2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—”

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–”

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

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39 Responses

  1. Ippo: knock out

    1 R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    For example: “There is no talking Bear” said Ippo to Takamura because he didn’t saw it talking.
    Explanation: The ability of the bear to talk is not yet proven, because we all know that besides parrot no animals can talk or even communicate with humans.

    2 R2 Argumentum ad Verecondiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    For example: “In Boxing, strength what really mean”, said Miyata to Ippo when Ippo 1st time to failed or lose his game.
    Explanation: Ippo let Miyata to reason out for his behalf. But Miyata have a point there because in saying that boxing is a test of strength have a good point there, because Miyata have his more skills in boxing so he already knows what he is trying to say.

    3 R3 Argumentum Ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)
    For example: “Ippo and His mother had their fishing boat business, this also became the reason why fellow students bully him so much and always beat him to a crap.
    Explanation: It is circumstantial; it is directed on the person’s circumstances, including beliefs, affiliation and their business.

    4 R4 Argumentum Ad Populum (Appeal to popular Prejudice)
    For example: “Everyone thinks that the fight between Sendo and Ippo was so great and tough so everyone get their tickets and it is being sold out earlier.
    Explanation: It is said to be R4 because the popularity of the arguer so the tickets get sold out earlier, it means tat the popularity of the arguer results to the more number of people who perswey to buy their tickets.

    5 R5 Argumentum ad Bacalum (appeal to force)
    For example: Ippo must have his practice to the mountain, run 10 times a day, punch a wood and break it several times or If Ippo didn’t he will losses his game with Sendo.
    Explanation: He has the reason to follow or believe the recommendation to avoid the harm or to gain some reward. It replaces the reason with fear and desire.

    6 R6 Argumentum Misericordiam (appeal to Pity)
    For example: Ippo is training hardly because he must maintain his title however unlike the boxer whose don’t care about their title. If Ippo will not allowed to continue his training he will lose his title, and that is a great lose not only for himself but also for his family and especially to his friends who support him in every step he make, whether up’s down.
    Explanation: In this situation Ippo describes is certainly unlucky one if he didn’t continue his boxing career. However ippo should not expect a change in order to maintain all what he has in the present.

    7 P1 Complex Question
    For example: when Ippo was trying to buy a new boxing shoes and then the store owner asked this way “Your not look like a boxer so why do you want to buy this pair of shoes?”
    Explanation: The store owner jumps into his conclusion without his warrant. It is something to do with asking that Ippo is not a boxer in the past so why he will buy those pair of shoes.

    8 P2 False Cause (non Causa pro Causa)
    For example: Sendo always won his fights, when his father was not dead but when his father was gone sendo looses his game with Ippo, Sendo’s father must always be there in order to sendo to win his fight.
    Explanation: Reasoning is fallacious because from the fact that the two events are constantly joined, and it doesn’t mean that that is related.

    9 P3 Petitio Principii ( Begging the Question)
    For example: Boxing is not a Murder, It is a test of Strength. Said Miyata
    Explanation: It is said there that Boxing is not a sin because it is something to do with testing your capability in doing those action in the ring!

    10 P4 Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    For example: Ippo is from poor family. He is either a typical garbage collector or a fish vendor.
    Explanation: This is not true that all poor family is a garbage collector or in other hand it is not true that we say that if you’re a garbage collector you are consider to be a poor one.

    11 P5 Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    For example: Ippo is a great boxer came from a family of fisherman. Sendo failed to win their fight with Ippo, Sendo came from the family of fire saver so therefore, and a fisherman always wins with a fireman.
    Explanation: This is said to be a Hasty generalization because this is not always true that fishermen can win with the firemen or vise versa. It always depends on the situations whether whose party will win.

    12 A2 Amphiboly
    For example: “Come to the Boxing Ring for Peace”
    Explanation: it sounds harmless. “Peace” means for having a new or brand new day with no accidents or whatever, and which only means for declaration of the winner.

    13 A3 Accent
    For example: “Ippo losses his game today”
    Explanation: This statement could mean that Ippo losses his game today or ippo win his previous fight but not today.

    14 A4 Composition
    For example: Ippo losses his game, he get down on the ring. All his game was like that. He hates Boxing. He won’t have a fight ever again.
    Explanation: This statement assumes the arguer that everything happened in his life was all true and will repeated so he will never try those things again in able to not hurt again.

    15 A5 Division
    For example: We all know that Ippo came from a family of fisherman, and Ippo always win so all fishermen must always win in boxing career.
    Explanation: The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to one of its part. Like iPPo reason was totally wrong!

    16 D1 Red Herring (Missing the point)
    For example: Oda does not believe to God because he is losing his game every time he gets into the ring.
    Explanation: The existence of suffering does not necessarily deny the existence of God

    17 D2 Slippery Slope
    For example: “Ippo must not join to boxing because he will injured, and he might die, and if he die his mother might also die because of missing ippo her son in her life”
    Explanation: This means that the arguer have his chain reaction of what he feels, he made his conclusion prior to what he feels. One move does not necessarily lead to another.

    18 D4 Straw Man
    For example: Ippo said “boxing can kill, killing is a murder, and therefore all Boxers are murderers.
    Explanation: IPpO is making his opposition position weaker than it really is.

    19 D5 False dilemma
    For example: “Either we allow people to think that boxing is a murder or we force people to kill in order to say that they are boxers.
    Explanation: This is meant that there are two alternatives and one is not acceptable so we should choose the other one. Nut in reality there is more alternative that the two stated.

    20 A5 Division
    For Example: We all know that Boxing is great since Ippo’s hobby is boxing. He must be great.
    Explanation: This is called Division because it doesn’t mean that not all boxer is great and not all times Ippo was Great…

    (woooh’ Finally Im done…Thanks Sir!)

  2. Argumentum ad ignorantium
    “There are no such thing as charas, because they’re not real.” – quote from Shugo Chara
    Explanation: Chara means angel and we all know that angels do not exist.

    Argumentum ad verecundiam
    “Naruto said that his rasengan is powerful.” – quote from Naruto Manga.
    Explanation: Naruto is right because his rasengan is really powerful.

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    “I will be the next hokage”, said Naruto
    “Look at yourself Naruto, you’re still a genin”, Sakura replied – quote from Naruto
    Explanation: What Sakura said is circumstantial. She directed it to Naruto’s circumstances.

    Argumentum ad Populum
    “Everyone believed that Naruto did that, so I believed that Naruto really did that.” – quote from Naruto
    Explanation: The popularity of the arguer so they believed that Naruto is the cause.

    Argumentum ad Bacalum
    Kakashi is giving Sasuke a really hard training in order for him to win the fight with Gaara, if he stops training, he might die.
    Explanation: Sasuke must follow Kakashi for him to win,

    Argumentum Misericordiam
    Naruto should train harder for him to be able to surpass Sasuke and for his dream to be a Hokage comes true but if he would not train the dreams of his will not come true.
    Explanation: the situation of Naruto is very stressing; however he must continue training so he will be much stronger.

    Complex Question
    Naruto had a mission to guard a person. The person asked Naruto in this way “Why are you the one guarding me?” “You’re not a ninja, are you?”
    Explanation: The person had the conclusion of thinking that Naruto is not a ninja

    False Cause
    Naruto is always stubborn when Sasuke is around but when Sasuke disappeared Naruto became thoughtful.
    Explanation: It doesn’t mean that if Sasuke disappeared Naruto will be kind or thoughtful. Naruto is always stubborn.

    Petitio Principii
    “Being a ninja is good and not bad,” the Third Hokage said.
    Explanation: It is said that a ninja doesn’t do bad without any reasons. Ninjas are always helping the people who are in need.

    Accident
    Naruto grew up without a mother and father so he begs for money and food.
    Explanation: It doesn’t mean that if you don’t have parents you’re going to beg.

    Converse Accident
    Naruto is a son of the Fourth Hokage. Sasuke won the fight with Naruto, Sasuke is a son of a member of Uchiha Clan, so a member of an Uchiha Clan can easily beat a Hokage.
    Explanation: This is a Converse Accident because it is false that an Uchiha member could beat a Hokage or vice versa. We all know that Hokage is a powerful ninja so how can we be sure that a Hokage can be beaten?

    Equivocation
    Naruto is a genin. A genin is a novice. Therefore, Naruto is a novice.
    Explanation: The word genin in the first instance means a ninja rank and in the second instance it means a novice.

    Amphiboly
    “Come to Hidden Leaf Village for the rock”
    Explantion: The word “rock” will sound harmless if it means the rock where the faces of the previous Hokages are embedded. Otherwise, it invites the people for a fight.

    Accent
    Naruto wins in the duel with Neji today.
    Explanation: The statement could mean that Naruto wins in the duel in the Tsunnin exams or Naruto loses the duel in his previous duel but not today.

    Composition
    Naruto loses with Sasuke and after he loses, he gets back to the village and stop training.
    Explanation: The statement above assumes that everything in Naruto’s life was true so he will not fight with Sasuke again.

    Division
    We all know that a member of Uchiha Clan is powerful. Sasuke is a member of Uchiha Clan.
    Therefore, Sasuke is powerful.
    Explanation: This reason is totally a mistake from its attribute as a whole because it doesn’t mean that if you are a member of Uchiha Clan is you’re powerful.

    Red Herring
    Naruto do not believes in miracles because he always loses a fight.
    Explanation: The suffering of Naruto doesn’t deny that there is a miracle.

    Slippery Slope
    Naruto should not try rescuing Sasuke because he might die and if he dies Sakura can’t afford to lose another important person to her so she might die as well.
    Explanation: The situation above has a chain reaction. Rescuing Sasuke doesn’t mean that Naruto will die.

    False Analogy
    Tsunade said that learning too much forbidden techniques can kill you. If you try learning too much powerful techniques can also kill you. So forbidden techniques can’t kill you just don’t over do it.
    Explanation:The techniques are completely different. Forbidden techniques can kill you and it’s true. Powerful technique can’t kill you by just learning it.

    Straw Man
    An ordinary people said that being a ninja is bad, being bad is a sin. Therefore, all ninjas are sinners.
    Explanation: The person is trying to make Ninja’s weaker but it doesn’t mean that doing bad is always a sin.

    False dilemma
    Naruto should either kill Gaara in able to save the village or spare the life Gaara.
    Explanation: The situation is the fact that Naruto should choose a lesser evil action.

    (hooray xD)

  3. Complex question
    I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?
    Explanation: Buying a Pinto is being presupposed.

    Ad Hominem
    Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.
    Explanation: Reasons should be evaluated on their own merits not the character of the persons issuing them.

    False cause
    It should be no surprise to you that if a Democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by Democratic administrations.
    Explanation:No causal mechanism is shown for the relation between events.

    Converse accident
    As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.
    Explanation: A generalization is reached from one incident; here, there is a lack of sufficient evidence for the conclusion.

    Ad Populum
    Those who say that extra-sensory perception is not reliable are mistaken. The police, Hollywood stars, and politicians have all relied on it.
    Explanation: Simply because many persons believe something does not make the belief true. On might argue here, as well, the fallacy of ad verecundiam occurs since these persons are not authorities in the field being mentioned.

    Ad Ignorantium
    No mathematician has ever been able to demonstrate the truth of the variants of the Goldberg conjecture, so they cannot all be true.
    Explanation: From the fact that there is no proof, no conclusion can be drawn.

    Accident
    Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.
    Explanation: The reasoning goes from a general principle to an atypical application of the rule not meant to be subsumed under the rule.

    Converse accident
    The welfare program is totally unnecessary. Why, I know a guy who runs a very lucrative illegal gambling operation and drives his new Cadillac down every week to collect his welfare check.
    Explanation: One case is insufficient to establish a generalization.

    Division
    Stanford produces the best graduates in the United States. Therefore, any every Ph.D. from Stanford is better than any other Ph.D. in the country.
    Explanation: The quality of the whole does not necessarily extend to the parts.

    Equivocation
    I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.
    Explanation: The word “right” is being used in two different senses.

    Ad Bacalum
    You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re slipping.
    Explanation: The reasons for Samuel to study should be independent of the threat to inform his parents.

    Amphiboly
    A description of a candidate who is woefully inept: “I most enthusiastically recommend this candidate with no qualifications whatsoever.”
    Explanation: Is the candidate qualified or not?

    Ad verecundiam
    But Mom I don’t see why I have to wear socks; Einstein never did wear socks.
    Explanation: Einstein’s field of expertise does not extend to the wearing of socks.

    Petitio Principii
    If we wish to determine which of a person’s motives determine his actions, we need only examine which of the alternative courses of action he chooses to perform. Therefore, a person’s motives are determined by the actions he chooses to perform.
    Explanation: The conclusion is being presupposed in the premise.

    Ad Misericordiam
    John has really worked hard on his term project, and he will really be depressed if he does not make an A. For these reasons, you just have to give him an A on his project.
    Explanation: John’s feelings are not logically relevant to the quality of his project.

    Begging the Question
    “Jane has telepathy,” says Susan. “How do you know?” asks Jill. “Because she can read my mind,” replies Susan.
    Explanation: Since telepathy is, by definition, the ability to read someone’s mind, all Susan has told us is that she believes that Jane can read her mind because she believes that Jane can read her mind. Her reason merely reiterates her claim in different words. Her reason provides no additional justification for her claim.

    Composition
    “Subatomic particles are lifeless. Therefore anything made of them is lifeless.”
    Explanation: This argument is fallacious because a whole may be greater than the sum of its parts; that is, it may have properties not possessed by its parts.

    Appeal to the Person
    “You can’t believe Dr. Jones’s claim that there is no evidence for life after death. After all, he’s an Atheist.”
    Explanation: The flaw in these arguments is obvious; an argument stands or falls on its own merit; who proposes it is irrelevant to its soundness. Crazy people can come up with perfectly sound arguments, and sane people can talk nonsense.

    (Sir saka na yung 2 ala na qng pang extend :P)

  4. manga: My Girl:)

    1. complex question.
    “I saw that jinny got off on the 7th floor last night, do you guys live together?”
    Explanation:Dohoon( the lead male character) is jumping to conclusion that jinny ang anji is living in the same floor,without an explanation he just assumed.
    2.argumentum ad populum.
    ” Dohoon is so awesome, maybe i should just ask him out straightforwardly!”
    Explanation: a girl in Dohoon’s class thinks that since all girls like dohoon she should also like him and should ask him out, this fallacy is also called “appeal to emotion”.
    3.argumentum ad baculum.
    ” there’s no fear, but you shouldn’t be skipping your meals you know because if you do it’ll get you sick.”
    Explanation: this fallacy is also called the “appeal to fear”fallacy, a doctor asked jinny to eat because he’s saying that if she doesn’t want to eat her sickness will get worse, he’s like frightening her.
    4.ignorantio elenchi.
    “I’m going to be telling your dad so be prepared, we can’t keep it a secret forever, so if you want him to accept it, you are going to put 100 more times effort.”
    Explanation:this is committed because the person saying this line,which is the uncle of jinny is clearly missing the point of their conversation.he just added this line out of nowhere when he and jinny are talking about jinny’s career.
    5.argumentum misercordiam.
    “it’s true you suddenly hugged me –like it’s an okay thing to do, was it wrong of me to take what you owed me?”
    Explanation:this fallacy is committed when reasoning is replaced by direct threats.Jinny hugged dohoon not because she want it but because she has to, after huggibg him dohoon kissed her saying that hugging me is okay but kissing you is not, he’s reasoning with her at the same time lightly threatening her.
    6.Accent.
    “enough of this, i’m not here to fight with you. i want to see anjin, she’s sick so i came to visit.”
    Explanation:in this situation dohoon tried to shift the subject between him and jinny by saying that he’s not here to fight but to see somebody else, just to avoid the confrontation.
    7.Appeal to force.
    “if you’re going to keep on acting like this, i’m going to kiss you!”
    Explanation:dohoon threatened jinny that if she doesn’t want to stop pestering him he’s going to kiss her.
    8.false cause.
    “i went to the bathroom and i forgot to wash my hands”
    Explanation:this is committed when one treats as the cause of a thing that is really not the cause. like this example, a guy said that he went to the bathroom but forgot to wash his hands that’s not an excuse at all.
    9.equivocation.
    ” jinny:Don’t treat me like those other girls you hang around with.dohoon: of course you’re the first one i’m treating like this.”
    Explanation:this is committed when one or two a word or a phrase is used again. like this you can see that jinny and dohoon used one more word at a time.
    10.Appeal to ignorance.
    “Seems like that kid is always in dreamland.”
    Explanation:this is committed when one is not proven false or true,like this sentence, we cannot say exactly that the boy is in dreamland, maybe he’s just thinking some stuff.
    11.argumentum ad hominem.
    “Your lipgloss just smell like our bathroom.”
    Explanation:an attack is leveled at a person so this is a fallcay. dohoon is attacking jinny with hurtful words like this one to bring her feelings down or just simply teasing her.
    12.composition.
    “that tall kid over there, really good, she’s worth a hundred of the others and she’s more reliable than most guys. i like her.”
    Explanation:this sentence consists of words or phrases as a unit when they should be taken seperately.
    13.division.
    “Our mothers were friends so we ended up being friends too.”
    Explanation:this fallacy is committed when one arguer mistakes an attribute to another, like this sentence dohoon said that since taejun and his mothers are friends they became friends too.
    14.false dilemma.
    “you have to come play tennis with me, if not, i’m not going to get your date with jinny.”
    Explanation:anjin is threatening dohoon, because dohoon does not want to play tennis with her, so he’s now in a dilemma, to play or not to play,because if he played he’ll get a date with jinny, so he chose to play with anjin to have a date with jinny.
    15.straw men.
    “taejun: you acted like you didn’t want to come, so why did you?
    dohoon: because let’s just say it was because of our strong friendship.”
    Explanation:this fallacy is committed when the arguer makes a position appear strongly by making the opposing arguer weak even if it is not.
    16.false analogy.
    “aunti: what are you two doing here in the middle of the night?do you want to see blood spilled?
    jinny:but i’m just giving him an ointment for his injured face!”
    Explanation:this fallacy is committed when two are thought as the same. in this sentence the aunt thought that jinny and dohoon are doing something wrong she had a false analogy of the two.
    17.red herring.
    “do you know how to wear makeup?
    -what?why?
    -you know you’re not going to shoukei as a student but as a teacher!”
    Explnation:this fallay occurs when a person diverts the subject from a different one. the listener is missing the point.
    (SIR!! ung 3 wala p ako mhanap ee susunod na siya:)

  5. 1.Einstein became a great physicist because his parents and his teachers left him alone to dream. Had they badgered him to study, he never would have gotten beyond the Swiss patent office.
    (Since there is no casual connection between “leaving someone alone to dream” & “becoming a great physicist,” the fallacy of false cause occurs)
    2.I wish it were possible for men to get really emotionally involved in this question [abortion]. It is really impossible for the man, for whom it is impossible to be in this situation, to really see it from the woman’s point of view. That is why I am concerned that there are not more women in this House available to speak about this from the woman’s point of view. (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    -House of Commons Debates of Canada, Volume 2, November 30, 1979, p. 1920
    3.“We don’t want to break the law by serving alcohol to those in our social organization who are underage. But since the Epsilon Iota Quota’s serve alcohol to their underage members; I guess we can as well.”
    (Ad verecundiam)
    -Because Epsilon Iota Quota, being one of the best bar, that serve alcohol to minors doesn’t mean it is ok to do it so.
    4.Ford is an American-made car. I owned a Ford, and it broke down all the time.
    A car that breaks down all the time is not very good. American-made cars are not very good.
    (converse accident)
    -The car owner concluded that American-made cars are not that great because of his experience, which is not good.
    5.“Old man Brown claims that he saw a flying saucer in his farm, but he never got beyond the fourth grade in school and can hardly read or write. He is completely ignorant of what scientists have written on the subject, so his report cannot possibly be true.”
    One does not to be well educate to see well. Brown’s character is irrelevant to what he claimed to see – -ad hominem. Note that the accusation of being ignorant is a character attack, not a case of ad ignorantiam.
    6.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    a. “I will not go because Mr. Duba said so –gan” (hunter x hunter)
    b. This is an example of intellectual laziness. That is when we let other people reason on our behalf. Of course, citing an authority does not necessarily warrant the truth of a conclusion. But on has to examine why an author said so.
    7.Division
    a. “Spider is the most notorious group who kills many nations and hisoka is a spider, hisoka must be notorious too!” (hunter x hunter)
    b. In this quotation the characteristics of being notorious is taken away from the group and give it to one part of the group.
    8.Argumentum Misericordiam
    a. “Sonia, Daughter! Forgive! He cried, and he tried to hold out his hand to her, but, losing his balance, he fell off the sofa, face downward on the floor. They rushed to pick him up, they put him on the sofa, but he was dying. Sonia with faint cry ran up, embraced him.” (crime and punishment)
    b. He acts so that his daughter will forgive him.
    9.ignorantio elenchi (missing the point)
    In less than an hour, aircraft from here will join others from around the world. And, you will be launching the largest aerial battle in the history of mankind. “Mankind,” that word should have new meaning for all of us today. We can’t be consumed by our petty differences anymore. We will be united in our common interest. Perhaps, it’s fate that today is the Fourth of July, and you will once again be fighting for our freedom–not from tyranny, oppression, or persecution, but from annihilation. We’re fighting for our right to live–to exist. And, should we win the day, the Fourth of July will no longer be known as an American holiday, but as the day when the world declared in one voice: “We will not go quietly into the night. We will not vanish, without a fight. We’re going to live on. We’re going to survive. Today, we celebrate our Independence Day!” (Independence day)
    -when the premise miss the point
    10.Agumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    “Dr. Johan Skarn says that abortion is always morally wrong, regardless of the situation. He has to be right, after all, he is a respected expert in his field.”
    -Here the arguer is implying that abortion is morally wrong because a famous doctor is know in his field said it. She let doctor skarn explain on the arguer’s behalf.
    11.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    “We don’t want to break the law by serving alcohol to those in our social organization who are underage. But since the Epsilon Iota Quota’s serve alcohol to their underage members, I guess we can as well.”
    -Here the arguer is using the reason that the Epsilon Iota Quota is serving alcoholic drink to underaged members so they could also serve alcoholic drinks to minors in their social organizations.
    12.Equivocation
    “ All men are mortals, mortals are volatile therefore All men are volatile “
    -This is a fallacy of equivocation because there are two premise with different meanings and not intended that the conclusion’s outcome is false.It is said in the first premise that all men are mortals, and in the second premise that mortals are volatile. In the conclusion All men are volatile ,here both the premises are combined which is meaningfully wrong thought they have same minor term and major term
    13.False Analogy
    “ How come coffee is not good and unhealthy if drank to much?. Cola has caffeine and is bad if you drink to much of it .So drinking coffee is not bad just as you have the exact amount of it”
    -This is definitely a bad analogy because coffee here is being likened to cola which is not actually right because cola and coffee are different beverages and has unmatched amount of caffeine in each of them.
    14.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam- committed when it is argued that a proposition is true on the ground that it has not been proven false, or when it is argued that a proposition is false because it has not been proved to be true.
    “This man committed suicide because no proof of murder has been investigated so far.”–Inspector Megure Detective Conan–
    The inability of the police to prove the real cause of his death does not necessarily mean that He really did suicide. Maybe there are still possible evidences or proof that are lacking in the crime.
    15.Argumentum Misericordiam- This fallacy is committed when careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insulted threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.
    “The suspect will escape if you don’t trust me.”–Hattori Heiji Detective Conan–
    Here Heiji wants to be pitied so that the suspect will be insulted or caught by the authority.
    16.False Cause- This fallacy is committed when one treats as the cause of thing what is not really its cause.
    “I have a twin sibling because I ate twin banana”–Superstitious belief–
    It is not necessarily meant that if you’ve eaten a twin banana, you will have a twin. It arises from a confusion of the casual with non-casual relationships.
    17.Complex question
    I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?
    Explanation: Buying a Pinto is being presupposed.
    18.False cause
    It should be no surprise to you that if a Democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by Democratic administrations.
    Explanation:No causal mechanism is shown for the relation between events.
    19.Equivocation
    “Let him eat it. After all, Kenta is a bear… and bears eat meat. Therefore, Kenta eats meat! That’s quite simple you know.”
    – Amy (Ani Yoko)
    This is considered as an informal fallacy of equivocation for it uses the same words with multiple meanings. In the first statement, Kenta is described as a bear.. then the bear as a carnivore (eats meat). It then concluded Kenta as a carnivore (creatures that eat meat).
    20.Red Herring
    “Since you wear a black nagajuban, you must be a shinigami.”
    – (Bleach)
    This case is faulty because it diverts the issue of wearing a black nagajuban from being a shinigami. Wearing a black nagajuban doesn’t necessarily mean that you are a shinigami.

  6. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    1. “Humans have walked on the surface of the moon, but we still haven’t been to the deepest part of the ocean”
    Explanation: No one knows. It is really not proven yet.
    2. “Kissing is no big deal in America”
    Explanation: not all people in America mind kissing anywhere. There are Americans which still want privacy when it comes to that matter.
    Argument of Misericordiam
    3. “is it true that you won 3rd place in Japan’s Violin Competition?”
    Explanation: Noriyuki Takahashi, talking to Kiyora, a concertmaster. (Nodame Cantabile – manga)

    Argumentum ad Populum
    4. “I won 3rd place at the Buffon International Competition, please make me your concertmaster. Im better than that concertmaster”
    Explanation: the speaker wanted to join the orchestra, trying to be a concertmaster in that orchestra.
    Argumentum ad Baculum
    5. “if you don’t want to review you lessons, then you’ll be dropped out again”
    Explanation: Chiaki, warning Mine. (Nodame Cantabile – manga)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    6. “I don’t care who’s a werewolf and who’s a vampire. If Angela turns out to be a witch, she can join the party, too.”
    –Bella Swan (Eclipse)
    Explanation: In fictional books like Eclipse, this statement is acceptable but it does not mean that werewolves, vampires and witches are true in the real world. Obviously our scientific knowledge today does not prove the existence of vampires and werewolves.

    7. Fenton: Nothing that crazy could be real.
    Explanation: Fenton is being ignorant and close-minded. Just because something is completely absurd or far from reality does not mean it could not be real or possible.

    Petitio Principii
    8. “There was a hot, hot yard guy who was in the yard and was hot.”
    –Summer Roberts (The O.C.)
    Explanation: The premise “There was a hot, hot yard guy” is exactly the same thing as the conclusion “Who was in the yard and was hot” – [still referring to the yard guy]. This argument is arguing in circle.

    Equivocation
    9. “To love is to suffer. To avoid suffering one must not love. But then one suffers from not loving. Therefore, to love is to suffer; not to love is to suffer; to suffer is to suffer. To be happy is to love. To be happy, then, is to suffer, but suffering makes one unhappy. Therefore, to be unhappy, one must love or love to suffer or suffer from too much happiness. I hope you’re getting this down”
    –Sonja (Love and Death)
    Explanation: Love, suffering and happy is used in the statements with multiple meanings deliberately. That is why the statements said might be irrelevant to the conclusion.

    Red Herring
    10. “She knows everything about everyone. That’s why her hair is so big.”
    –Janis Ian (Mean Girls)
    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because when Janis said that the person she is referring to knows everything, it doesn’t mean that it’s the same reason why the person’s hair is big. Knowing everything does not actually connects to why a person’s hair is big.

    11. “Tzu-kung said, ‘The gentleman is judged wise by a single word he utters, equally, he is judged foolish by a single word he utters. That is why one really must be careful of what one says.””–Confucius The Analects–
    Explanation: The word “single” was used differently with the other. It has a different meaning to the 1st sentence to the other sentence.
    Argumentum ad Hominem
    12. MACY: I’m so sick of you talking down to us. You’re nothing but a big, stuck up, meanie murderer. (Macy talking to Melinda) -Somebody Famous by D. M. Bocaz-Larson
    Explanation: The attack here is directly against the person that seeks to defame or discredit the person.
    Composition
    13. “Reading books about Sherlock Holmes is Furuhata’s hobby. Therefore, intelligent kids like Furuhata read books about Sherlock Holmes.” – Furuhata Chugakusei
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because what is true for Furuhata may not be true to other intelligent kids.

    Division
    14. We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English, and the English are best at everything. – Lord of the Flies
    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the arguer reasons the attributes of the English to their selves, the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its part.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    15. Kyle: What I understand is that you two really screwed me over! Why should I have to listen to you?!
    Gerald: (angrily) because we’re your parents.
    -southpark
    Explanation: Gerald cannot use the fact of him being the father of Kyle as a reason for Kyle to listen to what he says.

    Converse Accident
    16. Marissa: [about Ryan] I think he hates me.
    Summer: He doesn’t hate you!
    Marissa: He turned down sex!
    -The O.C.
    Explanation: Ryan turning down sex with Marissa does not necessarily mean that he hates her. It is irrelevant. There might be reasons which are best left unspoken.

    False Analogy
    17. Tyler Durden: Shut up! Our fathers were our models for God. If our fathers bailed, what does that tell you about God?
    -Fight Club
    Explanation: The bailing of fathers does not tell something about God. They are only models. Models cannot define the creator.

    18. Sora: “Why do we always need to write and write? At the middle ages, warriors are engaged in fight! That’s what
    I want to have action!”
    – Kingdom Hearts
    Explanation- A writer has a completely different job of those who are soldiers… Incomparable.

    Appeal to flattery
    19. Keitaro: “I needed a beautiful woman to endorse my product, so naturally I thought of you.”
    -Love Hina
    Explanation- Failing to endorse the product a tacit rejection of being beautiful.

    Appeal to tradition
    20. Light: “Your invention is a bad idea because it has no historical precedent.”
    -Death Note
    Explanation- the fact that something has not been previously attempted does not guarantee it will fail.

  7. 1. Ad baculum (Veiled threat)
    – threatening an opponent if they don’t agree with you.
    Example: “If you don’t agree with me you’ll get hurt!”

    2. Ad hominem (Name-calling; Poisoning the well)
    – attacking a person’s habits, personality, morality or character.
    Example: “His argument must be false because he swears and has bad breath.”

    3. Ad ignorantium (Appeal to ignorance)
    – arguing that if something hasn’t been proved false, then it must be true.
    Example: “U.F.Os must exist, because no one can prove that they don’t.”

    4. Ad populum
    – appealing to emotions and/or prejudices.
    Example: “Everyone else thinks so, so it must be true.”

    5. Bulverism: (C.S. Lewis’ imaginary character, Ezekiel Bulver)
    – attacking a person’s identity/race/gender/religion.
    Example: “You think that because you’re a (man/woman/Black/White/Catholic/Baptist, etc.)”

    6. Chronological Snobbery
    – appealing to the age of something as proof of its truth or validity.
    Example: “Super-Glue must be a good product because it’s so new.”

    7. Ipse dixit
    – appealing to an illegitimate authority.
    Example: “It must be true, because (so and so) said so.”

    8. Red herring (Changing the subject)
    – diverting attention; changing the subject to avoid the point of the argument.
    Example: “I can’t be guilty of cheating. Look how many people like me!”

    9. Straw Man
    – setting up a false image of the opponent’s argument; exaggerating or simplifying the argument and refuting that weakened form of the argument.
    EX.- “Einstein’s theory must be false! It makes everything relative–even truth!”

    10. Tu quoque
    – defending yourself by attacking the opponent.
    Example: “Who are you to condemn me! You do it too!”

    11. Accent:
    – confusing the argument by changing the emphasis in the sentence.
    Example: “YOU shouldn’t steal” (but it’s okay if SOMEONE ELSE does).

    12. Amphiboly
    – confusing an argument by the grammar of the sentence.
    Example: “Croesus, you will destroy a great kingdom!” (your own!)

    13. Composition:
    – assuming that what is true of the parts must be true of the whole.
    Example: “Chlorine is a poison; sodium is a poison; so NaCl must be a poison too.”

    14. Division:
    – assuming that what is true of whole must be true of the parts.
    Example: “The Lakers are a great team, so every player must be great too.”

    15. Equivocation:
    – confusing the argument by using words with more than one definition.
    Example: “You are really hot on the computer, so you’d better go cool off.”

    16. Apriorism (Hasty generalization)
    – leaping from one experience to a general conclusion.
    Example: “Willy was rude to me. Boys are so mean!”

    17. Complex question (Loaded question)
    – framing the question so as to force a single answer.
    Example: “Have you stopped beating your wife yet?”

    18. Either/or (False dilemma)
    – limiting the possible answers to only two; oversimplification.
    Example: “If you think that, you must be either stupid or half-asleep.”

    19. Petitio principii (Begging the question; Circular reasoning)
    – assuming what must be proven.
    Example: “Rock music is better than classical music because classical music is not as good.”

    20. Post hoc ergo propter hoc (False cause)
    – assuming that a temporal sequence proves a causal relationship.
    Example: “I saw a great movie before my test; that must be why I did so well.”

  8. 1. Petition Principii
    “He was thorough, he was an expert. She tried to hang onto that thought, the thought that he was expert because he’d done it millions of times with millions of women” (Seducing Spencer)

    Explanation: This quote tells that Spencer is a non changeable womanizer, even though Spencer says that he’s not a womanizer, she didn’t believe even she argues with him in circles.

    2. Slippery Slope
    “And what would she do even if there was a town? Offer herself up to the local policeman? Refusing to give up her passport had to be a crime, but did she really want to try to prove such a claim against a native Italian like Angelo, who was undoubtedly a major landowner in the locality and probably held in considerable respect? She would end up with eggs on her face.” (Angel of Darkness)

    Explanation: Cara thinks of possible ways on how to escape from Angelo but what she thinks is about the fact between them that unable her to escape from it.

    3.Straw Man
    “Drinking alcohol is bad. Many parents forget their family because of drinking alcohol therefore many parents is bad.” (v.c. Andrews star)

    Explanation: This fallacy tells that it is committed when the arguer makes a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than it really is.

    4. Argumentum Ad Verecundiam
    “Christianity honored the Jewish Sabbath of Saturday, but Constantine shifted it to coincide with the pagan’s veneration day of the sun”

    Explanation: The earliest Jewish Christians did celebrate the Sabbath day on Saturday, but “the Lord’s day” has always been Sunday to commemorate the resurrection. In Justin Martyr’s words, 200 years before Constantine, “On the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits.” This concludes that Dan Brown’s statement is false.

    5. Ignoratio Elenchi
    “’Global Warming’ had a precursor in capturing the hearts and minds of the world. Michael Crichton, in his novel “State of Fear,” brilliantly relates the world’s current political embrace of “global warming” with the popular embrace of the “science” of eugenics a century ago. Believers in eugenics argued that we could improve the human race by controlling reproduction.”

    Explanation: First of all, Eugenics is not about science,it is a social philosophy which advocates the improvement of human hereditary traits through various forms of intervention. That concludes Eugenics does not constitute any connection with Global Warming.

    7. Converse Accident
    “Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago said, “the Chinese invented corruption for all human civilization,” during a public hearing at the Senate on the allegedly overpriced $329-million national broadband network (NBN) project between the government and ZTE Corp. of China.”

    Explanation: Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago accused all the Chinese as a corrupt person because of the ZTE Deal Controversy during the senate meeting. ZTE is a company from China that pursue her to accuse the Chinese. Her statement was generalized and did not exempt any single Chinese citizen.

    9. Accident
    “THE MEDIA IS GUILTY OF BIAS AGAINST Muslims when words like ‘Muslim’ and ‘Islamic’ are used to describe criminals or terrorists in news reports, according to Sen. Edgardo Angara.
    “Some members of the local and national media continue to callously lambast the Muslim religious culture by referring to criminals and suspects as ‘Muslim criminals,’ ‘Muslim terrorists’ or ‘Muslim holduppers,’” said Angara Saturday.
    He said the use of these words referring to suspected or convicted criminals and unlawful acts were “prejudicial and extremely injurious” to the Muslim community and to their social well-being as respectable citizens of the country.”

    Explanation: The article states that the media is prejudging all muslims as terrorists and criminals. Just because MILF, Abu-Sayyaf and even Al-Qaida are Islams, and Muslims are Islamic, it was presumed that all Muslims are terrorist for which I disagree.

    10. Complex Question
    “Not eaten lately?” He unclipped the case and took out a bar of chocolate. “Here, have a bit of nutty.”

    Explanation: It is a complex question. The question at hand “have not eaten lately?” presupposes that there is the admitted assumption on the hearer of such question that he had already eaten in the past.

    11. False Analogy
    “Women are like the police. They can have all the evidence in the world, but they still want the confession.” –Chris Rock

    Explanation:
    Women cannot arrest and put their husband in jail because they don’t have the authority, but policemen can do.

    12. Division
    “The ship! The ship! Is that all you can think about, Graham? They can manage without you, you’re not God!”

    Explanation: Division because the speaker assumes and concludes that everything that is thought about by Graham is nothing but ships.

    13. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “The government is hiding the remains of several UFO crashes, including alien bodies, in “Area 51,” a top secret area of an Air Force base in the Southwest. While the government has denied this claim, they’ve never proven that it was false. So I’m entitled to continue to believe that it is true”

    Explanation: Here the government is denying that they are hiding the remains of aliens and UFO crashes. The government has not yet proven false that they were involved in such incidents. So the arguer is continuing to believe that it is true.

    14. False Cause

    “I failed all my test because I dreamt about it last night”

    Explanation: This is a fallacy which is causing of something that is not related to the other cause. In this example, the failing of his/her exam is based on his/her dream, which is hard to be accepted in reality, hence not related.

    15. Red Herring
    “Heroes saves the world, But why are there still villains?

    Explanation: This is a fallacy of red herring because the examples says that heroes saves the world. But still, the speaker still include the topic that there are still villains even there are hereos who saves the world.

    16. Composition
    Jake (lamenting to his brother Joey): “I got these small hands. I got a little girl’s hands.” – From the Movie: Raging Bull

    Explanation: It flashes an image of a small hand that does not literally mean only girls have the small hands.

    17. False Dilemma
    Tell me, who was it you left me for? Was it Laszlo, or were there others in between? Or … aren’t you the kind that tells? –Humphrey Bogart, From the Movie: Casablanca

    Explanation: Humphrey Bogart is asking his past sweetheart to whom he was exchanged with. But he already limits the choice of the girl. He includes Laszlo or if it is not Laszlo, who is that man then. If she won’t tell, then she could just say yes to the question that she is not the kind that tells. But what if the reason she left was not because of a third party? What if she doesn’t want to answer then because the reason behind is not that acceptable to defend her? Isn’t it that the question should just ask why and not giving any choice at hand because it seems that Humphrey knows everything about the girl?

    18. Accident
    “It’s Voldemort’s fault that you were able to see into his thoughts, his ambitious, that you even understand the snakelike language in which he gives orders and yet, Harry, despite your privileged insight into Voldemort’s world.” – Harry Potter

    Explanation: Because it said that Voldemort is the reason for why Harry were able to see into his thoughts.

    19. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “Love is eternal. It has been the strongest motivation for human actions throughout centuries. Love is stronger than life. It reaches beyond the dark shadow of death.”
    –Waldo Lydecker, From the movie: “Laura”

    Explanation: No one could define exactly what eternal means as well as the word love. These words are so vague and can be described in ways how men perceive things. Eternal is synonymous with forever but how could you know that love is forever. Love is immeasurable too. Thus, one cannot say how strong love is. According to the statement, Love reaches beyond the dark shadow of death; but how could you know how far love goes?

    20. Argumentum Misericordiam
    “I have a competition in me. I want no one else to succeed. I hate most people. – Daniel Plainview, From the Movie: Daniel Day-Lewis

    Explanation: Daniel admitted that he has been struggling for himself. He has been selfish by the way he views things. He wants no one but himself to thrive. Maybe he was carried by his emotions when he stated that he hate most people. If you will try to examine the statements very well, then you would see that the last statement is likely a threat. If someone would ever dare to compete with him, then probably Daniel must not just hate the competitor but worst Daniel might do evil things against that someone who tries to destroy him.

  9. 1.Arguementum ad Ignorantiam
    “Devils do not exist cuz medication is what really matters in her…..”
    (Exorcism of Emily Rose film)
    Explamnation:In here the lawyer claims a conclusion that devils do not exist which leads without an appropriate premises or condition to prove what he had said.

    2.Argumentum ad Hominem
    “You are nothing in this world… go and run away again”
    (naruto series: Itachi said to Sasuke)
    Explanation: Here, Itachi use an abusive ad Hominem which directly isulting Sasuke’s personality as a whole.

    3.Arguementum ad Verecundian
    “That night he made me a vampire and from that, I never look back and followed all of his orders….”
    (Underworld film: Selene confronted to micheal)
    Explanation: Here, is an arguement that shows a fallacy that only because “he” who made Selene a vampire is whom she always follows, out of familiarity..

    4.Arguementum ad baculum
    “…….place him in my charge or you will pay for your deciets….”
    (Underworld Evolution film: markus said to victor)
    Explanation: It is an arguement of fallacy which forces victor out of fear to follow markus’ order. It is because of fear that forces him to do such thing.

    5.Arguementum Misericordian
    “I wasnt able to save Sasuke, I wasn’t able to save Gaara either, I almost became a handicapped in my training…. and yet nothing happened.!!!!”
    (naruto shippuden series: naruto said to himself)
    Explanation:it is an appeal for naruto to pity himself from the situation that despite of his training he wasn’t able to save some of his friends that causes him to cry ‘-‘

    6.False Cause
    “Lahat ng kamalasang nangyayari sa atin ay dahil sa batang iyan……”
    (Three dads with one mom asianovela)
    Explanation: here one of the dads claims an arguement in someone whom doesn’t really know the situation, thus putting the reason to someone else.

    7.Accident
    “You are from the hyuga clan, you must be strong.”
    (Naruto series: Sakura said to Hinata during the start of chunin exam)
    Explanation: Sakura insist that hinata is a strong ninja because she came from the strongest clan of konoha, the hyuga clan. Yet the truth is she is not.

    8.Equivocation
    “People live their lives bound by what they accept as correct and true. That’s how define “Reality.” But what does it mean to be “correct” or “true?” Merely vague concepts… their “Reality” may all be a mirage. Can we consider them to simply be living in their own world, shaped by their Beliefs?”
    (Naruto shippuden series: Itachi said to Sasuke)
    Explanation: Here, the quote what itachi said to sasuke is the correction of what other people thinks about what is true in life. thus, it shows the unfallacy of what he had said and just the reverse of it.

    9.Division
    “I know now rasengan, and the fourth knows it also, He is strong, then i may be strong too….”
    (Naruto series: Naruto said to Jiraiya)
    Explanation:It is a fallacy to claim that naruto is strong just because he knows rasengan and the fourth can do it also, it not enough that one knows a single powerful technique to call yourself to be stong.

    10.Apriorism
    “oh my god he wink me, I’m really so beautiful”
    (Gunadam seed Destiny)
    Explanation: he a hasty generalization happened by one of the fans,, claiming that she is very beautiful just because being wink by some guys.

    11.Slippery Slope
    “Itachi thought I couldn’t get sasuke, well his wrong….. And after this, Sasuke will going to crush Konoha, he will join to Akatsuki and get the other remaining tailed beasts……………. And eventually, my power will be back to me……”
    (Naruto Shippuden: Madara said to Zetsu)
    Explanation: Madara claims a conclusion to what will lead to the condition of sasuke, It is a fallacy because one can’t predict to what will gonna follow..

    12.Arguementum ad populum
    “Is this the lotion endorsed by Lacus?, I defenitely gonna try this one.”
    (Gundam Seed Destiny Anime)
    Explanation:Here one of the character bought the product just because of her idol. Using or buying product just for popularity.

    13.Complex question
    “What is really peace?”
    (Gundam Seed Destiny)
    Explanation: The given question by kira in gudam seed question has a definitely many answers making it more complicated and irrationable.

    14.False Analogy
    “If we get the land of Orb, we are able to conquer the whole world”.
    (gundam Seed)
    Explanation: Here, one of the officers conclude a success without having enough proof to it. Even if the land of orb is the ost powerful land, it is not enough to say that they can take over the world.

    15.Tu quoque
    ” I’m not only the killer here, you also kill, too.”
    (Gundam Seed Destiny)
    Explanation: Here, Athrun defend himself by giving the reasons back to kira. He defend himself by attacking the same thing that kira said.

    16. Ipse dixit
    “It must be more okey if we follow his orders, it might be for our own sake.”
    (Gundam seed stargazer)
    Explanation:Claiming a term again just for the legitimating authorities held by them.

    17.Chronological Snobbery
    “It is a effective weapon for us to use, it’s the latest unit in the history of history!!!!!.”
    (Gundam seed stargazer)
    Explanation: Here, the weapon became famous because of it’s latest unit of werapon. it is an appeal of age ofsomething to be true.

    18. Red Herring
    ” I can’t understand you now, I would think about it later. Oh do you have the files?”
    (Bourne Identity film)
    Explanation: Here the man skip the topic by asking another thing to move it out. the point is missing.

    19. Amphiboly
    ” Is there any peace in this world?”
    (Naruto)
    Explanation: there is many definition in it esp. to every people in their own individual poin of views.

    20. False cause
    ” I can’t win cause I’m blind!”
    (Avatar)
    Explanation: here a false cause is claimed for the conclusion to be maid. Even thou she is blind, with her capabilities she can be able to withstand everytrhing.”

  10. yeah……………..

  11. Converse Accident
    1.) As I drove to school this morning, not one car which was turning had its turn signal on. Thus, I conclude that the drivers in this state are not well trained since they never use their turn signals.
    – The number of examples cited and the method of
    selection are not reliable methods of
    generalization

    Accident
    2.) The best definition distinguishing man from other animals is that man is a rational animal. Therefore, you, as a person, should spend more time studying and using your brain than you should spend for partying.
    – Although all persons, as human beings, have
    rational capacities, it does not follow that in
    this specific case one should be rational more
    often

    Complex Question
    3.)I can see that you are greatly impressed by the power of logic and argument. Therefore, are you going to sign up for Philosophy 102: Introduction to Philosophic Inquiry this semester or next semester? It’s got to be one or the other.
    -The question presupposes that the listener will
    sign up for a logic course

    Ad Ignorantiam
    4.) The Smithson Foundation is investigating whether or not police officers are using excessive force in traffic arrests of minorities. Hence, it is quite reasonable to conclude that some police officers, at least, use excessive force in that kind of arrest.
    – An investigation does not entail that any
    evidence has been forthcoming so far. Since no
    evidence is adduced, one cannot justifiably come
    to a conclusion.

    Ad Hominem
    5. The testimony of the defendant accused of manslaughter in this indictment should be disallowed because she has been arrested for shoplifting on many occasions.
    -Strictly speaking, one should evaluate the
    cogency of the testimony and evaluate it on its
    own merit. Being a shoplifter does not entail not
    telling the truth.

    Complex Question
    6.) Why haven’t you written to your Mother as often as you should? You would feel much better about yourself if you would attend to the details of life which are this important.
    -The supposition that the Mother is not written
    to sufficiently often is assumed without evidence
    and is used as the evidence for drawing another
    conclusion

    False Cause
    7.) It should be no surprise to you that the state is, again, headed into either a recession or a deep economic downturn. After all, a Republican has just been elected governor.
    -The locutor assumes, without evidence, that the
    election of a Republican will cause a slowing
    down of the economy

    Converse Accident
    8.) When I was shopping at Bess’s Fine Clothing, not one person gave me the time of day. I guess Bess’s is not a very friendly place to work.
    -The speaker is generalizing from one
    experience. More evidence would be necessary to
    reach the conclusion that Bess’s is not a good
    place to work.

    Ad Verecundiam
    9.) John Bardeen, a professor at the Advanced Institute of Physics, has gone on record to say that the American Medical Association needs to raise its standards for physicians. The opinion of a man of that brilliance should not be disregarded.
    -An authority in physics is being cited outside
    of his field of expertise.

    Ad Populum
    10.) If we took a poll right now, almost every American would agree that a vaccine for AIDS will soon be found. Therefore, there can be little doubt that AIDS will be practically wiped out in the near future.
    -Simply from the fact that most persons believe
    a statement is true, it does not follow logically
    that the statement is true

    Converse Accident
    11.) I made low grades on my first tests in math and English. I must really be dumb.
    -Too few examples are used to justify such a
    conclusion.

    Converse Accident
    12.) As a daughter when I was four, my father taught me the beauty of numbers, and I have excelled at mathematics ever since. My conclusion as to why females do not score as high on math tests? The males with a high aptitude for mathematics are not spending enough time with their daughters.
    -The author of this example assumes that her
    case would be typical of all or most other
    daughters if they had had similar experiences.

    Ad Baculum
    13.) I think that the tests given in this class were more than fair, and I think you will agree with me because, if you do not, your grade in this course will certainly be in jeopardy.
    -The threat of a poor grade is logically
    unrelated to the fairness of tests

    False Cause
    14.) The result of my doing well in economics is very simple. I eat Post Toasties for breakfast every morning for breakfast, and this breakfast helps my ability to analyze in great depth. I think it must be all those complex carbohydrates.
    -No causal evidence is given for the relation
    between eating a breakfast cereal and ability to
    analyze.

    Ad Populum
    15.) Oriental Philosophy is the best course taught at Lander University. I know this because all of my friends say so.
    -Although most friends think so, that doesn’t
    make it so.

    Ad Misericordiam
    16.) Look Mr. IRS examiner, of course I owe taxes—I’m not denying that. However, I was unable to file on time because my wife was sick and my two children need my attention. Surely the IRS is not opposed to keeping the family together.
    -The unfortunate circumstances of the taxpayer
    are logically independent of his responsibility
    to pay his taxes.

    Ad Hominem
    17.) Mr. Watkins has clearly and concisely detailed his arguments concerning the relative safety of tobacco products for Third World countries. But, let me remind you that we could hardly expect him to say anything else because he has worked in the tobacco industry for the last twenty years.
    -Although Mr. Watkins worked for the tobacco
    industry, it does not follow necessarily that he
    does not speak the truth. One might even offer
    the argument that his expertise is actually
    relevant to the subject of the argument.

    Petitio Principii
    18.) All persons act in order that they might get pleasure. Even so-called altruistic persons who help others so much that they do almost nothing for themselves must get pleasure out of giving. Otherwise, they wouldn’t do it. Suppose a person hits himself over the head with a hammer. He must get pleasure from it, because why else would he do it if he didn’t get pleasure from it?
    -The premiss that all persons act from
    the motive of pleasure is the same statement as
    the conclusion.

    Ad Populum
    19.) The Roper Organization says that more persons watch CBS’s 60 Minutes that any other news program on television. Therefore, it must be the best news programming on TV.
    -Simply because a program is popular, the
    conclusion doesn’t logically follow that the
    program is the best–unless, of course, one
    defines ”best” as ”the most popular” as is
    sometimes done in marketing.

    Ad Hominem
    20.) Hilda Robinson, an old backwoods, ignorant lady who never got past the fourth grade in school, claims that chicken soup is good for a cold. What does she know? She is ignorant of the scientific evidence.
    – The attack on character and circumstances is
    characteristic Ad Hominem.

  12. 1. Ad Antiquitatem
    “My father and his father before him polished wood this way. Don’t tell me how to polish wood.”
    EXPLANATION: The way to polish wood is not hereditary.

    2. Abusive Ad Hominem
    “Those who do not rejoice will burn in hell.”
    EXPLANATION: As the Bible says, God always forgives us as long as we continuously know Him as our God.

    3. Reductio ad Absurdum
    “Those other cars look ridiculous. This is the only man’s car here.”
    EXPLANATION: The only thing that he/she praises is his or her own.

    4. Insignificance
    “This stage is far too small. No wonder we are not getting the audiences we deserve.”
    EXPLANATION: The size of the stage is not connected to the number of audience.

    5. In Terrorem
    “If Mike heard you saying that, he would not be very happy.”
    EXPLANATION: He is not Mike so he does not know how would Mike feel about what he or she said.

    6. Ad Antiquitatem
    “We’ve been doing this for thirty years, and we’ve never had problems with it.”
    EXPLANATION: There is no such thing as perfect.

    7. Ad Misericordiam
    “I haven’t completed my work as my dog just died.”
    EXPLANATION: You would not mourn so much for a dog and affect your responsibilities.

    8. Ad Misericordiam
    “Just look at these pictures of the children. Can you donate something to help them?”
    EXPLANATION: Even children can act helplessly for money.

    9. Ad Ignorantium
    “You live on Sunny Street. You have a gun. Nobody else on Sunny Street has a gun. There was a murder on Sunny Street last night. You were involved.”
    EXPLANATION: Gun is not the only thing that can kill.

    10. Ad Novitam
    “This new YPod is much better than the old XPod.”
    EXPLANATION: Not all new things are good, they may have glitches.

    11. Ad Numeram
    “They were doing it, so I thought it would be okay to do it as well.”
    EXPLANATION: Not because all are doing it, means right and good.

    12. False Cause
    “It is dark now, which makes it very dangerous.”
    EXPLANATION: Darkness is not the cause of danger.

    13. False Cause
    “Drinking fresh water will keep you well.”
    EXPLANATION: It may contribute, but it is not the only or sufficient cause.

    14. False Cause
    “Money makes people arrogant.”
    EXPLANATION: Not all people, and not always just money.

    15. False Effect
    “Eating sweets makes you happy. You should thus eat sweets.”
    EXPLANATION: Not only sweets can make people happy and not all people can be happy because of sweets.

    16. Wishful Thinking
    “The book I have written is loved by everyone who reads it.”
    EXPLANATION: How does he or she knew that everyone loved it, he or she did not even conduct a survey.

    17. False Analogy
    “This soap is like a dream. It lifts you up to a spiritual plane.”
    EXPLANATION: In reality, you can never feel that way with just a soap. It is an exaggeration of his or her feelings.

    18. Insufficient Statistics
    “I met some children from Garton yesterday, who were very polite. I think all children from that area must be well-behaved.”
    EXPLANATION: Not all children there has a consistency of being well-behaved.

    19. Insufficient Statistics
    “I’ve met three race drivers today and they all were rather aggressive. Clearly, race drivers are all be aggressive.”
    EXPLANATION: Three are not equal to everyone.

    20. Ignoratio Elenchi
    “You are hot and I am cold. You are wearing a brown coat. So let’s go for a drink.”
    EXPLANATION: There is no such connection in the given statement.

  13. 1. INFORMAL FALLACY R1: ARGUMENTUM ad IGNORANTIAM

    In heaven, there is no judgment, but rather an opportunity to examine our lives- who we touched, the choices we made, and the consequences of those choices. – FIVE PEOPLE YOU MEET IN HEAVEN

    Explanation: The said fallacy is committed because the proposition is false because it has not been proven that there is no judgment in heaven nor it has an opportunity to examine our lives.

    2.INFORMAL FALLACY R2: ARGUMENTUM ad VERECUNDIAM

    My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the speaker cites an unreliable authority to his actions.

    3.INFORMAL FALLACY R3: ARGUMENTUM ad HOMINEM

    I’m the most terrific liar you ever saw in your life.
    -CATCHER IN THE RYE

    Explanation: The form used is Abusive ad Hominem because the arguer verbally abuses himself by name calling.

    4.INFORMAL FALLACY R4: ARGUMENTUM ad POPULUM

    He likes it. She likes it. And that’s why I like it.

    Explanation: The conclusion stated that the speaker likes something because of the popularity or also called as the bandwagon thinking.

    5.INFORMAL FALLACY R5: ARGUMENTUM ad BACULUM

    Surrender now or prepare to fight.
    -POKEMON

    Explanation: The proposition is an appeal to force because the arguer threatens the listener.

    6.INFORMAL FALLACY R6: ARGUMENTUM MISERICORDIAM

    He’s worried about you. We are all worried about you.
    -ALL THAT MATTERS

    Explanation: The proposition supports a claim that is an appeal to pity of the listener.

    7.INFORMAL FALLACY R7: IGNORANTIO ELENCHI

    I don’t want to survive! I want to live!
    -WALL-E

    Explanation: The premises are missing the point of the statement and the premises do not support each other.

    8.INFORMAL FALLACY P1: COMPLEX QUESTION

    Did you commit the murder before or after you bought the soft drink?

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because there are unstated questions that lie in the statement.

    9.INFORMAL FALLACY P2: FALSE CAUSE

    I passed the exams because I was wearing my lucky necklace.

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the speaker acknowledges something that is not really the cause.

    10.INFORMAL FALLACY P3: PETITIO PRINCIPII

    Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree.”
    -OSCAR WILDE, DE PROFUNDIS

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the speaker is only reasoning by a circle.

    11.INFORMAL FALLACY P4: ACCIDENT

    Birds normally can fly. Tweety the Penguin is a bird. Therefore, Tweety can fly.

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the statement did not account for the exemption of penguins which cannot fly.

    12.INFORMAL FALLACY P5: CONVERSE ACCIDENT

    I interviewed ten people on Main Street in Greenwood on Friday night, and they all stated they would rather be there than watching TV. I conclude that the folks in Greenwood don’t like to watch TV on Friday night.

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the speaker carelessly concluded that all folks in Greenwood don’t like to watch TV on Friday night. The speaker assumes that everyone that lives there is like that just because some of those who live there are like that.

    13.INFORMAL FALLACY A1: EQUIVOCATION

    Hot dogs are better than nothing. Nothing is better than steak. Therefore, hot dogs are better than steak.
    -Dr. John Stone (Penn State)

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the premises show different thoughts but combined as one in the conclusion.

    14.INFORMAL FALLACY A3: ACCENT

    Jorge turned in his assignment on time today.

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the emphasis on the statement gave a double meaning.

    15.INFORMAL FALLACY A4: COMPOSITION

    Atoms are not visible to the naked eye. So everything made from atoms are not visible.

    Explanation: The speaker reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part to the attributes of the whole.

    16.INFORMAL FALLACY A5: DIVISION

    The ball is blue; therefore the atoms that make it up are also blue.

    Explanation: The speaker reasons mistakenly from the attributes of the whole to the attributes of a part.

    17.INFORMAL FALLACY D1: RED HERRING

    We are different therefore we are all the same.
    -VERONICA DECIDES TO DIE

    Explanation: One of the premises diverts the discussion into a related but different one.

    18.INFORMAL FALLACY D2: SLIPPERY SLOPE

    If you don’t get to bed early, you’ll be too tired to do well on the GRE tomorrow – and then you won’t get accepted into a decent graduate school and then you’ll end up a washed-out alcoholic living in a trash-bin.

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because it has an unlikely chain reaction.

    19.INFORMAL FALLACY D4: STRAW MAN

    Bill and Jill are arguing about cleaning out their closets:
    Jill: “We should clean out the closets. They are getting a bit messy.”
    Bill: “Why, we just went through those closets last year. Do we have to clean them out every day?”
    Jill: “I never said anything about cleaning them out every day. You just want to keep all your junk forever, which is just ridiculous.”

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because one of the persons in the scenario attacks the other person’s argument. Thus, it makes the other person look weaker.

    20.INFORMAL FALLACY D5: FALSE DILEMMA

    It’s either we win or I don’t get that scholarship. – BRING IT ON: IN IT TO WIN IT

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the statement shows two options but it only shows that we should choose the other because the other o

  14. 1. R1 – There are no accidents.
    -Oogway, Kung fu Panda

    Explanation:

    We all know that there are accidents. We just can’t predict when and where it will happen. Therefore that statement is a Fallacy

    2. R2- Deidara said to Sasori “True art Explode”
    -Naruto

    Explanation:
    This is Fallacy because Deidara reason out in behalf of Sasori.

    3. R3 – “Naruto! You Stupid Good For Nothing”
    – Sakura, Naruto

    Explanation:

    In this sentence we can see that sakura doesn’t like naruto. So she keep on saying bad things about naruto whenever he did something wrong.

    4. D5 – Naruto should kill Haku in because he wants to revenge Sasuke or Spare the like of Haku
    -Naruto

    Explanation:
    It is a False Dilemma, as if there is no other choice than to accept a lesser evil action.

    5. R5 – “Shin eats the right amount of meat, do some running in the mountain, do a lot of push ups, practice his techniques.” – Eye Shield 21

    Explanation:
    It replaces the reason with fear and desire. he do this to gain reward and to surpass other players.

    6. R6- “Sena practice to his limits. Because he want to take care of his title “Eye Shield 21”
    Explanation:
    In this situation Sena decribes certainly unlucky one if he did not enter the football club. However Sena Should not expect a change in order to maintain all what he has in the present.

    7. R4- Everybody thinks that Naruto is dangerous, so many people isolate him.
    -Naruto

    Explanation:
    This is a fallacy because the arguer arouses “mob mentality”.

    8. P1 – “Sakuragi is trying to buy a new shoes. The store owner said “ You play basketball?”
    – Slamdunk
    Explanation:

    The store owner jumps into his conclusion without his warrant. It is something to do with asking Sakuragi that is not a basketball player in the past.

    9. P2- “ Example it is Friday the 13th and everybody says that it bad luck and I didn’t won a contest.”

    Explanation:

    It is something to do with asking that Ippo is not a boxer in the past so why he will buy those pair of shoes.

    10. P3 – “I think I understand, I finally get it.”
    -Naruto

    Explanation:
    The words are different but they just mean the same.

    11. P4- Sena is a underdog and always get bullied so he runs fast.
    -Eyeshield 21

    Explanation:
    It doesn’t mean that if you’re a underdog or always get bullied you can run fast. Because other underdog or people get bullied some of them doesn’t run fast.

    12. P5- Deidara is an Akatsuki. Gaara is a Hokage. Deidara beats Gaara. A Akatsuki can easily beat a Hokage.

    Explanation:
    This statement is a Converse Accident because it not true that a Akatsuki can easily beat a Hokage because not all Hokage can be easily beaten because we know that a Hokage is on of the greatest ninja in a country.

    13. A1- Naruto is a Jinjuriki. A jinjuriki us a monster. Therefore Naruto is a monster.
    – Naruto

    Explanation: A Jinjuriki is a kind of beast and also means a monster.

    14. A2- “You Can’t Go to the Bridge alone!”
    -Naruto

    Explantion:
    Whose Bridge? London Bridge? San Juanico Bridge? The Arguer did not say a specific name.

    15. A3- “YAAAA!!! I’m going to kick butt on today’s mission said Naruto”
    -Naruto

    Explanation:
    The Statement could mean that “Naruto did not have a mission yesterday”, or “ Naruto have a mission today because he is fine.” Or “Naruto have a mission today because Neji doesn’t have a mission.”

    16. A5- Football is Great. Sena plays football. Therefore Sena is Great.
    -Eyeshield 21

    Explanation:
    It doesn’t mean that you play football you are great. Because some of those who play football is not great.

    17. D1 – Naruto doesn’t believe in destiny because he know it depends on people’s action to change it
    -Naruto

    Explanation:
    The Fight between Naruto and Neji proved that destiny can be change.

    18. D2 – Example: “Mamori doesn’t want Sena to join to football because it is too dangerous and he might get killed and when he dies Mamori will miss him and get emotionally upset and die.”
    -Eyeshield 21

    Explanation:
    The arguer have his chain reaction on what he feels. One move does not necessarily lead to another.

    19. D4 – Ninja’s said that Jinjurikis are dangerous. Naruto is a Jinjuriki. Therefore Naruto is Dangerous.
    -Naruto

    Explanation:
    The person is trying to make Naruto a dangerous person but it doesn’t mean that if your a Jinjuriki your dangerous. Only Jinjuriki who cant control his beast are dangerous

    20. A4 – Eyeshield loses a match to Shin. Eyeshield went home and stop training.

    Explanation:
    The statement above assumes that everything in Eyeshield’s life was true so he will not fight with Shin again.

  15. 1. Ignoratio Elenchi
    It was an improbable romance. He was a country boy. She was from the city. She had the world at her feet while he didn’t have two dimes to rub together.
    Money has nothing to do with a developing romance.

    2. False Cause
    “Because of all the bad things you did to Kotoko, such misfortune befell her.”-

    Kotoko’s house collapsed out of a second degree earthquake yet Kinnosuke pointed at the bad things Naoki had done to Kotoko for all the misfortune that happened to her.

    3. Appeal to force
    Johnny Rico: These are the rules. Everybody fights, nobody quits. If you don’t do your job I’ll kill you myself. Welcome to the Roughnecks
    He says that he will kill him if he does not do his part.
    4. Complex question
    “Your goal is to get guys chasing after you all the time, right?

    She presupposes that Sunako does not cut her bangs just to get the attention of guys.

    5. Appeal to Pity
    “Wa! Takano has a fever , a high one!”-Yuuki
    “This is bad, he could die!”-Ranmaru
    “Sunako, you’ll have to take care of him.”- Takenaga

    They made it sound as if Kyohei was dying to have her take over taking care of him.

    6. Accident
    Mrs. Hamilton: She’ll wind up either heart broken or pregnant. Now he’s a nice boy.

    Allie’s mother, just because she engaged in a summer romance, assumes that she will end up like those who broke their heart or got pregnant in a relationship.

    7. Argumentum ad Populum (appeal to popular prejudice)
    I only came here because there was a big crowd of people.
    She just came because a lot of people did.

    8. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    “My momma always said, “Life was like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re gonna get.”
    He said this to Jenny to say a perspective of life out of what his mother, someone not credible enough in this issue, had told him.

    9. Red Herring
    Vanessa Loring: Your parents are probably wondering where you are.
    Juno MacGuff: Nah… I mean, I’m already pregnant, so what other kind of shenanigans could I get into?
    She reasons out that nothing else could happen to her and so her parents won’t have to wonder where she is but she misses the point that they could really be worried by then.

    10. Circumstantial ad hominem
    OK, so you don’t care about classes or graduating, but you like school because you’re popular and you’ll never be on top again.

    Jamie suggests that Landon only likes school because favorably, he is popular at school.

    11. Division
    So if you’re from Africa, why are you white?

    It is known that most people I Africa are black and so questions why she is white. She applies the attributes of being black to Cady which should not be the case.

    12. Abusive ad Hominem
    Because she’s a life-ruiner. She ruins people’s lives.

    Janis here attacks the person of the one she’s pertaining to in her statement.

    13. Appeal to Ignorance
    14. Evolution has no long-term goal. There is no long-distance target, no final perfection to serve as a criterion for selection, although human vanity cherishes the absurd notion that our species is the final goal of evolution.
    He says that evolution has no long-term goal because there is no long distance target and so on and so forth and not the otherwise.
    15. Begging the Question
    Jean Rasczak: Correct. Violence has resolved more conflicts than anything else. The contrary opinion that violence doesn’t solve anything is merely wishful thinking at its worst.

    His reason just circulated on how violence does resolve conflict by stating it again conversely.

    16. Amphiboly
    Throw away the rank and wouldn’t even look at you twice.
    Rank has more than one meaning.

    17. converse accident
    In the past, a boy I liked said that I was ugly… since it (trying to look good) doesn’t matter anyhow, it’s better not to try in the first place.
    Just because someone told her once that she was ugly, she considered every effort to being beautiful futile.

    18. Slippery Slope
    The city have decide to get rid of this school and have us commute to the city schools. Our school is going to be shut down.
    If they’re going to shut down the school, where are the elderly supposed to play gate ball?
    Having the school shut down made them produce a chain of unfavorable outcomes for them such as commuting and losing a playing ground.

    19. Composition
    “Every player on the team is a superstar and a great player, so the team is a great team.”

    Having great players in the team does not make the team great for it could possibly be a team with no harmony.

    20. False Dilemma
    “If I don’t kill them, they’ll kill me.”
    The only option is to kill to be able to live or to die. While to die is unfavorable, so he chooses to kill.

    21. False Analogy
    People are like dogs. They respond best to clear discipline.
    It makes it sound as if people and dogs are too much alike in the given situation though they are not in reality.

  16. 1.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “The human whose name is written in this notebook shall die.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote chap 2-L
    Explanation: Light just got the deathnote, so there is a possibility of it being true.

    2.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “I am Kira God of the new world.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation: Light has proven that he is Kira and a God because he dictates people’s lives.This is false because humans are mortals.

    3.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “Kira represents righteousness.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation: Light can’t tell to other people that he’s ways are right because we all have different beliefs

    4.Argument ad Hominem
    “The world is still despicable, there are too many rotten people…therefore, the world must be rid of them.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:Light tells to the people whose path was wrong to die. Although he has a point, one cannot dictate the outcome of one’s life.

    5.Hasty Generalization
    “Evil can produce evil. The nasty people cause these evil deeds to occur. If this is spread throught the earth, the weak people will learn from them and became just as rotten as themselves.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:He concludes that people will become evil. But it is the decision within the person which verifies the path he/she will take.

    6.Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Those who refuse to renounce their evil ways regardless are not fit to live as humans.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:Again, Light tells the people how to live. This is wrong because he treats them unequally.

    7.Red Herring
    “Killing people is crime in itself, yet at that point, it was the only way to make things right!”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:Light diverts the attention of people around him at that time. Killing is bad yet he tells them that they are right.Killing is not right nor good either because one cannot gain from killing, only loss.

    8.False Analogy
    “If its justifiable to kill harmful pests…then why is it wrong if I kill harmful people?”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:You cannot compare pests to people. It doesn’t mean that they both destroy means that they are the same.

    9.False Dilemma
    “What will come from arresting me here? Isn’t it serving only to satisfy yourself? If its just to avenge L, that, itself is the stupidest course of action.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:Arresting Light will stop the killing. Of course, he diverted the attention of the people around him so just he could escape.

    10.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “I’m a Shinigami, you can’t kill me with such a thing.”-Ryuuku, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation: The SPK and NPA can’t kill him with their guns, but that doesn’t mean that Shinigamis are immortals.

    11.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “There is no heaven or hell”- Ryuuku, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation: They can’t prove it either unless they die.

    12.Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Those who oppose that God…, they are evil.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:Light tells the people that those who are against God are evil, yet the God itself is the evil.

    13.Straw man
    “Kira is God, therefore Kira represents righteousness.”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation: God is righteous but those who tell themselves that they are God but mortals are not righteous.

    14.Argumentum Miseriscordiam
    “Think about it, if Kira is caught, will it just suppress your ego?”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 105-Impossible
    Explanation:Light pleads to the people that if Kira is caught, all hope will be lost. He uses pity to the people who believes in him.

    15.Hasty Generalization
    “When you find a diamond that belongs to nobody, it is yours. Therefore anything that nobody owns is yours.-Businessman, Little prince
    Explanation: The statement itself can disprove it. There is no name on the item either, so why consider it your own?

    16.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “There are no tigers on my planet.”-Prince, Little prince
    Explanation: The lack of describing in the scene makes it unable to prove that tigers do exist in his planet.

    17.Slippery Slope
    “Yeah Matsuda. It’s always the kind of person who is absurdly serious with a strong sense of justice who suffers a loss. Such a person always loses. Are you content with that world?”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 106-Murderous
    Explanation: Light discourages Matsuda there because those who protect are always the one who loses their lives. It doesn’t mean that if someone dies, they lose all the memories of the people around him/her.

    18.Hasty Generalization
    “Yeah Matsuda. It’s always the kind of person who is absurdly serious with a strong sense of justice who suffers a loss. Such a person always loses. Are you content with that world?”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 106-Murderous
    Explanation: Light then concludes that those people who protect loses. Yet they are the ones who are awarded. To protect is to save so one doesn’t lose when he/she dies.

    19.False Dilemma
    “A world where people like my father…do not lose. Soucihiro Yagami died as a foundation for such a world.I’m telling you to kill them so that his death is not thrown away! Don’t you understand that?”-Light Yagami, Deathnote, chap 106-Murderous
    Explanation: There is no alternative to avenge Souichiro Yagami but to kill the SPK and NPA. Yet Light altered the words again so that they are favorable to him. Again, killing will not benefit anyone.

    20.Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Don’t you see? I can’t possibly write in this situation…the notebook is fake…you aren’t God at all. You are the lowest of all scum!”-Mikami, Deathnote, chap 106-Murderous
    Explanation: Mikami tells that Light is a scum just because he the notebook he wrote on is fake. One cannot say things to others just because of 1 observation.

  17. Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)

    “There is no successful human transmutation because we cannot revive a human being back”

    Explanation: When Edward said to his brother that there is no such thing as a successful human transmutation it was not proven yet.

    Appeal to Inappropriate Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)

    “Using Alchemy is prohibited without the consent of our Leader” said Hughes to Edward

    Explanation: It is inappropriate to say that alchemy is prohibited just because a person said it.

    Attack on the Person (Argumentum ad Homimem)

    “People in the military just want to use you for your skills in alchemy. They are nothing but people who lust for more power”

    Explanation: In this case, the person who said this is indirectly speaking to the people he thinks are useless.

    Appeal to Popular Prejudice (Argumentum ad Populum)

    “Everyone believed that Father Cornelio is the son of god because of his knowledge in alchemy, so Rose believed too.”

    Explanation: When all other people believed into something even if it is not proven to be true yet. Some choose to believe as well.

    Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum)

    “If we do not kill our mother soon, one of us may be her next target” said Edward to his brother Alphonse.

    Explanation: When Edward said to his brother all this statement he wanted to convince his brother by force so they will not have a problem with their mother in the future.

    Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam)

    “My love will not come back and I will die of this pain if I do not believe in Father Cornelio’s teaching” said Rose to Edward.

    Explanation: When Rose said this, she wanted Edward to have pity on her and she wanted him to stop accusing Cornelio.

    Complex Question

    “I haven’t seen you for years now. You haven’t grown taller did you?”

    Explanation: Winry is jumping to the conclusion that Edward haven’t grown at all for the years they didn’t see each other.

    False Clause (non causa pro causa)

    “Edward’s ability to use alchemy has grown because of the stone that Winry gave him.”

    Explanation: Edward treats the stone that Winry gave him as the tool that made his alchemy skill grew. But it was not the real cause.

    Begging the Question (Petitio Pricipii)

    “Our mother is not real because she is a homunculus”

    Explanation: When Edward said this he jumped into the conclusion that their mother is not real just because she is a homunculus.

    Sweeping Generalization (Accident)

    “Wrath is a being born from alchemy. He is a homunculus as well as an enemy”

    Explanation: When Edward said this. He jumped to the point that Wrath is an enemy just because he is a homunculus.

    Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident)

    “Dead people who were revived with the use of human transmutation are turned into homunculus so if you try to revive your love he will also turn into a homunculus”

    Explanation: Because of what the brothers have seen. They presumed that all humans revived from alchemy are homunculus.

    Equivocations

    “One who does not sacrifice anything cannot achieve nothing” Therefore, those that does not sacrifice anything will achieve nothing.”

    Explanation: The conclusion that Edward said is not supported in the beginning premise.

    Amphiboly

    “If Cornelio uses alchemy against the people, he will destroy a wealthy village.”

    Explanation: When Alphonse said this to his brother, the conclusion he said is not supported by his first statement.

    Accent

    “I think that Edward is taller today.”

    Explanation: The meaning of the statement Alphonse said has a shift in meaning.

    Composition

    “Homunculus is made from an unsuccessful human transmutation. Therefore, any human transmutation that fails will result in a homunculus.”

    Explanation: The reason that Edward said is invalid because the parts that he said does not pertain to the whole idea in the story.

    Division

    “All homunculus are born from unsuccessful human transmutation. Mother is also a homunculus.”

    Explanation: What Edward said was taken separately from the whole story.

    Slippery Slope

    “You should never question the teachings of Father Cornelio, because if you do all the people here will kill you, I might as well kill you.”

    Explanation: It does no follow that the people will kill Edward if he question Father Cornelio’s teachings.

    False Analogy

    Mustang said “that using alchemy is prohibited if you do not have permission. If you have the permission you may use alchemy freely. So you can use alchemy if you have the permission.”

    Explanation: Mustang said that the use of alchemy is prohibited but for him it is not prohibited.

    Straw Man

    All alchemists who use alchemy without license will be sent to jail, those who are in jail are alchemists. Therefore, all who will be sent to jail are alchemists.

    Explanation: The argument focuses on alchemist who uses alchemy without any license. But for people who are in the government they are free to use it whenever they like.

    False Dilemma

    “We have a decision to make Al. It is either we kill them now or we wait for them to kill us first.”

    Explanation: Edward said this to make Al choose the first condition because he knows that it is the best choice to do.

    Tpos na!!!=)

  18. 1.) King Triton: Know him? I don’t have to know him! They’re all the same spineless, savage, harpooning fish eaters, incapable of feeling!
    – argumentum ad hominem
    – the little mermaid
    (It’s a fallacy because not all of the person who’s like him and not because you’re mad at him means that all of the people around you is like him.)

    2.) Panic: he’s not gonna be happy if he gets outta there
    Pain: If he gets outta there
    – slippery slope
    – hercules
    (It has a chain reaction. It’s a fallacy because it doesn’t mean that if he leaves he would be happy right away.)

    3.) Lemony Snicket: the sad truth is that the truth is sad.
    – fallacy of begging the question
    – series of unfortunate events
    (It’s a fallacy because not all truth statement is sad.)

    4.) Hercules: But, Father I’ve defeated every single monster I’ve come up against. I-I’m… I’m the most famous person of all of Greece. I’m… I-I’m an action figure!
    – appeal to pity
    – hercules
    (It means that Hercules wants to be with his father again but his father told him not yet because he still needs to prove something. It’s a fallacy because it doesn’t mean that if you are an action figure you can go to the gods again.)

    5.) Jafar: You’ve heard of the golden rule, have you? Whoever has the gold, makes the rule!
    – appeal to money
    – aladdin
    (It means that whoever has the money will make all of the rules because he/she is rich. It’s a fallacy because someone who is rich does not mean that they will make all the rules and make us do what they want.)

    6.) Voldemort: I speak now, Harry Potter, directly to you. You have permitted your friends to die for you rather than face me yourself. I shall wait for one hour in the forbidden forest. If, at the end of that hour, you have not come to me, have not given yourself up, the battle recommences. This time, I shall enter the fray myself, and will punish every man, woman or child who tries to conceal you from me. One hour!
    – appeal to force
    – harry potter and the deathly hallows
    (It means that Voldemort is forcing Harry to come to the forest so that they can fight there. It’s a fallacy because he can’t make one person do whatever he wants and imply it to him directly.)

    7.) Snape: The Dark Lord’s word is law.
    – argumentum ad verecundiam
    – harry potter and the half blood prince
    (It’s a fallacy because Dark Lord’s word is not a law.)

    8.) McGonagall: Inside every girl, a secret swan slumbers, longing to burst forth and take flight.
    Ron: Something’s about to burst out of Eloise Midgen, but I don’t think it’s a swan.
    – fallacy of equivocation
    – harry potter and the goblet of fire (movie)
    (It’s a fallacy because not in every girl would burst out and be whoever they want to be.)

    9.) Snape: How extraordinarily like your father, you are, Potter. Wandering in a corridor at night, strutting about the castle.
    – hasty generalization
    – harry potter and the prisoner of Azkaban ( movie)
    (It’s a fallacy because it doesn’t mean that if his father wander in the corridor at night he would also do it.)

    10.) Hermione: But that’s – I’m sorry, but it’s completely ridiculous! How can I possibly prove that it doesn’t exist? Do you expect me to get hold of all the pebbles in the world and test them? I mean, you claim that anything’s real if only the basis of believing in it is that nobody proved it doesn’t exist!
    – argumentum ad ingnoratiam
    – harry potter and the deathly hallows
    (It’s a fallacy because it can be proved but they did not do it and it has a conclusion in the statement.)

    11.) Edward Cullen- You’re not a magnet for accidents — that’s not a broad enough classification. You are a magnet for trouble. If there is anything dangerous within a ten-mile radius, it will invariably find you.
    -Twilight
    -Naturalistic fallacy
    (It’s a fallacy because not every time there is trouble it would be her that would be in trouble. That may be a good and the right thing for being in trouble.)

    12.) Edward Cullen- It’s harder than it should be — keeping track of you. Usually I can find someone very easily, once I’ve heard their mind before.
    -Twilight
    -sweeping generalization
    (It’s a fallacy because Edward does not hear all people’s thoughts all of the time. And not all people he can read minds.)

    13.) Edward Cullen- It makes me… anxious… to be away from you.
    -Twilight
    -Nirvana fallacy
    (It’s a fallacy because it does not mean that when his anxious to be away from her he would be happy.)

    14.) Edward Cullen- I’m essentially a selfish creature. I crave your company too much to do what I should.
    -Twilight
    -Package deal fallacy
    (It doesn’t mean if you are a monster you would want to stay away from the one you love all of the time.)

    15.) Edward Cullen- I wasn’t sure if I was strong enough… And while there was still that possibility that I might be… overcome, I was… susceptible. Until I made up my mind that I was strong enough, that there was no possibility at all that I would… that I ever could…
    -Twilight
    -Fallacy of necessity
    (It’s a fallacy because not all of the strong minded can be strong enough to do something dangerous to save the one they love.)

    16.) Edward Cullen- Just because I’m resisting the wine doesn’t mean I can’t appreciate the bouquet.
    -Twilight
    -Argument from fallacy
    (It’s a fallacy because the beginning of the statement does not make sense with it’s conclusion.)

    17.) Edward Cullen- But you see, just because we’ve been… dealt a certain hand… it doesn’t mean that we can’t choose to rise above — to conquer the boundaries of a destiny that none of us wanted. To try to retain whatever essential humanity we can.
    -Twilight
    -false analogy
    (It’s a fallacy because not all of them should conquer or have boundaries and have destiny to do good or bad.)

    18.) Edward Cullen- Could you believe that, despite everything I’ve put you through, I love you, too?
    -Twilight
    -missing the point
    (It’s a fallacy because it doesn’t mean that if you have done something wrong he will not love you anymore.)

    19.) Bella Swan- Attention is never a good thing, as any other accident-prone klutz would agree. No one wants a spotlight when they’re likely to fall on their face.
    -New Moon
    -false dilemma
    (Not all people would want spotlight when they will fall flat on their face.)

    20.) Bella Swan- Do you think I’ll ever get better at this? That my heart might someday stop trying to jump out of my chest whenever you touch me?
    -New Moon
    -begging the question
    (It’s a fallacy because it doesn’t mean that every time he touches you, you would stop breathing and just not be yourself.)

  19. 1.) Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Mr. Velazquez is a paragon of honesty because he has never been caught cheating or telling a lie.

    Explanation: The argument is taken as true even if there is no evidence yet.

    2.) Accident
    “He graduated from a public school. He must be poor.”

    Explanation: It was concluded that he was poor because he graduated from a public school. It is been a trademark for many that public schools are schools for those who lack financial support to study.

    3.) Converse Accident
    “I’ve seen you change phones three times now, you must be really rich.”
    Explanation: The observation of one changing phones for three consecutive times does not imply that a person is rich.

    4.) Division
    Only very intelligent people can enter such great schools as Harvard. You graduated there therefore you are very intelligent too.

    Explanation: The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes of an individual.

    5.) Complex Question
    “I’m not used to feeling so human. Is it always like this?”

    Explanation: This question can’t just be answered with a simple Yes or No, but rather, an explanation is needed to answer it fully.

    6.) Composition
    “James is a hunter, once he committed to a hunt, he’s unshakeable, and we’d have to kill him.” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: It lies in assuming that what’s true to the parts is true to the whole.

    7.) Equivocation
    All men are mortal. Socrates was mortal. Therefore, all men are Socrates. Which means that all men are homosexuals.

    Explanation: In this statement, the word mortal was used twice and it become irrelevant to the conclusion.

    8.) False Dilemma
    No, I don’t think I will kiss you, although you need kissing, badly. That’s what’s wrong with you. You should be kissed and often, and by someone who knows how.

    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because there are only two alternatives but the one is unacceptable.

    9.) Petition Principii
    “This isn’t flying. This is falling, with style!”

    Explanation: The conclusion is restated in other terms and then used it as a premise to prove the very same conclusion.

    10.) Ignorantio Elenchi
    “You’re interested in meeting new people, and yet you’re so choosy that its very rare for you to actually add someone even to the outermost realms of your circle”

    Explanation: It is said that he wants to have new friends but when he is meeting someone he goes to another activity so that he will not be required to handle the situation.

    11.) Argumentum ad Populum
    “Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be.”

    Explanation: Simply because many people believe something is true, this fact does not make it true.

    12.) Argumentum ad baculum
    You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re slipping.

    Explanation: The reasons for Samuel to study should be independent of the threat to inform his parents.

    13.) Slippery Slope
    “If we legalize marijuana, then we would have to legalize heroin and crack and we’ll have a nation full of drug addicts on welfare. Therefore we cannot afford to legalize marijuana”.

    Explanation: It doesn’t follow that when Marijuana is legalized, heroin and crack will be. Also in other countries that this was implemented they are not full of addicts in welfare.

    14.) Amphiboly
    “Come to the Boxing Ring for Peace”

    Explanation: It sounds harmless. “Peace” means for having a new or brand new day with no accidents or whatever, and which only means for declaration of the winner.

    15.) Argumentum Misericordiam
    “You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so unhappy!”

    Explanation: The acceptance of a conclusion/suggestion must not have pity/concern to the receiver.

    16.) Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Paula says the umpire made the correct call, but this can’t be true, because Paula wasn’t even watching the game.”

    Explanation: Assuming the premise is correct, Paula’s evidence is valueless, but the umpire may nonetheless have made the right call.

    17.) Accent
    “I’ve never seen you looking better.”

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accent. The ambiguity of the stress of the word/s change/s the meaning of the statement.

    18.) Red Herring
    “You may think that he cheated on the test, but look at the poor little thing! How would he feel if you made him sit it again?”

    Explanation: The statement committed the fallacy of red herring because the real topic was now off track because there was a new topic related to the real one but totally different inserted to the statement.

    19.) Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    He is the real killer like what detective Kogorou Mouri has been said.

    Explanation: Mouri is the high authority in that case but you should not trust what he says easily because Shinichi is the one who really knows who is the real killer.

    20.) Straw Man
    “Exploring space is a dangerous and costly business. We should either do it right or not at all.”

    Explanation: What they’re talking about is if NASA is spending too much in their projects, not trying to abolish it or continue its programs.

  20. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (film)
    1. Attack on the Person
    Ron: He’s using you.
    Hermione: How dare you? Besides, I can take care of myself.
    Ron: Doubt it, he’s way too old!
    – Based on the given quote, the fallacy committed is Argumentum ad Hominem since Ron attacks Victor Krum, instead of disproving his argument.

    2. Accident
    Ron: You’ve battled a dragon. If you can’t find a date, then who can?
    – Harry may be great in handling dragons but not in handling girls. Despite the fact, Ron should not base his conclusion on the said event since there are people who can find a date effortlessly even though they cannot defeat a dragon. Since Harry can slay a dragon and the others can’t, it doesn’t mean that if Harry can’t find a date, the others can’t find a date as well.

    Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Askaban (book)
    3. Appeal to Popular Prejudice
    (Talking about firebolts)
    “Irish International’s Side’s just put an order on these beauties. They’re the favorites of the world cup!”
    – The fallacy is considered as Argumentum ad Populum given that someone claims his viewpoint is correct because many other people are in favor with it.

    Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (book)
    4. Appeal to Ignorance
    (Talking about the deathly hallows)
    Hermione: Well, how can they be real?
    Xenophilius Lovegood: Prove to me that it is not.
    – Just because the deathly hallows are not yet proven, doesn’t mean they are not real. The fallacy in the quote is Argumentum ad Ignorantiam in which a conclusion is drawn when the arguments report that nothing is proved known.

    Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (book)
    5. Appeal to Pity
    Lucius Malfoy: Haven’t you ever wondered what was the reason for the connection between you and the Dark Lord? Why he was unable to kill you when you were an infant? Don’t you want to know the secret of your scar? All the answers are there, Potter, in your hand, all you have to do is give it to me and I can show you everything.
    – To win support for the argument, Lucius exploited Harry’s feelings; leading to another error in reasoning.

    6. Appeal to Force
    Lucius Malfoy: Did you actually believe, were you truly naïve, enough to think that children stood a chance against us? I’ll make this simple for you, Potter. Give me the prophecy or watch your friends die.
    – Lucius makes an explicit threat of physical violence against the Dumbledore’s Army if Harry refuses to give the prophecy.

    The Incredibles (film)
    7. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    Lucius: You tell me where my suit is, woman! We are talking about the greater good!
    Honey: “Greater good”?! I am your wife! I’m the greatest good you are ever gonna get!
    – The appeal to authority is a fallacy of irrelevance when the authority being cited is not really an authority. In the quote, Honey has no right to claim herself as the “greatest good”.

    All Dogs Go to Heaven (film)
    8. Converse Accident
    Whippet Angel: All dogs go to heaven because, unlike people, dogs are naturally good and loyal and kind.
    – The fallacy committed is Hasty Generalization because Whippet Angel draws a general conclusion about a population based upon a sample which is too small to be a representative.

    Hercules (film)
    9. Slippery Slope
    Pain: He’s not going to be happy if he finds out.
    Panic: If he finds out.
    – The slippery slope is a fallacy that asserts the result of some event without explaining how the result follows from the event. In the quote, Pain and Panic are afraid of what might possibly happen if Hades finds out of the screw up that they made.

    10. False Analogy
    Hades: Meg, my little flower, my little bird, my little nut Meg.
    – Hades is comparing Meg to inanimate objects which she is completely not.

    Death Note (anime)
    11. Division
    Light Yagami (Kira): This world is rotten. Rotten people should be killed off to cleanse this world.
    – The quote committed a Division fallacy because Light asserts that what is true of something as a whole must also be true of each of its parts.

    The Lion King (film)
    12. Equivocation
    Timon: (talking about Simba) Gee, he looks blue.
    Pumbaa: I’d say Brownish-gold.
    Timon: NO, no, no. I meant depressed.
    – The fallacy where the meaning of a word is changed in the middle of an argument is called equivocation. In the first statement, the term “blue” meant the feeling of depression; while in the second statement, the term changed its meaning pertaining to color.

    Manananggal Terrorizes Manila (book)
    13. False Cause
    “There’s going to be a big earthquake at 2:30,” he said, only there were no pauses between his words. “Says who?” I demanded. “It was on the radio. “ He said.
    – In the quote, the cause of the earthquake is entirely irrational. Earthquakes are unpredictable calamities of the world and for that reason; it cannot be factual that the calamity will happen at a specific time.

    The Series of Unfortunate Events (film)
    14. Begging the Question
    Count Olaf: Where’s the roast beef?
    Klaus Baudelaire: Roast beef?
    Count Olaf: Beef, yes. Roast beef. It’s the Swedish term for beef that is roasted!
    – Also called as circular argument, begging the question is a fallacy where someone attempts to prove his conclusion by simply restating it. Evidently, Count Olaf defined the term by revising it.

    Naked gun 2 ½: The Smell of Fear (film)
    15. Amphiboly
    Lt. Frank Drebin: Now, Jane, what can you tell us about the man you saw last night?
    Jane Spencer: He’s Caucasian.
    Ed Hocken: Caucasian?
    Jane Spencer: Yeah, you know, a white guy. A mustache. About five-foot-ten.
    Lt. Frank Drebin: That’s an awfully big mustache.
    – Amphiboly is a type of informal fallacy when a word, phrase or grammatical construction used can be understood in more than one way. Based on the quote, the phrase “about five-foot-ten” does not have a clear illustration to whom or what it is pertaining to.

    The Picture of Dorian Gray (book)
    16. Either/or fallacy
    There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written or badly written.
    – Oscar Wilde made a quote with a fallacy in the preface of his book. He asserted two choices, when in fact there are more alternatives.

    Duck Tales: The Movie- The Treasure of the Lost Map (film)
    17. Appeal to Money
    Dijon: Everything smells delicious when you’re rich! [smells his cape]
    Dijon: Even me!
    – Even if Dijon became wealthy, it doesn’t mean that his statements are inevitably correct. Hence, the fallacy committed is called Argumentum ad Crumenam.

    Chronicles of Narnia: The Horse and His Boy (book)
    18. Appeal to Flattery
    “Please,” she said, “You’re so beautiful. You may eat me if you like. I’d sooner be eaten by you then fed by anyone else.”
    – Appeal to flattery is an informal fallacy when a person attempts to compliment or flatter another in order to win their side of a proposition.

    Cinderella 2: A Dream Come True (film)
    19. Appeal to Tradition
    Prudence: Your Highness, a princess never prepares her own meals. That is not how things are done.
    Cinderella: There are rules about breakfast?
    Prudence: Of course there are rules, Your Highness. But it’s certainly not your fault… that you don’t know the traditions of the castle. That’s what the king expects me to teach you.
    – The fallacy committed in the given quote is Argumentum ad Antiquitatem where Prudence complained about Cinderella’s action since it is not associated with their traditions.

    Penn & Teller, “Ouija Boards/Near Death Experiences”, B.S.! (film)
    20. Improper Transposition
    Bob Murch, spirit board collector: “There’s been thousands of years of accounts of ghosts and hauntings, and if those are true, you know, surely a spirit board can work.”
    Penn Jillette:”So, if those aren’t true, a spirit board can’t work? Cool!”
    – In a proper transposition, the antecedent (accounts of ghosts and hauntings) and consequent (spirit board) of the conditional premises are switched and negated. On the contrary, an improper transposition is when the antecedent and consequent are negated, but not switched; leading to a false conclusion but with a true premise.

  21. Fallacies of Relevance

    1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “What I’m saying is that, in the end? Everyone is alone, right?”
    -Tenten of Naruto
    It’s not’s true that in the end everyone is alone in the same ground it is not false, for it is not yet proven, therefore it is incorrect reasoning.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “If you had the strength you could live, because that’s what Shishio said.”
    -Sajiro of Samurai X
    It does not necessarily means that if you had the strength you could live just because somebody said it, what about the impaired and the outcasts? does that mean they can’t live?

    3. Argumentum Ad Hominem
    “The coordinators are nothing but a trash, they’re just man-made creatures that overpower the naturals”
    -Mwu Laflaga of Gundam Seed
    It is not right to say that someone is trash just because his genes were modified by man (coordinators are human whose genes are modified) he attack the personality of the coordinators and not what they aredoing.

    4. Argumentum ad Populum
    “Every great swordsman slay uncountable lives so to become one I’ll slay you al!!!”
    -Arisu of Serial Experiments Lain
    Killing doesn’t mean being great, even some become famous because of it, it still doesn’t follow, killing is never great.

    5. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Intruder! your life ends here!”
    -Heroic Prince Arislan
    Here it replaces the reason with fear, not all intruders must die.

    6. Argumentum Misericordiam
    “Please Spare my life! I only done this because i’ve been ordered by the commander, He said you’re a threat to our security, Please I beg you!”
    -(A soldier begging to Kira Yamato whom he tried to kill) Gundam Seed
    The soldier is appealing for the pity of the person whom he attempted to kill, giving such reasons is not valid, the issue is he try to kill someone and now he’s begging for his life to be spared?

    7. Ignorantio Elenchi
    “You shouldn’t blame me and my strategy your soldiers are weak that’s why we lost the battle”
    -Shu of Suikoden II
    Here the speaker is missing the point, the point here is that his strategy failed, he shouldn’t blame the soldiers for losing.

    Fallacies of Presumption

    8. Complex Question
    “Have you abort the child?”
    -Ai (Platonic Sex)
    The implication is that the person being talked to is pregnant, jumping to conclusion without warrant.

    9. False Cause
    “We lose the battle because of you! pathetic weakling! cursed child!”
    -Zemeckis (Brigandine)
    Here, the child is rumored to be cursed, so in losing the battle, he blamed the child that is said to be cursed in their defeat.

    10. Petitio Principii
    “I will win because i will not lose!”
    -Shinji Ikari of Neon Genesis Evangelion
    The premise i will win is the equivalent of I will not lose.

    11. Accident
    “He is from Iscalio ruled by a devilish king, he is sure a warfreak”
    -Lyonesse of Brigandine
    Even though Iscalio is ruled by a tyrant, it does not necessarily means that people living in Iscalio is like thier king.

    12. Converse Accident
    “Norgard fought for domination, as well as the Esgares Empire and the Kingdom of Iscalio, therefore all of the countries in Forsena fights for domination”
    -Bishop Coel of Brigandine
    In Forsena there are many countries, only 3 of them fights for domination, so it is jumping hasty into a conclusion.

    Fallacies of Ambiguity

    13. Equivocation
    “I fight for peace, but to kill is to fight, so to attain peace I will kill”
    -Bagdemagus (Knight) of Brigandine
    In a war, fighting entails killing, but it doesn’t mean that if you fight for peace you kill, it has a different meaning and used inappropriately.

    14. Amphiboly
    “Fight me, when you already have some nerve to kill me”
    -Athrun Sala of Gundam Seed
    What nerve? does that mean the person talking to doesn’t have nerve? or does it mean courage?

    15. Composition
    “The Naturals are bunch of weaklings, anyone of their kind is weak!”
    -Yzak Joule of Gundam Seed
    It doesn’t mean that all of the Naturals are weak based on his conclusion.

    16. Division
    “Esgares Empire being at the center of Forsena is the strongest Nation, Millet a sorceress of the Empire is joining our side, she must be strong.
    -Dinadan (Knight) of Brigandine
    Even Esgares Empire is the strongest empire, it doesn’t mean that all of its people are strong.

    Distraction Fallacies

    17. Red Herring
    “You’re strength is fake! We’d already lost the battle!”
    -Apple to Captain Flik (Suikoden II)
    It is faulty because it diverts the issue of being strong, even if you’re defeated, it doesn’t mean that you are weak, it maybe due to other reasons.

    18. Slippery Slope
    “We shouldn’t forge an alliance with Norgard, if Esgares knows it, another war will commence!”
    -Coel (Bishop) of Brigandine
    It doesn’t follow, it doesn’t mean that if you forge an alliance with another nation will trigger another war.

    19. False Analogy
    “Just like any other nation, its normal for us to strive for domination”
    -King Dryst of Brigandine
    The argument presumes that domination is good because many is striving for it.

    20. Strawman
    “That sword belongs to an insane murderer, those who will posses it is also a murderer!”
    -Misao of Samurai X
    It attacks another argument, mere possesion of the said sword doesn’t mean that you are a murderer.

  22. 1. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to ignorance)
    Fairies are non-existent-hino kahoko
    In this sentence, Hino concluded that there is no fairy that is existing but it was not yet proven.

    2. R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    The most important is to carry happiness, and enter the competition. It was said by the principal.-kanazawa-sensei
    Kanazawa-sensei claims his sentence to be true because of the principal.

    3. R3 Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)
    That’s Kudou Shinichi. He’s an unbelievable jerk who’s trying to deceive you.” –Morou kogori
    This sentence is abusively insulting Kudo Shinichi. The name calling occurs.

    4. R5 Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)
    If you can not master the waltz in one week and show it off at the party you will have to expose yourself as a girl and will be denoted back to trivial chores.- tamaki to haruhi
    This is to forced Haruhi to practice and learn waltz in order for her to be in her position still and will not go back to his trivial chores.

    5. R7 Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the point)
    Tsuchiura: Is this an instrument? But aren’t you taking regular classes? I thought I heard your name in the bulletin.
    Hino: Tsu…! Tsu-Tsu-Tsuchiura-kun. The athletic club! You have club activities right now, right? What club? Don’t you need to hurry?
    Hino missed the point by changing the topic.

    6. P1 Complex Question
    You are that participant in the regular department?-hihara kazuki
    This question entails a lot of meanings such as Hihara doesn’t expect regular students to be a participant.

    7. P5 Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    Of the students who have taken part in this competition before, many became successful in parts of the world. Hence, music students are all keen to be able to participate in the competition.- La Corda d’Oro
    This is generalizing the previous result of the event thus, from a statistics of a survey from a small group it forms a broad conclusion.

    8. A3 Accent
    The weather sure is nice today.- Luffy
    If it will be analyze it will have a double meaning. There is a shift of meaning.

    9. A4 Composition
    Senpai’s happiness during playing left me a deep impression. Hence, like you will perk up once you hear, really happy.-hino
    It argues that the happiness felt by Hino through the play will also be the happiness of others.

    10. A5 division
    To ignore others on the music departments, it seems you have some background.
    Then, you who are chosen should have a perfect performance.
    It argues from the attributes of the whole to its parts. In the sentence when you are in the Music Department you are great in playing with the instruments then by ignoring other students in that department you have an excellent skill.

    11. R4 Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to the people)
    I’m not afraid of pain at all!!! Next time bring me out to sea!!! I want to be a pirate too!!!- Luffy
    Luffy choose to be a pirate because of the influence of his band pirates.

    12. False dilemma
    If I don’t shoot this, I’ll definitely die.- Nami
    This sentence only gives Nami two choices it’s either to shoot or to be killed. But in reality there are other choices.

    13. P2 False Cause (non causa pro causa)
    I am great because of the charm given by my grandmother. – Nakatsu in Hana Kimi
    This is treating other thing as the real cause of Nakatsu’s greatness where in fact there is no connection with it.

    14. A1 Equivocation
    Town people are worthless. Worthless means junks. Hence, town people are junks. -One Piece
    This is a fallacy because of the term worthless used in different aspect and meaning.

    15. P4 Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    Mikan studies in Alice Academy. She is a witch.
    This is sweeping a generalization from one’s individual case such as Mikan’s.

    16. D1 Red Herring (Missing the Point)
    I don’t have a great ability because I am weak.- friend of Mikan
    This is a fallacy because of missing the point. It doesn’t mean of not having a great ability is you are weak.

    17. D2 Slippery Slope
    The school is going to be closed. If that will happen I have to find another school, if I find another school I will not be with Hotaru, then we will not be friends forever. –Mikan
    This is the chain reaction wherein from the closing of the school will lead to Mikan’s mind of not be with friend with Hotaru forever.

    18. D3 False Analogy
    Using Mikan’s power is amusing. The power of Natsume is tiring when used. Hence, Mikan’s power is tiring when used.-friend of Mikan
    This is taking the two powers similar with their use so if one is tiring the other also.

    19. R6 Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)
    Please don’t kill me. I have a dream that I have not yet fulfilled. I have a family, who loves me.-One Piece
    This is making a statement that appeals to pity himself and therefore he should not be killed.

    20. P3 Petitio Principii (Begging Question)
    Pirates are evil because they are wicked. –Nami of One Piece
    This is a statement that is redundant. It just restated the other term which is evil.

  23. 1.) Witch Argumentum ad Baculum -Cornelia-“Shut your trap Irma, or ill bury you in the sand!” -Cornelia is threatening Irma to shut up or she will bury her to the sand. She was using force to convince Irma.

    2.) Witch Argumentum ad Hominem -Cornelia’s grandmother-“This proves that you’re utterly incapable of choosing the appropriate acquaintances.” – “Abusive ad hominem,”-the grandmother is seeking to defame her grandson by blaming her.

    3.) Witch False Cause -Peter-“Well…you see…I hit your car because someone hit my car from behind.” -peter blamed the cause of the accident to other drivers.

    4.) Inu Yasha
    Argumentum ad novitatem
    -Kagome- “If you want to lose weight, your best bet is to follow the latest diet.” – Someone prematurely claims that an idea or proposal is correct or superior,
    exclusively because it is new and modern.

    5.) Cross Over
    Appeal to authority or argument by authority -Ogata: “The play should work! If it came from the coach, I am certain it will work!” – bases the truth value of an assertion on the authority,knowledge, expertise, or position of the person asserting it.

    6.) Detective Conan Argumentum ad Ignorantiam -Inspector Megure-“This man committed suicide because no proof of murder has been investigated so far.” –The inability of the police to prove the real cause of his death does not necessarily mean that He really did suicide. Maybe there are still possible evidences or proof that are lacking in the crime.

    7.) Manila Times Argumentum ad Populum -“Everyone favors that Rodolfo Lozada’s testimony is true, so I believe and idolize him.”–The Manila Times Jan. 20 2008 -It arouses mob mentality. Popularity is not guarantee for quality and work.

    8.) (Rush Hour 2)
    Accident –James Carter -“When the shooting started, he was way too cool. And normally when there’s shooting’ white people aren’t that cool, man. They either run around in circles, or screaming out ‘Aaaaagh!’ “
    – Maybe some white people really run on circles or scream when there is shooting but this is not true to all the white people.

    9.) Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    [After Mr. Duvall said that there’s a new student joining the class who just moved from Africa, Ms. Norbury quickly Welcomes a black girl she sees. The girl answers…]
    “I’m from Michigan .”
    –Black Michigan Girl (Mean Girls)
    Explanation: Just because the girl is black, it does not necessarily mean that she is from Africa . Ms. Norbury quickly jumps to a conclusion that the girl she saw is from Africa because of the girls color. She did not consider other things; she just looked at the color of the person’s skin.

    10.) Mean Girls Red Herring
    –Janis Ian “She knows everything about everyone. That’s why her hair is so big.”
    – The fallacy is committed because when Janis said that the person she is referring to knows everything, it doesn’t mean that it’s the same reason why the person’s hair is big. Knowing everything does not actually connects to why a person’s hair is big.v

    11.) The Birdcage Accent
    Albert: Don’t use that tone to me.
    Armand: What tone?
    Albert: That sarcastic contemptuous tone. That means you know everything because you’re a man, and I know nothing because I’m a woman. – In this situation its intended tone of voice is uncertain that’s why it falls under this fallacy.

    12.) Gone with the Wind Composition
    – Rhett Butler –“My boyfriend is useless. Boys aren’t any use to anybody. Don’t you think I’m proof of that?” – The fallacy is committed because the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of an individual member of some collection to the attributes of the totality of that collection .
    13.) Kill Bill Vol. 2 Hasty Generalization
    -Esteban Vihaio-“If I had met you forty years ago, you would have been my Number One lady.” -Esteban Vihaio presumes to quickly. If they had met forty years ago, it does not necessarily mean that the woman would be Esteban’s Number One lady. There are no premises to support this fact. Esteban is jumping into conlusions.

    14.) Bible Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    -“One of the Ten Commandments in the Bible states that ‘You shall not kill’. Therefore, we should not kill because the Bible says so.” -The Ten Commandments, like this one did not come from the Bible. Rather, they came from God, and then were written on stone tablets and then through writing material. Then they were put into the Bible.

    15.) Code Gees Complex question C.C.: “Our futures are intertwined with one another, right?”
    Nunali: “By future, do you mean marriage?” -Having a boy’s and a girl’s futures intertwined doesn’t exactly mean they are to be married. They could just be meeting each other and getting to know each other, they could become friends, but not exactly lovers.
    16). False Analogy -“The universe is like an intricate watch. A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker. Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.”
    17.) Daredevil Fallacy of Presumption -Bulls-eye: I missed… I never miss. -Bullseye might have not missed in the past but he can’t conclude the he will never miss because he doesn’t know the future.

    13.)Naruto Fallacy of Ambiguity – Equivocation -D and C Rank missions are the two easiest missions; easiest missions are handled by genins; Therefore, D-Rank and C-Rank missions are for genins. -“Easiest missions” is used with two meanings in the formulation of the argument.
    14.)One Piece Amphiboly
    -Pulp Fiction
    Lance: If you’re all right, then say something.
    -What does Lance actually mean? Should word “something” be said or should a word, not necessarily something be uttered? It is unclear.

  24. 1. ad Populum (Appeal to the masses) : “If everyone loves anime, would you love it too?”
    Explanation: not because everyone is on anime, doesn’t really mean that you have to be one of them also.

    2. ad Vericundiam (Appeal to authority): “John Lloyd Cruz said that Biogesic will prevent headaches anytime and anywhere once it was taken.”
    Explanation: Being famous doesn’t necessarily give you any expertise.

    3. ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance): “Since the class has no questions concerning the topics discussed in class, the class is ready for a test.”
    Explanation: In spite of having no questions, it does not prove that the students are indeed ready for exams. It could be that they just do not like to raise questions after all or so.

    4. False Cause: “If our president would resign, the economy will prosper.”
    Explanation: the progress of the economy does not rely on the president itself.

    5. Ad Baculum(appeal to force): A kidnapper to the victim’s parents: “Ten million pesos or your daughter’s life.”
    Explanation: the culprit is forcing the victim’s parents to choose between giving him(culprit) a reward or harming another person’s life.

    6. Misericordiam(appeal to pity): “I am showing you my medical transcriptions to prove that I was confined to the hospital. That’s the reason behind being absent in my reporting day. If I have not gone to the hospital, I might breakdown, and worse, I will not be able to attend classes today.”
    Explanation: The reason to believe what the student said is in order to avoid hurting his feelings – at his request.

    7. Complex question: “How well do you enjoy playing DOTA?”
    Explanation: this is jumping into conclusions that the person being asked really enjoyed dota. It was not even proved at the first place if he plays the certain game or not.

    8. Petitio Principii: “Whatever is less dense than water will float, because such objects won’t sink in water.”
    Explanation: less dense than water is just the same as the conclusion that it won’t sink at all.

    9. Accident: “He went out in the rain without using an umbrella. Tomorrow he will get sick.”
    Explanation: It is possible to go out in the rain without umbrellas and at the same time not getting sick the next day.

    10. Converse Accident: “Mark and Mico are college students working at Jollibee. All Jollibee employees therefore are working students.
    Explanation: because both employees are sudents, does not mean that all of the workers had the same status as they(mark and mico) are.

    11. False Analogy: “Smoking are prohibited for minors because it is dangerous. If you are 18 and above, you may smoke. So, you can just smoke if you have reached 18.”
    Explanation: this presumes that it smoking is no longer dangerous for people 18 and above. But in reality, whether you have reached 18 or not, smoking is really dangerous to one’s health.
    12. Division: “America is the most powerful country. I am an American, therefore I am powerful, too.”
    Explanation: A nation can have characteristics that are not had by its people, therefore such an argument is fallacious.

    13. Composition: “Laurence’s mother-in-law is very hot-headed towards him. Therefore he proclaims that all mother-in-laws have the same attitude.”
    Explanation: this is fallacious because not all arguments of a single part may represent a whole. There exist mothers-in-law that are kind and gentle enough.

    14. Accent: “Micah, my child-like friend, looks very mature today.”
    Explanation: The arguer changes the emphasis of the words. This could also mean that micah do not look mature yesterday or won’t look mature tomorrow.

    15. False Dilemma: “ Either you drive towards your home drunk today and be scolded, or stay at my house to be safe.”
    Explanation: This claims that driving home drunk is dangerous, hence choosing the other option. But in reality, there are other alternatives that can be used such as asking a colleague to fetch him up.

    16. Equivocation: “Practice makes perfect. Nothing is perfect. Therefore, do not practice.”
    Explanation: perfect on the first line means ideal, but on the second one, it means faultless. The switch in meaning invalidates the argument.

    17. Amphiboly: “Hey, come here and have a drink.”
    Explanation: the word drink can mean to satisfy one’s thirst or to drink alcoholic drinks.

    18. Slippery Slope: “You shouldn’t play online games because sooner or later, you’d be addicted to those, you will no longer attend classes, and it won’t be long that you almost spend all of your allowance just to get through playing in internet cafes.”
    Explanation: it doesn’t necessarily follow that if one plays online games, he or she will no longer attend classes.

    19. Red Herring: A rich man who was caught beating the red light said: “You should arrest criminals who commit greater crimes than I did.”
    Explanation: whoever you are, as long as you commit anything against the law, you will be held responsible for it.

    20. Ad Hominem: Someone who did not finish grade-school says that having oregano will cure cough. What does he know?
    Explanation: The attack is towards the person not the claim he has given.

  25. 1) Petitio Principii(Begging the question)
    I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.

    Explanation: The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the bible being based on the bible.

    2) Complex Question
    I can see that the efficiency with which the Tornado Home Vacuum System works and the marvelous way in which it saves on toil and drudgery in the home impresses you. Therefore, shall I charge it to your account or do you want to pay cash?

    Explanation: The salesperson assumes that you want to buy and proposes the complex question with this assumption.

    3) Ad Hominem
    I don’t care what your arguments are; you are using Mickey Mouse tactics. The arguments you give are simply tacky.

    Explanation: This “name-calling” fits into the fallacy of ad hominem.

    4) Ad Misericordiam
    Officer, please excuse my going over the speed limit, but my mother is ill and I’m being audited by the IRS, and I don’t know how I can meet all my bills.

    Explanation: Although the individual might deserve pity for his plight, that pity is irrelevant to whether he was speeding or not.

    5) Ad Verecundiam
    The late Ely Culbertson, one of the world’s outstanding bridge players, once declared that the United Nations as presently constituted has serious defects. He must be right because I don’t think the opinion of a man of his caliber should be taken lightly.

    Explanation: Mr. Culbertson is cited as an authority on bridge, not international affairs.

    6) Ad Baculum
    The General Assembly of the United Nations keeps voting for radical issues. Therefore, the U. S. will be forced to reduce its financial contribution to the U. N. unless there is a demonstrated change soon.

    Explanation: The threat of reducing contributions is not logically related to whether the U.N Votes for radical issues but is used persuasive towards radical conclusion.

    7) False Cause
    During the Gulf war many Americans made immense profits. That is an indisputable fact. Therefore, there can be no doubt that American business interests instigated the war.

    Explanation: Simply because some people made profits, it does not logically follow these persons caused the war.

    8) Ad Populum
    Everyone believes that men write the best novels; therefore, there is little doubt that they do so.

    Explanation: What everyone is said to believe might not be the case.

    9) Ad Ignorantiam
    A great many charges of graft and corruption have been brought against Senator Anderson over the past several years, and he has had numerous opportunities to refute them, but he has never done so. Therefore, I think, the evidence indicates he is not to be trusted.

    Explanation: Charges can be made without evidence, and no evidence is cited.

    10) Fallacy of Division
    Water extinguishes fire. Oxygen is part of water. Therefore, oxygen will extinguish fire.

    Explanation: The argument moves from whole to part.

    11) Fallacy of Composition
    Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.

    Explanation: The argument moves from part to whole.

    12) Converse accident
    As a result of a poll of 28 adults interviewed on Main Street in Greenwood, S.C. on Friday night, we can conclude that all people in Greenwood prefer going downtown to watching TV.

    Explanation: Insufficient Evidence is used in the generalization.

    13) Equivocation
    According to the law, a man is innocent until proved guilty. So Mr. Ratskeller must be innocent of the charge of bribery, since he has not yet been proved guilty. Therefore, since Mr. Ratskeller is innocent, it would be wrong to convict him.

    Explanation: Two distinct senses of “Innocent” is used.

    14) Fallacy of Amphiboly
    Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.

    Explanation: Because of the loose and awkward sentence construction.

    15) False Dilemma
    Either we furlough all federal employees, or the Country will go bankrupt by the end of October.

    Explanation:The reason this argument is valid, yet not sound is that there are some other options which can be used to prevent national bankruptcy.

    16) Ignorantio Elenchi
    In court, Thompson testifies that the defendant is a honorable person, who wouldn’t harm a flea. The defense attorney rises to say that Thompson’s testimony shows his client was not near the murder scene.

    Explanation: The testimony of Thompson may be relevant to a request for leniency, but it is irrelevant to any claim about the defendant not being near the murder scene.

    17) Accident
    People should keep their promises, right? I loaned Dwayne my knife, and he said he’d return it. Now he is refusing to give it back, but I need it right now to slash up my neighbors’ families. Dwayne isn’t doing right by me.

    Explanation: People should keep their promises, but there are exceptions as in this case of the psychopath who wants Dwayne to keep his promise to return the knife.

    18) Accent
    A member of Congress is asked by a reporter if she is in favor of the President’s new missile defense system, and she responds, “I’m in favor of a missile defense system that effectively defends America.”

    Explanation: With an emphasis on the word “favor”, this remark is likely to favor the President’s missile defense system. With an emphasis, instead, on the words “effectively defends”, this remark is likely to be against the President’s missile defense system

    19) Straw Man
    Opponent: Because of the killing and suffering of Indians that followed Columbus’s discovery of America, the City of Berkeley should declare that Columbus Day will no longer be observed in our city.

    Speaker: This is ridiculous, fellow members of the city council. It’s not true that everybody who ever came to America from another country somehow oppressed the Indians. I say we should continue to observe Columbus Day, and vote down this resolution that will make the City of Berkeley the laughing stock of the nation.

    Explanation: The speaker has twisted what his opponent said; the opponent never said, nor even indirectly suggested, that everybody who ever came to America from another country somehow oppressed the Indians.

    20) Slippery Slope
    (1) If you buy a Green Day album, then next you’ll be buying Buzzcocks albums, and before you know it you’ll be a punk with green hair and everything.
    (2) You don’t want to become a punk.
    Therefore:
    (3) You shouldn’t buy a Green Day album.

    Explanation: This argument commits the slippery slope fallacy because it is perfectly possible to buy a Green Day album without going on to become a punk; we could buy the album and then stop there. The conclusion therefore hasn’t been proven

    wee..tpos na >_< hehe ^^,

  26. 1.Appeal to Force

    “You surrender or die.” said Kenshin

    Kenshin was sorrounded by Shishio’s men after his friend shouted aloud due to the death of his parents.
    He try to ask them to surrender but they didn’t listen to him. they all end up being victims of the legendary slasher.

    2 .Missing the Point

    “The strong shall live and the weak shall die.” said Soujiro to himself.

    It doesn’t mean that when your weak, you will die. You may not be strong when it comes to fighting, but you can be strong in other ways.

    3.Appeal to Ignorance

    “Their no such things as ghost. your just stress out too much because of your studies.” said to Oyamada by his classmates.

    Maybe for some people, ghost aren’t real, but for others, it could be true cause they can see them.

    4.Equivocation

    “Hiten Mitsurugi style is a sword technique which was created to protect and help people, but a sword is a murdering weapon and used to kill people. You can never change this any longer cause its a fact.” said by Soujiro Hiko to Kenshin.

    What Hiko said is true but it doesn’t mean that when you use it, your only purpose is to kill. You can also use it only to protect but not use it to kill people as well.

    5.Appeal to Inappropriate Authority

    “My grandfather told me that all people who see spirits are good.” said Yoh.

    You can never know fo sure that all people who see spirits are good. Some might want to cause harm to these spirits in order to put them to rest.

    6.Red Herring

    “DOTA is only played by those lazy people who failed in school. So never ever play the game DOTA or you’re gonna fail as well.”

    It does not mean that when you play this game, you’re a lazy. you just need to find time to control this habit and everything will be fine.

    7.Division

    “We all know that the UST students are smart. And since I’m a UST student, I’m a smart person.”

    USt is one of the best universities in the world. But not all those who study here are smart. They just find time to control their study habits that’s why they pass.

    8.False Dilemma

    “The Meiji Goverment is weak, they can’t run this country well. They only care for their own sake. It should be replaced and I shall bring this country to power.” said Shishio.

    The goverment is still weak cause only 10 years have past after the restoration. People should give them little more time before they do something which can cause harm and destruction to their nation.

    9.Slippery Slope

    “We will no longer practice swordmanship cause our mom doesn’t want me to be a murderer.” said by Kori’s students.

    It doesn’t mean that when you practice swordsmanship, your gonna end up being a murderer. you could use it to help and protect people.

    10.Complex Question

    “You always carry a computer with you. Is that the only hobby you know?”

    Maybe for some its their hobby, but for others, they might want to finish their job earlier and to save time as well.

    11.Composition

    “His carrying a sword. All those who carry swords are samurais. Therefore he is a samurai.”

    It doe not mean that when someone carries swords are samurais, maybe some of them are just creators of those swords but they’re not samurais.

    12.Straw Man

    “All swords are used to murder people. All samurais carries a sword. Therefore all samurais are murderers.”

    It does not mean when someone carries a sword, his already a murderer. People should not judge other the way they look at them.

    13.False Analogy

    “A sword is use to kill people. All those who use swords became criminals. So if you use a sword, your gonna be a criminal.”

    Its up to the person if his gonna use it as a murdering weapon or a protection fo himself.

    14.Accent

    “He pass the test, its unbelivable.”

    The person may have studied his lessons and was prepared during the exam. That’s why he passed.

    15.Amphiboly

    “We’ve been to London and seen Big Ben.”

    The “Big Ben” being describe is the famous clocktower located somewhere in the city London.

    16.Accident

    “His good at art, he must be a painter or an architech.”

    When people is good at something, it does not mean that his taking up that course. Maybe one of his hobbies is drawing.

    17.Converse Accident

    “Are you an athletic? Cause you have huge muscles.” said Haruko to Sakuragi.

    Maybe some people just want to build-up their body so they would be feared all those who see them.

    18.False Cause

    “Something always happens to me everytime see her.”

    You should not blame others for what happened to you. Maybe the reason something always happens is because you do something terrible.

    19.Appeal to Pity

    “Please don’t kill me.” said to Anji of Samurai X.

    The person is asking for pity for what he has done. He wants to continue living but Anji did not listen and killed him.

    20.Begging The Question

    “Being the most powerful is the only thing matters to me now and nothing else.” said Eyoshi.

    The reason why people want to claim this title cause they weren’t able to protect those whom they care and love the most.

  27. 1) Ignorantio Elenchi

    From the manga Death Note

    -Raito explained to Misa that they cannot be seen together in public because L will be suspicious that Raito is the real Kira, while Misa is the impersonator-

    Misa: “So basically, we can’t date? We can’t see each other anymore because I’ll draw suspicion?”

    She missed the point because she was too focused in going on a date with Raito. It is actually of the contrary and Raito explained it to her by saying:

    Raito: “…I need your help for exterminating L, so we will need to see each other frequently.”

    2) Composition

    From the manga Death Note

    “Evil can only produce more evil. The nasty people cause these deeds to occur. If this is spread throughout the earth, the weak people will learn from them and become just as rotten themselves.”

    There are certainly evil people in the world, but just because some people are weak, doesn’t it mean everyone who is weak will become evil as well, thus, the statement a fallacy.

    3) Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    From the manga Death Note

    Yagami Raito: “Only I could do it… I was chosen to renew this rotten world, to bring about true peace – a utopia… Not once have I considered my own interests.”

    He doesn’t have the authority to call forth justice, even if he is doing it for what he believe is right, he is still committing murder.

    4) Argumentum Misericordiam

    From the manga Death Note

    “I don’t want to die. Screw you. Stop it. I don’t want to die. N-No way. I don’t want to die. I don’t want to go to jail, either. Do something; you can do something, can’t you?!

    Ryuuk the Shinigami wrote Raito Yagami’s name in the Death Note. Anyone’s name that is written in the notebook will die. Since he doesn’t want to die, he begs Ryuuk to do something about it, to save him from the end of him.

    5) Straw Man

    From the manga Death Note

    “Kira is justice. Kira is needed!”

    The statement is a fallacy because he emphasizes himself as the personification of justice, therefore becoming a necessity, when that certainly should not be the case.

    6) Hasty generalization

    From the manga Death Note

    “We think that a large syndicate is responsible for these killings. It must be the FBI or CIA!”

    Since the FBI and the CIA are just two of the largest syndicates in the world, they jump to that conclusion when it’s not necessarily true.

    7) Bulverism

    From the manga Death Note
    “Well all these people should have died anyways.”
    (Referring to criminals killed by Raito).

    The speaker is attacking the criminals’ right to life basing it on their crime rather than human rights.

    8) Ipse dixit

    From the manga Death Note

    Yagami Raito: “Then one day, people will realize that: “Doing this will get me killed”…and i will build a world of only kind-hearted people i accept.

    Being “Japan’s number 1 student” doesn’t give him the right to kill all those people, even though it’s for a “good” cause, it’s not just.

    9) Accent

    From the manga Death Note

    “These criminals’ deaths can keep up the police reputation…”

    The main topic is the mystery behind the deaths, not their reputation for ridding the world of criminals and evil doers.

    10) Ad ignorantium

    From the manga Detective Conan

    “This man committed suicide because no proof of murder has been investigated so far.”

    A conclusion has already been made when there is still an investigation that needs to be done.

    11) Complex Question

    From the manga Detective Conan

    Kidnapper: “You want me to kill you, stupid brat?!”

    Of course, you wouldn’t want to die so you would refuse…in most cases that is.

    12) Ad Baculum

    From the movie Amadeus

    “If you want this position, you must submit yourself along with all our colleagues.”

    Mozart is being forced to lower his pride by accepting such a role. He is, after all, one of the greatest musicians ever to have lived.

    13) Ad Hominem

    From the movie Amadeus

    “They are musical idiots! You want them to judge my music!”

    Mozart is a famous musician, a prodigy. He insults his audience for not appreciating his music.

    14) False Dilemma
    From the movie School of Rock

    “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.”

    He’s given only two choices, but in reality, he has many other alternatives if he really wanted to listen to music.

    15) Ad populum

    From the movie Harry Potter

    “Let me see, red hair, vacant expressions, tatty second hand books, you must be the Weasleys.”

    Malfoy is inappropriately generalizing, indirectly insulting him.

    16) Accident

    From the movie Forrest Gump

    “Now, Mama said they owe me so much money that the rest was just for showing off. So I gave a whole bunch of it to the Four-Square Gospel Church and I gave a whole bunch to the Alabama Medical Hospital. And even though Bubba was dead and Lt. Dan said I was nuts, I gave Bubba’s momma, Bubba’s share.”

    The money he received was because of his services from the Vietnam war and prize money for winning in a ping pong tournament, he didn’t have to donate so much money just because his mom said such things.

    17) Division

    From the movie Duplex

    “Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large.”

    It is assumed that since the building is large, then the rooms in it must also be large, which does not necessarily have to true.

    18) Red Herring

    From the movie Evan Almighty

    “We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.”

    He diverts the real issue to bond issue (which has something to do with money).

    19) Petitio Principii

    From the TV series Smallville
    “Who are you?”
    “I am Jorel. Your father.”
    “I thought you died?”

    Superman is not immortal, therefore mortal. He cannot live forever, yet he asks a question in which the answer is quite obvious.

    20) Post Hoc

    From the TV series Smallville

    “You don’t know how dangerous you are when you’re wearing that ring!”

    Whether he wears the ring or not, Superman is still dangerous.

  28. I wasn’t aware of the -5 until it was announced today, i thought the due date was simply generously moved yet again…otherwise i would have submitted this last night. Anyways, finally done.

  29. 1. STRAW MAN
    “If you’re not doing anything wrong, then you have nothing to hide. “ If I’m not doing anything wrong, then whatever I am doing is none of anyone’s damn business.
    – The argument stressed the obvious that somebody is really doing something undeniably very wrong.
    2. APPEAL TO PITY
    “I did not murder my mother and father with an axe! Please don’t find me guilty; I’m suffering enough through being an orphan.”
    – The argument understated the crime by stressing the consequence of it to the doer.
    3. BEGGING THE QUESTION

    “The stock market fell because of a technical adjustment.”
    – The term “technical adjustment” is very vague that it needed to be explained more to know how it is related to the stock market down fall.
    4. COMPOSITION

    “A car makes less pollution than a bus. Therefore, cars are less of a pollution problem than buses.”

    – The 2nd lacks the explanation why the car causes less pollution since the 1st do not include an explanation or reasoning why cars cause less pollution.

    5. ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM

    Christianity is believed in by the greatest number of people in the world, so it must be true.

    – The argument made a conclusion based only on popularity as implied by the term “greatest number of people”.
    6. AMPHIBOLY
    For those of you who have children and don’t know it, we have a nursery downstairs.

    – Having or being in a nursery does not cause a realization of what children are like.
    7. ACCENT
    “I’ve never seen you looking better.”
    -The stress on the term “better” gives the meaning that the person referred to was worst than before.

    8.ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM

    Snape: (talking about Harry) –mediocre, arrogant as his father, a determined rule breaker, delighted to find himself famous, attention seeking and impertinent
    – An attack on the characters of Harry Potter is the focus of the argument.

    9. EITHER/OR FALLACY
    Voldemort: There is no good or evil. There is only power.
    – Two choices were presented at first, good or evil but a third one however, which is power, gives the chooser confusion.
    – harry potter and the sorcerer’s stone

    10. SLIPPERY SLOPE

    “Ron: And what? My mum would send another howler if I she finds out that I broke my wand.”
    -The conclusion which feels of Ron’s mum sending another howler is premised on 2 consequent events of broken wand and the mother finding about it.

    11. APPEAL TO FLATTERY
    [to Squirt]
    Marlin: Look, you’re really cute, but I can’t understand what you’re saying. Say the first thing again.
    -the flatter of being “cute” was trying to cover the state of not being understandable.
    -appeal to flattery (finding nemo)

    12. APPEAL TO MONEY
    (DuckTales: The Movie – Treasure of the Lost Lamp)
    Dijon: Whoever said money cannot buy peace of mind must have had the brain of a garbonzo bean.
    – It gives “money” as a powerful matter that must be known to everyone with a right size brain.
    13. ARGUMENTATUM AD IGNORANTUM
    Hermione: There is no such thing as Elder wand!
    – Hermione doesn’t believe in the Elder wand since there has no proof it exists.
    14. HASTY GENERALIZATION
    “Gryffindors are losers!” ( Slytherin to Gryffindors)
    – The argument implies that every Gryffindor is a loser therefore generalizing.
    15. ARGUMANTATUM AD BACULUM

    “Bring me Harry Potter or me and my death eaters attack!”
    – The argument here threatens death if the listeners do not do what the speaker wants.
    16. EQUIVOCATION
    Mary Anne Warren’s analysis of a familiar anti-abortion argument.

    It is wrong to kill innocent human beings. Fetuses are innocent human beings Therefore, it is wrong to kill fetuses.
    – The first two were made with “environment humane being” as the focus to make an emphatic conclusion.

    17. POST HOC
    There was no appreciable crime related to drugs when they were legal. Crime rate has increased since they have been made illegal. Therefore, drugs should be legal since legalization would improve the “quality of life” in the U.S.
    – The first two statements were made to prepare the reader/listener and convince him/her of the rightfulness of the conclusion contained in the last statement.
    18. RED HERRING
    Oklahoman: sure, this was Indian Territory once. Sure, the white settlers didn’t always treat the Indians very nicely, or always live up the treaties. But there can be no question but that we have every right to be here and to enjoy this rich land. After all, we brought civilization to the Indians, a clearly superior way of life. You’d think they’d be grateful.
    – The speakers main point of having the rights in the Indians soil was made by stressing how the Indians earned the rights on the territory which m\was the least of the speaker’s concern.
    19. FALSE DILEMMA
    Either this book (preacher pointing to the Bible) is what it says it is – the inerrant, literal Word of God – or it’s a sham, a hoax, and a waste of print and paper which should be burned as worse than useless.
    – The statement provides more than two choices for the reader that makes ‘making the right’ decision by the reader confusing.
    20. FALSE CAUSE
    My reason is not framed to bend or stoop; my knees are. (Michel de Montaigne)
    -Bending knees is not related at all to reason out.

  30. why may -5? hindi ko alam yun.

  31. R2- “My dad says its not safe” –Finding Nemo
    >>This statement was said by Nemo to his friends when they are playing. Marlin, Nemo’s dad warned him not to go to the large part of he ocean because its to dangerous.

    R3- “Home-schooled kids are freaks.” –Mean Girls
    >>In this statement, home-schooled kids are being judged. It is not fair to say such words to the home-schooled kids it may hurt their feelings. Also it is not fair because hey are judged before they can prove their side.

    R4- “I saw Cady Heron wearing army pants and flip flops, so I bought army pants andflip flops.” –Mean Girls
    >>Cady Heron was a popular girl in their school and everyone was idolizing her. Since she was popular, everyone wants to be like her.

    R5-“Now if you break any of these rules, you can’t sit with us at lunch.” –Mean Girls.
    >>The speaker here is threatening his listener. Its either he will follow the rules so that he can eat with them at lunch or he breaks the rules and he will sit with the school freaks.

    R6-“It’s the pain of the heart. Sidarthur’s broken up. They’re having one last concert in New York and that’s it. They’re done. Goodnight sweet princess. May the choirs of rock angels sing you to sleep. I have no reason to live without them. If I could see them play live. At least I’d have the memory to carry me through the long, empty years that lie ahead.” –. Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen
    >>Lola Steppe is begging her mom to let her see the final concert of her favorite band that will be held in New York.

    R7-“I’m on a hunger strike, like Gandhi. Driven to desperate measures by the insensitivity of the Bristish Governmant. Not one morsel will pass my lips until you can say I can go see Sidarthur.” -Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen.
    >>The statement here misses the point. The main topic in this situation is their gonna have dinner. Its not about Sidarthur’s upcoming concert.

    P5- “So if you’re from Africa, why are you white?” –Mean Girls.
    >>The speaker here concluded that all Africans are black. You can’t make a valid generalization about an entire class from observing only a number of them.

    A1-“You couldn’t have it if you did want it,” the Queen said. “The rule is jam tomorrow and jam yesterday – but never Jam today.” “It must come sometimes to Jam today,” Alice objected. “No, it can’t,” said the Queen. “It’s jam every other day: today isn’t every other day, you know”. –through the looking glass.
    >> The meaning of a crucial term is changed in the course of the argument.

    A2-“ A reckless motorist struck and injured a student who was jogging through the campus in his pickup truck.”
    >> This could be interpreted in different ways, creating the possibility of a fallacious inference to the conclusion.

    A3-“ Jorge turned in his assignment on time today.”
    >> Therefore, It says that Jorge usually turns in his assignments late.

    A5-“Hey you’re a clownfish. You’re funny right?” – Finding Nemo
    >>Marlin is a clownfish. Clownfish are no funnier than any other fish that’s why they thought that Marlin is funny. But the truth is he is not really funny.

    D2-“Every year the seniors throws this dance for the undermen called the Spring fling and whoever is elected Spring Fling King and Queen automatically becomes the head of the Student Activity Committee, and since I am an active member of the Student Activity Committee, I would say, yeah, I care.” –Mean Girls
    >>This statement is like a chain reaction.

    D5-“You have 2mins to get to this table or the insensitive British Government is gonna take the door off its hinges and drag you out of here.” -Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen.
    >>It says hat there are only two alternatives and one is acceptable. In this story, it actually means that the listener need to be on the table within 2mins.

  32. 1. Straw Man
    Protagonist: I see no reason to believe in God, so I don’t.
    Antagonist: The only way you can say you don’t believe in God is if you have 100% certainty that God doesn’t exist. The only way you can be that certain is if you examine every part of the universe, and as you obviously haven’t done that then your position is indefensible.

    the antagonist is misrepresenting the protagonist in a weaker form that the antagonist can more easily argue against.

    2. Red Herring
    Tax cuts are often used to make a politician likeable. However, cuts in school spending tend to hurt not only in the present but have long lasting effects on those children left unhelped by the system.

    one diverts the discussion from the real subj to a related but different one.

    3. Argumentum Misericordiam(appeal to pity)
    “I know the exam is graded based on performance, but you should give me an A. My cat has been sick, my car broke down, and I’ve had a cold, so it was really hard for me to study!”

    the arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.

    4. Division
    “The ball is blue, therefore the atoms that make it up are also blue.”

    the person infers that what is true of a whole must also be true of its constituents and justification for that inference is not provided.

    5. Converse Accident(Hasty Generalization)
    “My roommate said her philosophy class was hard, and the one I’m in is hard, too. All philosophy classes must be hard!”

    the person is making assumptions about a whole group based on a sample that is inadequate

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi(Missing the point)
    There has been an increase in burglary in the area. It must be because there are more people moving into the area.

    the person do support a particular conclusion—but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.

    7. Argumentum ad Hominem(attack on the person)
    Prof. Smith says to Prof. White, “You are much too hard on your students,” and Prof. White replies, “But certainly you are not the one to say so. Just last week I heard several of your students complaining.”

    Prof. Smith attacks Prof. White is direct and he is seeking to defame or discredit them/.

    8.Argumentatum ad Baculum (appeal to force)
    “Live or die? Make your choice.” –jigsaw

    jigsaw threatens the life of the people and the argument is concluded through the use of coercion or the threat of dire consequences

    9.Composition
    They killed my husband! They are all the same and I live for only one purpose: to see the Union destroyed.-Belle Wickham
    Belle Wickham reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part to the attribu

  33. 1.(Argumentum ad Ignorantium)
    “The Bible did not arrive by fax from heaven…The Bible is the product of man, my dear. Not of God. The Bible did not fall magically from the clouds. Man created it as a historical record of tumultuous times, and it has evolved through countless translations, additions, and revisions. History has never had a definitive version of the book.”
    The Da Vinci Code
    Explanation: as a Catholic, we all know that the bible is the word of God, not a creation of man.

    2.(Argumentum ad Baculum)
    “My friend, the panda will never fulfill his destiny, nor you yours until you let go of the illusion of control.”
    Kung fu panda
    Explanation: He is making him decides but actually he only wants him to go to the other side on which he can get a reward.

    3.(Argumentum ad Populum)
    “You should totally buy that dress cause everyone else says its cool.. besides, your outfit is so lame”
    Totally Spies the movie
    Explanation: She is persuading the other girl to buy that dress just because everyone says it’s cool.

    4. Division
    “Powerful women are either sexually voracious rulers like Catherine the Great or Elizabeth I, or treacherous bitches like Cleopatra or Helen of Troy.”
    Helen of troy
    Explanation” it doesn’t mean that when a woman is powerful she is already a sexually voracious rulers

    5. Amphiboly
    “Aristotle the peripatetic thought his student walking”
    Explanation: Who is walking? The students or Aristotle?
    6. Accent
    “Without a family, man, alone in the world, trembles with the cold.”
    Family man
    Explanation: the stress isn’t clear. Why will a man will tremble in cold?
    7. Accident
    “Great Nose indicate a great man”
    Explanation: not all of those who have great nose is a great man
    8. False Cause
    “It is bad LUCK to fall out of a thirteenth story window on Friday.”
    American Proverb
    Explanation: this is haven’t been proven. Its not true that when you fall out of a thirteenth window on Friday you will have a bad luck
    9. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “He is an atenean, lets concede”
    Explanation: not because ateneo is such a great school means that we’re always under them. We could have done better.
    10. Argumentum ad Hominem
    “don’t speak about morality, you are womanizer and drunkard”
    Explanation: he Is saying that only because the other guys is womanizer and drunkard, he doesn’t have the right to talk about morality

    11. Argumentum Misericordiam
    “I could never manage to fail sir; my mother is in the hospital. She is very sick”
    Explanation: he is telling that his mother is in the hospital so that his professor would sympathize and pass him.

    12. Red Herring
    “Mudblood’s a really foul name for someone who is Muggle-born – you know, non-magic parents”
    Explanation: Mudblood is also the same as non-magic parents

    haha.. wala na ako mahanap! tama na yan.. hahaha

  34. Informal fallacies:
    references: manga series of “Claymore” and Bleach”

    1. Ad misericordiam
    -we our the instruments of our Lord, if it gets out that we’re being picked off by a filthy monster, the people will lose faith, so, we don’t want to die, – Father Vincent (claymore)

    ~here, father Vincent is having a bandwagon thinking that pertains to the lose of the people’s faith,

    2. Accident
    -he’s with me, there’s no way he could turn into a yoma. -Clare (claymore).

    ~making such a conclusion without affirming that specific case of Raki.

    3. Ad baculum
    -go now, unless you want me to lop off your head. -Teresa (claymore).

    ~It’s just what it says, that if the bandit does not leave, she’ll kill him…,

    4. Amphiboly
    -for us to kill them would be destroying the only trust that we’ve tried so hard to create. -Priscilla (claymore).

    ~the reasoning stated follows a case which is not quite related to what was the intention of the killing.

    5. Accent
    – It’s the first Priscilla faced Teresa who is stronger that her. -Ilena (claymore).

    ~”her” does not specify who’s faced with the stronger than herself..,

    6. Complex question
    -I didn’t think you’d unsheathe your sword right away…, so, does that mean you see me as a worthy opponent now?,
    – Ichigo (bleach).

    ~immediately asking that to ulquiorra without confirming the reason is just an assumption…,

    7. Ignorantio Elenchi
    -I’ve fought dozens of yoma, I always protected humans, she’s the bad guy, so why.., why can’t I defeat her?!,
    -Priscilla

    ~in a combat, it does not follow that the good guy is always the stronger one.., besides she was only rank no.2 unlike Teresa who was the strongest among of them…,

    8. Ad verecundiam
    -“He who does not fear his own sword is not worthy to hold it”, that’s what I was taught, so I’m afraid.. -hisagi (bleach).

    ~here, it’s not always that the wielder should fear his sword to be worthy to wield it., besides, it’s just sword.., a mere material use in combat.

    9. Composition
    -My division, the 11th division, is the strongest combat force among the 13 division squads. It is full of idiots who’ll risk their lives fighting. Because of that ethos, it’s always been an unspoken rule that everyone has a direct combat-type zanpakuto. Anyone with a kidou-type(magical type) zanpakuto is considered a coward. -Yumichika

    ~it is being unfair that only those with direct combat zanpakutos were considered strong and those who doesn’t are cowards.,

    10. Equivocation
    -War is not heroic, war is not exhilarating, war is full of despair, it is dark. It is dreadful, it is a thing of sorrow and gloom., that’s why people fear war, that’s why people choose to avoid it. -Kira Izuru (bleach),

    ~he uses different kinds of description of war that are not exactly the same from the other he gave…, and it doesn’t mean that people choose it, it’s because that is the best way to avoid death, it’s more of a need for them.,

    11. Division
    -if warriors are suppose to be that way, shouting some ceremony to inspire his self or the both of them. then that’s beyond my comprehension. A warrior does not shout for begging his life. – kira izuru

    ~a warrior may still have something to be feared which retain his right to beg for his life for losing the batle, an inspiring ceremony has nothing to do with a matter of life-and-death. If you don’t want to die then, it’s fine to beg for your life.

    12. Straw man
    -life is nothing but a string of difficult problems, only those who could make the most correct choices will survive.., -findor (bleach),

    ~the problem here, is making a view that life is only a matter of surviving in means of making the right choices, it makes sense but seeing life in such a negative way is a stupidity…,

    ^_^,

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