everett Koop”, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, 2/10/1987 (PDF)
    12. ACCENT
    I resent that letter.
    This sentence could mean either that one sent the letter again, or that one has a feeling of resentment towards it. So, the sentence could be a boobytrap. If you concluded, falsely, on the basis of the sentence, that the speaker sent the letter again, then you would have committed a fallacy of accent.
    * Morris Engel cites the similar ambiguity of “invalid”, meaning “a chronically ill person”, or “not truth-preserving”. However, it’s difficult to imagine a situation in which these different meanings would be confused.
    Sources:
    • Aristotle, On Sophistical Refutations
    • S. Morris Engel, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies (5th Edition) (St. Martin’s Press, 1994), pp. 102-7.
    13. ACCIDENT
    No rule is so general, which admits not some exception.
    * Consider the generalization “birds can fly” from the example. Now, it isn’t true that all birds can fly, since there are flightless birds. “Some birds can fly” and “many birds can fly” are too weak. “Most birds can fly” is closer to what we mean, but in this case “birds can fly” is a “rule of thumb”, and the fallacy of Accident is a fallacy involving reasoning with rules of thumb.
    Common sense is full of rules of thumb which do not hold universally, but which hold “generally” or “as a general rule”, as is sometimes said. Logicians have tended to ignore rules of thumb, probably because of their unscientific vagueness. However, in the past couple of decades, primarily due to research in artificial intelligence, which has shown the importance of such general rules for practical reasoning, there has been growing interest in so-called “default” or “defeasible” reasoning, of which rules of thumb are a part. As a consequence, there has also been a rebirth of interest in the fallacy of Accident.
    Source: S. Morris Engel, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies (5th Edition), (St. Martin’s, 1994).
    14. EQUIVOCATION
    The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.
    *Equivocation is the type of ambiguity which occurs when a single word or phrase is ambiguous, and this ambiguity is not grammatical but lexical. So, when a phrase equivocates, it is not due to grammar, but to the phrase as a whole having two distinct meanings.
    Of course, most words are ambiguous, but context usually makes a univocal meaning clear. Also, equivocation alone is not fallacious, though it is a linguistic boobytrap which can trip people into committing a fallacy. The Fallacy of Equivocation occurs when an equivocal word or phrase makes an unsound argument appear sound.
    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24.
    15. ARGUMENTUM AD NATURAM
    Appeal to Nature
    You’ll never find any additives in our tobacco. What you see is what you get. Simply 100% whole-leaf natural tobacco. True authentic tobacco taste. It’s only natural.
    *You’ll never find any additives in our tobacco. What you see is what you get. Simply 100% whole-leaf natural tobacco. True authentic tobacco taste. It’s only natural.
    Source: Julian Baggini, Making Sense, Oxford, 2002, pp. 181-182.
    16. ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    Appeal to the People
    Charley Garment was a methodical little man with a beard who had been producer of the Monitor show on NBC radio. … [He] came to supervise a series of endorsements… There were two kinds: political and celebrity. …[T]he day [he] started, the only names on the celebrity list were Art Linkletter, Connie Francis, Pat Boone, John Wayne, and Lawrence Welk. … The first job [he] was given was to film a commercial with Connie Francis.
    “I don’t know whether it’s better to have her come on straight or open up with a scene of her listening to the end of her own recording of the Nixon jingle,” [he] was saying. “Then we could have the announcer come out and say, ‘Well, Connie, we know you like Richard Nixon. How about telling us why?’ And then she could go into it.” …
    Connie Francis once had been very popular with those records where her voice was recorded on several different tracks and then all the tracks were played together so she sounded like the McGuire Sisters. Later, when that novelty wore off, she began to make records of Italian songs. Much later, when even the Italian songs were not getting played much on the radio, she started to show up at places like the Merv Griffin Show…
    The commercial ran on the Laugh-In show in September. The next day, in the Times, Jack Gould wrote that it “embraced all the ills of the oversimplified campaign spot announcement. … Admittedly, it is a forlorn hope but one could wish that the supporters of Mr. Nixon, Vice President Humphrey and Mr. Wallace would keep tawdry advertising pitches out of the business of choosing a President.”
    *Appealing to celebrity is one of the most common forms of fallacious appeal to authority. Celebrity endorsement of products is so common that we hardly notice it or wonder why Michael Jordan is trying to sell us underwear. Moreover, in addition to products, celebrities often endorse political candidates, and during every presidential election year each candidate rounds up his own stable of famous supporters. In addition, celebrities publicly espouse every political, religious, and charitable cause, and some has-beens build second careers in the public eye as spokespeople for causes.
    Source: Joe McGinniss, The Selling of the President 1968 (Pocket Books, 1972), pp. 74-76.
    17. COMPOSITION
    Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?
    *Some properties are such that, if every part of a whole has the property, then the whole will too—for example, visibility. However, not all properties are like this—for instance, invisibility. All visible objects are made up of atoms, which are too small to see. Let’s call a property which distributes from all of the parts to the whole an “expansive” property, using Nelson Goodman’s term. If P is an expansive property, then the argument form above is validating, by definition of what such a property is. However, if P is not expansive, then the argument form is non-validating, and any argument of that form commits the fallacy of Composition.
    Source: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Martin Ostwald, translator (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962), p. 16.
    18. DIVISION
    The universe has existed for fifteen billion years.
    The universe is made out of molecules.
    Therefore, each of the molecules in the universe has existed for fifteen billion years.
    *Some properties are such that, if a whole object has the property, then all of its parts will, too—for example, invisibility. However, not all properties are like this—for instance, visibility. Let’s call a property which distributes from a whole object to each of its parts a “dissective” property, using Nelson Goodman’s term. If P is a dissective property, then the argument form above is validating, by definition of what such a property is. However, if P is not dissective, then the argument form is non-validating, and any argument of that form commits the fallacy of Division.
    Source: Thomas Mautner (Editor), A Dictionary of Philosophy (Blackwell, 1996).
    19. AMBIGUITY
    President Clinton should have been impeached only if he had sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky.
    He did not have sexual relations with Lewinsky.
    Therefore, he should not have been impeached.
    *Because of the ubiquity of ambiguity in natural language, it is important to realize that its presence in an argument is not sufficient to render it fallacious, otherwise, all such arguments would be fallacious. Most ambiguity is logically harmless, a fallacy occurring only when ambiguity causes an argument’s form to appear validating when it is not.
    Source: Howard Kurtz, Spin Cycle: Inside the Clinton Propaganda Machine (Touchstone, 1998), p. 297.
    20. BLACK-OR-WHITE Fallacy
    Gerda Reith is convinced that superstition can be a positive force. “It gives you a sense of control by making you think you can work out what’s going to happen next,” she says. “And it also makes you feel lucky. And to take a risk or to enter into a chancy situation, you really have to believe in your own luck. In that sense, it’s a very useful way of thinking, because the alternative is fatalism, which is to say, ‘Oh, there’s nothing I can do.’ At least superstition makes people do things.”
    *The problem with this fallacy is not formal, but is found in its disjunctive—”either-or”—premiss: an argument of this type is fallacious when its disjunctive premiss is fallaciously supported.
    Source: David Newnham, “Hostages to Fortune”

  48. Appeal to ignorance:
    Micky: Of course, nobody knows what really went out there. They never did prove it. And without a proof its like it never happen. (21)
    -The inability to prove it doesn’t mean it didn’t happen..

    Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    Dave: Just because you’re regent rock star doesn’t mean you can have or do whatever you want.
    Simon: Well, Uncle Ian said that we should. (Alvin and the Chipmunks)
    -Simon uses Ian to reason out on his behalf.

    Attack to the Person
    Patty: Why should we listen to her? She knows nothing. She doesn’t even passed Mrs. Weed’s subject. (Dream Sister)
    -Patty attacks Ann and wants to discredit Ann’s opinion.

    Appeal to Force
    Phillip: Jump or I’ll flunk you out of my department. (Flubber)
    -Phillip moves the player to fear the consequence of not doing what he wants.

    Appeal to Pity
    Ann: I need a note for being absent. If I don’t have one, Mrs. Weed will hate me. I’ll probably get sent to principa and be thrown out of school. Then I’ll never go to college. And I’ll end up a school cook.
    (Dream Sister)
    -Ann’s reasoning is replaced with direct and insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of her mother to make her a note.

    Missing the Point
    Helen: Don’t think you’ve avoided talking about your trip to the principal’s office. Your father and I are still gonna discuss it.
    Dash: I’m not the only kid who’s ben sent to the office.
    (The Incredibles)
    -He’s not excuse just because there are also other kids that were sent to principal’s office.

    Complex Question
    Squidward: Where did you hide the tape recorder? Where is it? (Spongebob Squarepants)
    -He asks a question that assumes the answer to a second question. He’s not even sure if they have the tape recorder but he already ask where are they hiding it?

    False Cause
    Bernie: He puts thumbtacks on my stool. I don’t know how he does it but there’s no tack before he moves, and after he moves, there’s a tack. (The Incredibles)
    -He assumes that since the movement of the boy happened before he sat on a tack, that is already the cause.

    Begging the Question
    Isabelle: Why are you sad?
    Ann: Because I’m not happy. (Dream Sister)
    -Ann didn’t answer it, she just restated it in other term.

    Converse Accident
    Poor Pecony, Ann thought, I haven’t played with you for a long time. It is true that girls who are especially intelligent and destined for greatness don’t have much time for their bears. (Dream Sister)
    -Ann generalizes about a class or group based on a small sample.

    Accent
    Violet: Why am I in charge again?
    Helen: Nothing. Just a little trouble with Daddy.
    (The Incredibles)
    -What does she mean, Dad’s in trouble or Dad is the trouble?

    Composition
    Lily: I’m used to people like that. Bullies are the same everywhere. They are cowards. They only feel brave when they have outnumbered, and they’re usually pretty to embarass. (Dream Sister)
    -Lily assumes that because Patty(the bully) is a coward, then all bullies are cowards.

    Slippery Slope
    Ann: Nobody can be great and famous without a good night’s sleep, and I can’thave one beacuse I’m afraid and I keep having nightmares. Maybe I’m sleepwalking. If I fall out of the window one night, then I’ll really never go to college! If I don’t get any sleep, I’ll probably get sick and no one at school will care for me because they hate me. Maybe, I’ll die.
    (Dream Sister)
    -This is an example of “domino argument”. From being afraid and having nightmares, she thinks that the final outcome is that she’ll die.

    False Dilemma
    Gaston: You are either with us, or against us.
    (Beauty and the Beast)
    -Gaston claims that there are only two choices and that they should only choose either of the two. He ignores the possibility that there maybe other choices for Belle and her father.

    -sori po, late…

  49. Informal Fallacies
    1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Kramer: No, you don’t have to challenge that. That’s a word. That’s a definite word. (Seinfeld)

    It is Argumentum ad Ignorantiam because they are arguing that the word they are talking about is a definite word that’s why it does not need to be challenged.

    2. Argumentum ad Populum
    Jerry: Because I spent my money on the Clapco D29. It’s the most impenetrable lock on the market today. It has only one design flaw…the door…MUST BE CLOSED!!(Seinfeld)

    This fallacy is Argumentum ad Populum because the Clapco D29 is the most popular lock on the market because it is the most impenetrable lock that’s why jerry spent all of his money to buy it.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Jerry: Let me explain something to you.. You see, you’re not normal. You’re a great guy, I love you, but you’re a pod. I, on the other hand, am a human being. I sometimes feel awkward, uncomfortable, even inhibited in certain situations with the other human beings. You wouldn’t understand.(Seinfeld)

    This fallacy is Argumentum ad Hominem because Jerry attacked the other person by saying that he is not normal and that he is a pod and on the other hand jerry is a human being.

    4. False Analogy.
    Mother: what are you two doing here in the middle of the night?do you want to see blood spilled?
    Lucas:but i’m just giving him an ointment for his injured face!”

    This is an example of false analogy because this fallacy is committed when two are thought as the same, because in this statement the Mother sucpected that Lucas is doing something wrong and her Mother was wrong about her doing something wrong.

    5. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Luke: Jabba, this is your last chance; free us or die! (Star Wars)

    This is an example of Argumentum ad Baculum because Luke Skywalker is threatening Jabba that he will kill him if Jabba will not let them free.

    6. Converse Accident
    Marissa said “I think he hates me’
    Summer said “He doesn’t hate you!”
    Marissa said “He turned down sex!”(The O.C.)

    In this statement of converse accident about how Ryan turning down sex with Marissa does not necessarily mean that he hates her. There might be reasons why he turned down sex with her and it which are best left unspoken.

    7. Red Herring
    Girlfriend: “Honey, does this dress make me look fat?”
    Boyfriend: “Say, babe, your hair is really gorgeous! And those earrings are a knock-out!”

    This is an example of Red Herring because the boyfriend diverts the question of the girlfriend about her dress making her look fat and he diverts it answering about her hair that looks gorgeous and her earrings that is beautiful.

    8. False Cause
    Tsunade:”They say that anyone who wears this pendant would die and so that what happened to my brother”

    This is an example of false cause because Tsunade already gave a reason to the death of her brother which is not really the real cause,because a pendant is impossible to cause death to people because it is only a thing.

    9. False Dilemma
    Either you’re for us or against us.

    This sentence is committed because it has one claim but two alternatives” either your for us or against us.” If the first alternative is unacceptable for you then you have n choice but to chose the other alternative.

    10. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.

    This sentence is an example of Argumentum ad Verecundiam, because you let other people reason on your behalf. In this example the coach told you to quit smoking and drinking so that’s why you stopped it.

    11. Slippery Slope
    Ignacia to Tita: Stop crying in the batter or you going to ruin it. You don’t want to ruin the wedding.

    This is an example of Slippery Slopebecause the conclusion depends on the unlikely chain reaction. In this statement it really don’t necessarily mean that if you ruin the batter it will ruin the entire wedding.

    12. Hasty Generalization
    I realize now how much she’s just like the others – cold and distant, and many people are like that, women for sure. They’re like a union.(Taxi Driver)

    This fallacy is an example of Hasty Generalization because it is said here that all women are cold and distant, but that does not mean that women are all like that because some women are not cold and distant.

    13. Division
    Luke: “We all know how great Jedi’s are. And since I am a Jedi, I must be great,

    The fallacy of division is the converse of composition. It consist in taking separately what should be taken as a unit.

    14. Equivocation
    It is wrong to kill innocent human beings. Fetuses are innocent human beings. Therefore, it is wrong to kill fetuses.

    This is an example of equivocation because the word fetus is used with two or more meanings, deliberately or accidentally, in the formulation of the argument. 😀

    15. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Harry: Look. I saved your life Hermione from the troll and you will not help me out?

    This is an example of Ignorantio Elenchi because. Harry reasoned out a different situation and because of that he missed the point.

    16. Accident
    Cutting people with a knife is a crime.Surgeons cut people with knives.Therefore surgeons are criminals.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Accident. Because not all people who cut with a knife committed already a crime. Because surgeons cut people with knives to help them cure their paitients sickness.

    17.Straw Man
    A: Abortion is wrong because it is the murder of human life. A child in the womb has as much right to live as any child outside the womb. A fetus has most all of his human features intact before birth and even kicks his mother.

    B: A opposes abortion because s/he claims it is murder. But this is absurd. We often let newborn children die because of gross deformity or medical problems such as spinal bifida. And we kill thousands more in the womb each year by allowing mothers to smoke, drink, or use drugs. Abortion may be murder – but it is no worse than the thousand other murders we commit each day without thinking. If A is really opposed to murder, let him/her stop the wars in Central America and Afghanistan – and put an end to the nuclear arms race while s/he is at it!

    This is an example of the fallacy, Straw Man, because it diverts the attention on abortion to the wars in Central America and Afghanistan.

    18. Petitio Principii
    My friends, God loves you. God does not want you to suffer.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Petitio Principii, because God loves you is restated in other term,” God does not want you to suffer” and it is used as a premise that has the very same conclusion.

    19. Appeal to Pity
    Public Schools, K through 12, need to have much easier exams for students because teachers don’t fully realize the extent of the emotional repercussions of the sorrow and depression of the many students who could score much better on easier exams.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Appeal to Pity; because it does not mean that the teachers must give easier exams for the kids to have higher grades. They are giving easier exams because of the extent emotional repercussions of the sorrow of the kids.\

    20. Complex Question
    Policeman: What did you put the car you stole?

    This is an example of a Complex Question, because instead of asking the Policeman the suspect if he really committed the crime the policeman already supposes the suspect as the criminal by asking where the suspect put the car that he stole.

  50. I constantly spent my half an hour to read this webpage’s articles daily along with a cup of coffee.

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