2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—”

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–”

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

28 Responses

  1. 1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate authority)
    • Dona Elena to Ignacia: “Don’t ever speak to her [Tita] of marriage again. Remember, she can’t marry.”
     Even though Dona Elena is the mother of Tita, she cannot forbid her daughter to marry.

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)
    • Bothe abusive and circumstantial—Dona Elena to Tita:” You have no decency whatsoever—no respect! You’re completely immoral—a worthless fallen woman! You’ve sullied the honor of our whole family beyond reparation! You have brought disgrace upon the proud name of our ancestors!”
     Dona Elena verbally abuses Tita because Tita had sex with Pedro without even considering the fact that Pedro is already a married man.

    3. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular predjudice)
    • You don’t have a right to have a boyfriend—according to the family tradition you’ve broken.
     This statement is fallacious because it appeals to the tradition of Tita’s family—that all the the last child’s duty is to take care of their mothers—so she’s not allowed to marry. She has the right to marry, supposedly—disregarding the family tradition.
    4. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)
    • Dona Elena to Tita: “I’m warning you, if you don’t want blood spilt in this house, be gone and never return to this house again. Go before it’s too late.”
     Dona Elena is threatening Tita so that Tita would leave the ranch.

    5. Argumentum ad Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)
    • Tita to Pedro: “We can’t just think of ourselves alone because what would happen to Esperanza and Rossaura? They’re so helpless.”
     Pedro can leave Rossaura and Esperanza so that he and Tita can go away and be together but Tita reasoned to Pedro that Esperanza and Rossaura are helpless. Tita appealed to Pedro’s pity.

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the point)
    • Tita to John: “The man I have loved all of my life—I gave him my virginity. John I’m sorry but that’s why I can’t marry you. “
     The real question is whether or not Tita still loves John because if she does, she can proceed with the wedding. The only thing that matters is whether or not Tita still loves John. It doesn’t mean that if she’s no longer a virgin, she can’t marry John.

    7. Complex Questions
    • Guest to Don Juan: “What’s the matter with you Juan? That’s three daughters in a row. When will you learn to do it right? Are going ever going to have a son?”
     The questions imply that there must be something wrong with Don Juan that’s why he can’t have a son. It presumes the truth that there is really something wrong with Don Juan.

    8. False Cause (non causa pro causa)
    • Narrator: That night, Tita found it impossible to sleep. She couldn’t understand what she was feeling. It’s too bad that black holes hadn’t been discovered yet because by then she would have understood that a black hole has landed in her chest.
     It doesn’t necessarily mean that if Tita knows what a black hole is, she will understand that she has one that has landed in her chest.

    9. Petitio Principii (Begging the question)
    • Daughter of Esperanza: “The trouble with crying while chopping the onions isn’t so much about the crying, it’s just sometimes, you just can’t hold back the tears.”
     Crying and not holding back the tears are just the same. Crying is restated to not being able to hold back the tears to prove that one cries when one chops onions.

    10. Converse Accident (Hasty generalization)
    • Tita to Rossaura: “You believe that our family was ever decent?”
    Rossaura to Tita: “My part of the family is.”
     In this scene, Rossaura no longer considers Tita as part of the family. She concludes that her family is decent because she is decent and her mother is also. In here, she doesn’t know that her mother had sex with another man—that her mother isn’t as decent as she thought.
    11. Amphiboly
    • Dona Elena to the ladies in the kitchen: “Congratulate you sister on her marriage to Pedro.”
     Which sister? Gertrudes? Rossaura? Tita? In the scene, Dona Elena wasn’t clear in telling who is going to marry Pedro. It was only elucidated later when Gertrudes asked Dona Elena if she’s really going to let Tita marry despite the family tradition. Dona Elena clarified that Rossaura was the one who is going to marry Pedro and not Tita.
    12. Accent
    • Rossaura to Tita: “Where she [Gertrudes] got her sense of rhythm is a mystery. Mama was a clumsy dancer and papa always hated music. “
     The premise may be true if read without inflection. But if read with heavy stress in the last word of the first premise and the whole sentence second premise, it could mean that Gertrudes didn’t get her ‘sense of rhythm’ from her parents, or it could also imply that Gertrudes isn’t a biological daughter.
    13. Composition
    • Pedro to guests: “When a dog gets as old as this, he’ll bark at shadows.”
     Barking at shadows due to old age maybe true for some dogs but it may not be true for all dogs.

    14. Division
    • Tita: “In my opinion, it’s unjust.”
    Dona Elena: “Your opinion, you don’t get one. Never for generations has anyone in our family ever questioned this tradition! And don’t expect that I’ll allow you to change that.”
     It doesn’t necessarily follow that if no one in the family questioned the tradition, Tita cannot question it.

    15. Red Herring (Missing the Point)
    • (Ig)nacia: “Here, child, have something to eat—it will ease the pain in your heart.”
    Tita: “Thank you Nacia, but I just couldn’t eat a bite.”
    (Ig)nacia: “But I baked these Christmas rolls especially for you.”
     Nacia’s lines are faulty because the fact that Nacia gave Tita something to eat only to find out that Tita can’t eat is irrelevant to the fact that Nacia baked the Christmas rolls especially for Tita.
     Nacia’s lines are faulty because having something to eat is irrelevant to easing the pain in the heart.

    16. Slippery Slope
    • (Ig)nacia to Tita: “Stop crying in the batter or you going to ruin it. You don’t want to ruin the wedding.”
     Ruining the batter won’t necessarily ruin the wedding.

    17. False Analogy
    • Dona Elena to guests: “The revolution is not as dangerous as they helped as believed—it’s not like eating chili without water. “
     The argument presumes that the dangers of the revolution is no more dangerous that eating chili without water—that it is even more dangerous to eat chili without water than the dangers of the revolution.

    18. False Dilemma
    • 1st Dona Elena to Don Pascual: “We are honored by your proposal but for the reasons I just explained, Tita cannot marry. However, if Pedro is seriously anxious to take a wife, perhaps he will consider marrying Rossaura. She’s only 2 years older than Tita and she’s quite prepared and ready for holy matrimony.”
    2nd Pedro to Don Pascual: “I do love Tita. What would you have done if you can’t marry the woman you love? And the only way to get near her is to marry her sister. I don’t see that I have any other option. I will wed Rossaura because I love Tita.”
     The situation presumes that the only way to get close to Tita is to marry her sister because Tita cannot marry. Pedro could have taken Tita away instead or something so that they can be together.

    19. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    • Guest to Don Juan: “There are rumors that you are not the real father of Gertrudes. Some say that her true father is that Renato.”
     The guest in Dona Elena’s party can’t prove that Don Juan isn’t Gertrudes’s biological father so it is now presumed that Don Juan is Gertrudes’s biological father.

    20. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    • Chencha: “She’s also preaching about loose women living in the gutters—she says they all deserve it because they all broke their mothers’ hearts. Of course it’s really Gerturdes she’s lecturing about.”
     While it’s true that Gertrudes is living in the gutters, it does not really follows that it is due to Gertrudes breaking Dona Elena’s heart. Therefore it can be concluded that no all women live in the gutters broke their mothers’ hearts. Ergo, the statement is fallacious.

  2. INFORMAL FALLACIES

    Fallacy of Equivocation:
    Example 1
    “Spirits are immaterial substances,
    But liquors are spirits,
    Therefore, liquors are immaterial substances.”

    The term “spirits” in the syllogism means two different things, in the first premise it means “feelings, moods or an emotional state” like feeling of being happy or excited; in the second premise it means “distilled liquors” or any of various beverages of high alcohol content, produced by distillation, formerly called ardent spirits or aqua vitae. The term therefore cannot be used as a common term to connect “liquors” and “immaterial substance.”
    Example 2
    “If there were no time, there would be no day;
    I f it were not day, it would be night;
    But if it were night, there would be time;
    Therefore, if there were no time, there would be time.”

    The word “day” is used in two senses, in the first occurrence it signifies a period of 24 hours, in its second occurrence it signifies “day” opposite to “night”.

    Fallacy of Amphibology:
    Example 3
    “This man his father killed.”

    This would be interpreted either as “this man killed his father” or “this man was killed by his father.” The construction admits these two different interpretations, hence to use this as a premise could lead to a fallacy.

    Example 4
    “Thomas said he operates a small car repair shop. Therefore, you can’t take your Cadillac to him.”

    This could be interpreted either as “the repair shop is small” or “the cars for repair are small.” The construction admits these two different interpretations, hence to use this as a premise could lead to a fallacy.

    Example 5
    “John attacked the man with a knife.”

    This could be interpreted either as “John attacked the man with a knife” or “John was attacked with a knife by the man.” The construction admits these two different interpretations, hence to use this as a premise could lead to a fallacy.

    Fallacy of Consequence:
    Example 6
    “A dog is an animal,
    But Cola is not a dog,
    Therefore Cola is not an animal.”

    In this case the motion “animal”, is a consequent of the antecedent “dog”. In the minor premise of the following syllogism the term “animal” which is a consequent of “dog” is predicated of the minor term “Cola” and in the conclusion its antecedent is predicates of the same term. This example not only incurs the fallacy of positing the consequent but also the formal fallacy of an illicit process or a major term.

    Fallacy of Composition;
    Example 7
    Every member of the team is a winner; therefore the team is a winner.

    This is fallacious because as a whole maybe greater than the sum of its parts. That is, it may have properties not possessed by its parts. A property had by a whole but not by its parts is called emergent property.

    Fallacy of Division:
    Example 8
    “All in this room weight about two tons;
    But Ally is in the room;
    Therefore Ally weighs about two tons.”

    “All in this room” is to be understood collectively in the major premise; but in the conclusion you proceed as though it had been taken distributive; you divide or separate, what is true only when taken together as a unit.

    Example 9
    This fragment of metal cannot be broken with a hammer; therefore the machine of which it is a part cannot be broken with a hammer.

    This is clearly fallacious, because many machines can be broken into their constituent parts without any of those parts being breakable.

    Fallacy of Accent:
    Example 10
    “John is not a depraved murderer.”

    In the proposition if you emphasize “depraved” you deny that John is depraved without stating whether or not he is a murderer. If you emphasize “murderer” you deny that he is a murderer without, however, stating whether or not he is depraved.

    Fallacy of Accident:
    Example 11
    Good food leads to overeating and should therefore be forbidden.

    In the argument the use of good food is inseparable from overeating and that overeating always has a serious evil consequence that is why fallacy occurs.

    Example 12
    “You say that you ate what you bought;
    But you bought raw meat;
    Therefore you must have eaten raw meat.”

    You did not intend to assert a complete identity between what you ate and what you bought. All you wanted to say is that they were substantially the same; you did not intend to deny that the accidental condition of the meat was changed by cooking.

    Example 13
    “Filipinos are hospitable,
    Therefore this Filipino is hospitable.”

    The premise is true of Filipinos as a group, but not of each individual Filipino. This example is expressed in a complete syllogism, would show the fallacy of undistributed middle since the middle term “Filipino” would be particular in each occurrence.

    Fallacy of Petitio Principii:
    Example 14
    “All in this room are wearing uniform,
    But Ally is in this room,
    Therefore Ally is wearing a uniform.”

    The major premise is an enumerative universal and cannot be known to be true unless the conclusion is first known to be true. You cannot know that all in this room are wearing uniform unless you first know that Ally is wearing it.

    Fallacy of False Cause:
    Example 15
    “A man cannot think without his brain,
    Therefore a man’s brain is the cause of his thought.”

    The cause of man’s thought is not the brain it doesn’t follow that they are casually related; man cannot think without his brain, but it doesn’t mean that brain is the cause of one’s thought.

    Example 16
    Legalizing marijuana will lead to the legalization of other drugs like cocaine. If we legalize other drugs like cocaine, then people can cocaine and every other drug at every local store.

    In this argument it is asserted that the legalization of marijuana will lead to the legalization of every drug. Once one accepts the legalization of marijuana, then one is assumed to be on the slippery slope towards the legalization of every drug.

    Example 17
    “I got well after taking a certain medicine, therefore I got well because I took that medicine.”

    Taking certain medicine can make you well, but it doesn’t mean that being well is cause by medicine.

    Fallacy of Complex Question:
    Example 18
    “Have you stopped beating your wife?”

    Both “Yes” and “No” will involve you in embarrassing admissions. The questions rest on two suppositions, first that you have a wife, or if you have one but never beaten her, you should deny the suppositions that are not fulfilled in your case.

    Fallacy of Argumentum Ad Populum:
    Example 19
    A communist orator, who works up the feelings of his hearers by harrowing pictures of poverty-stricken workers and starving women and children attracting capitalism, does not prove at all that communist is a better alternative.

    The communist orator is an appeal to popular prejudice rather than to reason that’s why it is a fallacy.

    Fallacy of Argumentum Ad Verecundiam:
    Example 20
    If you want to be a mathematician you must be good in numbers and patterns.

    A mathematician might be a genius in numbers and patterns but still be an ignoramus in aesthetic matters, to accept his opinion in aesthetic matters on account of his pre-eminence in mathematics is the fall into this fallacy.

  3. The Informal Fallacies:

    Fallacy of Presumption:
    Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    **1.“It was an improbable romance. He was a country boy. She was from the city. She had the world at her feet, while he didn’t have two dimes to rub together.”
    – Duke from the movie; “The Notebook”

    :: the presumption was not supported by fact. You cannot hastily tell that the relationship between a country boy and a rich girl won’t work out.

    Fallacy of Ambiguity:
    Division
    **2.”If you’re a bird, I’m a bird.” – Noah; “The Notebook”

    :: it was not necessary to imbibe yourself with the attributes of others.

    Accent
    **3.”Well, in theory, we’re both millionaires, but in reality, we live with a bunch of whores.” – Allie’s Father; “The Notebook”

    ::the stress of this dialogue was unclear and sarcastic.

    Fallacy of Relevance:
    Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)
    **4.”I am no one special, just a common man with common thoughts. I’ve led a common life. There are no monuments dedicated to me, and my name will soon be forgotten. But in one respect, I’ve succeeded as gloriously as anyone who ever lived. I’ve loved another with all my heart and soul, and for me, that has always been enough.” – Duke; “The Notebook”

    :: the dialogue appeals to pity.

    Fallacy of Presumption:
    Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    **5.”I want all of you, forever, you and me, every day.” – Noah; “The Notebook”

    :: the terms used are univocal, ” i want all of you forever” and “you and me everyday” states a same meaning.

    Fallacy of Relevance:
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to ignorance)
    **6.”I think our love can do anything we want it to.” – Duke; “The Notebook”

    :: Duke believes that his love for Allie will work and he believes that it is possible and truthful

    Fallacy of Presumption:
    False Cause (Non Causa Pro Causa)
    **7.”The way I see it, I got three choices. One, I can shoot him. Two, I can kick the crap out of him. Or three, I leave you. Well, all that’s no good. You see, ’cause none of those options get me you.” – Allie’s fiancé (Hammond); “The Notebook”

    :: the reasons that Allie’s fiance drew was all false, whatever he do, Allie won’t love him because she doesn’t love him, and that’s the real cause.

    Fallacy of Ambiguity:
    Equivocation
    **8.”Look, guys. That’s my sweetheart in there. I’m not leaving her. This is my home now. Your mother is my home.” – Duke; “The Notebook”

    :: Duke equivocated the word HOME to his WIFE…

    Fallacy of Presumption:
    False Cause (Non Causa Pro Causa)
    **9.”Allie was surprised how quickly she fell in love with Lon Hammond. He was handsome, smart, funny, sophisticated, and charming. He also came from old Southern money and was fabulously wealthy.” – Duke; “The Notebook”

    :: the characteristics cited aren’t really the reasons why Allie fell in love that quick with Lob Hammond. the real reason is that Allie was just longing for Noah’s (Duke) love, she just see Noah in the body of Hammond.

    Fallacy of Ambiguity:
    Accent
    **10.”You’re gonna have to talk me through this.” – Allie; “The Notebook”

    :: it was not clear what the dialogue was stressing about.
    it is torn from the context.

    Fallacy of Relevance:
    Argumentum ad Populum
    **11. “Not everyone is meant to make a difference. But for me, the choice to lead an ordinary life is no longer an option.” – Peter Parker; “Spiderman”

    :: peter parker appealed to the popularly held belief, that belief is that “Not everyone is meant to make a difference”.

    Fallacy of Presumption:
    Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    **12. “With great power comes great responsibility.” – Uncle Ben; “Spiderman”

    :: the conclusion here was restated. power and responsibility go together.

    Fallacy of Relevance:
    Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)
    **13. “No matter what you do for them, eventually, they will hate you.” – Green Goblin; “Spiderman”

    :: green goblin directly claimed that everyone would hate spidey no matter what spidey would do for them. the claim being made by green goblin directly attacked spiderman.

    Distraction Fallacy:
    False Analogy
    **14.”This is a gift, this is a curse.” – Spiderman

    :: gift and curse was presumed to be more similar. Two incomparable words were likened/compared.

    Fallacy of Relevance:
    Argumentum ad Populum ( Appeal to Popular Prejudice)
    **15.”My mom said that Life was like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re gonna get.” – Forrest ; “Forrest Gump”

    :: Forrest appealed to his mother’s belief and concluded his mother’s belief.

    **16. “Mama says they were magic shoes. They could take me anywhere.” – Forrest Gump; “Forrest Gump”

    :: Like that of number 15, Forrest practiced bandwagon thinking.

    Fallacy of Presumption:
    Complex Question
    **17. Have you found Jesus yet, Gump? – Lieutenant Daniel Taylor; “Forrest Gump”

    :: the question asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in the question.

    Fallacy of Relevance:
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    **18. “My Mama always said you’ve got to put the past behind you before you can move on.” – Forrest Gump

    :: Forrest concluded his mom’s quotation even though it was just his mom’s mere quotation.

    Fallacy of Presumption:
    Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    **19. “I had run for 3 years, 36 months, 1095 days, and 26280 hours.” – Forrest Gump

    :: 3 years was equal to 36 months, 1095 days and 26280 hours. the conclusion was restated.

    Petitio Principii(Begging the Question)
    20. “Remember what I told you, Forrest. You’re no different than anybody else is. Did you hear what I said, Forrest? You’re the same as everybody else. You are no different.” – Mrs. Gump; “Forrest Gump”

    :: Mrs. Gump restated the conclusion, “SAME AS EVERYBODY ELSE” and “NO DIFFERENT” are just the same.

  4. INFORMAL FALLACIES

    From the digital animation movie: “Horton Hears a who” dubbed by Jim Carrey and Steve Carell
    1. When Horton was explaining to Kangaroo that he heard a person on the speck cried for help, the kangaroo replied: “That’s absurd! There aren’t people that small. There is nothing on that speck. If one can’t see, hear or feel something it doesn’t exist. And believing in tiny imaginary people is just not something we do or tolerate in the jungle of NOO.”
    -Appeal to Ignorance
    -Kangaroo uses the inability of Horton to prove to her that a tiny person on the speck called for help; since the kangaroo doesn’t have ears as big as Horton’s, she can’t hear the person on the speck which she believes that Horton is just inventing a story.
    2. Kangaroo said to the people in the jungle of NOO when she got mad to Horton because of breaking his promise of not telling his story to anyone: “That Horton is a menace. He has the kids using their imagination that there are people on their specs. So are we gonna let trouble makers like Horton poison the minds of children?”
    -Attack on person
    -Kangaroo verbally abuses Horton. She is attacking Horton’s characteristics so the people would not believe whatever Horton would say.
    3. When the mayor announces a state of calamity in Whoville the chairman but-in and said:
    “ok let’s do this democratically. People of Whoville! Who is in favor of continuing the WHO-centennial? And who, like the mayor, thinks it would be better to spend the Who-centennial in an underground storage area?”
    (No one agreed to the mayor)
    “The people have spoken mayor, no one believes you, no one supports you. So, people of Whoville, let’s start the WHO-centennial!
    -Appeal to the popular prejudice.
    -The chairman used the “mob mentality”- and that is, if the people of whoville think that there is no reason of postponing the celebration or there is nothing wrong happening with whoville, then the celebration must continue.
    4. The mayor, despite of the humiliation done to by the chairman, still tries to make the people believe that their world is in danger by saying: “Our world could explode if you do not believe me”
    -Appeal to force
    -this is fallacious because what might happen in the future is irrelevant in determining if they should continue the who-centennial or spending it in an underground storage area.

    From the movie: My Sassy Girl by Elisha Cuthbert and Jesse Bradford
    5. “And I think it would be best if you wouldn’t see my daughter again. Jordan said that you’re the one who brought her home the other night. And it seems to me that whenever you to meet together, someone become separated from her senses…”
    -False cause.
    -in this scene, Jordan’s father is giving medications to Charlie because Jordan accidentally hit Charlie with a hockey stick in the head. This is fallacious because Jordan’s father assumed that Charlie is the one who is getting Jordan so drunk every night not knowing that Charlie is not the reason at all. Jordan is the one who is getting herself drunk because she has a problem getting over the death of her fiancé.
    6. “Very hot, good one Charlie. That’s definite yes. Why don’t you ask her out now?” said charlie’s friend
    Charlie replied, “What! I’m not even saying that I would sleep with her.”
    “Well… you’re staring at her pretty good”
    -Complex question
    -in this scene, Charlie and his friend was playing a game. The game is that they would tell which girl, passing by the plaza, would they possibly sleep with. And then, Charlie saw Jordan and is stares at her. This is a fallacious because Charlie’s friend asked a question which assumes that Charlie want to sleep with Jordan because he is staring at her pretty good. Charlie’s friend jumped to conclusion already not knowing what Charlie really thinks.
    7. “Year 2037, the heroine grows and traveled back in time to try to overt the titanic disaster. But none of the pig headed men of the shipping companies have listened to her pleas and shipped again anyway and crashed to the ice berg over and over again. This proves her theory that men never learn, they just keep on making the same mistakes over and over again…”
    -Hasty Generalization
    -in this scene, Charlie is reading the story which Jordan wrote.
    -this is fallacious because she quickly generalized from that one single event, the event that happened in the year 2037, that men never learn. You cannot say that if the men of the shipping company never learned therefore all men never learn.

    From the movie: Don’t Mess with the Zohan by Adam Sandler
    8. “No, I’m Australian, You know Kangaroo?” Zohan said in a Middle Eastern accent.
    -Accent
    -in this scene, Zohan is proving to a guy that he is an Australian because he is in disguise. He is in disguise because he was known to be dead at that time. He played dead because he wants to get out of the military and to pursue his dream to become a hear-dresser.
    -because of Zohan’s accent, it gave out other meaning to the guy he is talking to. The guy thought that he’s not Australian but an Iraqi because he sounds like an Iraqi.

    From the movie: Taking 5 by Daniella Monet and Alena Tal
    9. “I have cancer, so please play a few songs in our school. Please…” andy said to the band members.
    -appeal to pity
    -in this scene, andy is desperate to have the band, Taking 5, to play few songs in her school so that she would be not envied anymore by her schoolmates.
    -She obviously used a reason which really put the band in a situation. She is forcing the band to symphatize her.

    From the T.V. show: Wazzup Wazzup
    10. “If Love is blind and the Mice are blind (three blind mice). Therefore, the Love is Mice”
    -Equivocation
    -this is fallacious because the word “blind” is used with two meanings which makes the premises irrelevant to the conclusion.
    11. “it’s true because it is not false”- Tado, -begging the question
    -he just restated the conclusion. He used it as a premise to prove the very same conclusion.
    12. “ ’Filipinas are beautiful’. I’m a Filipina. So that means I’m beautiful” –pokwang
    -division
    -it doesn’t mean that if you’re a Filipina, you are considered already as beautiful

    ————————
    13. “She’s from Meriam. She must be coño.”
    -Accident
    -not all girls from Meriam college are speaking coño.
    14. “Filipino nursing board examinees batch 2006 cheated on the exam. Therefore, all Filipino nurses have cheated on the exam”
    -composition
    -it doesn’t follow that if some nurses cheated on the exam, all nurses on the exam.
    15. “You should not join gangs because sooner or later you’d stealing, killing and locked behind prison bars. You’ll just waste your life.”
    -slippery slope
    -one move does not necessarily lead to another. If he’ll joined, may be later on he’ll quit.
    16. “If killing is a sin, why do some people do euthanasia? If you’ll end the suffering of someone, with his consent, you’ll be doing a good action. So killing is not bad.”
    -false analogy
    -Bad analogy. Killing and euthanasia are not the same.
    17. “Meron siyang pilay sabi ng manghihilot”
    -appeal to inappropriate authority
    -the manghihilot is not in the position to say if the person has a ‘pilay’.
    18. “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”
    -straw man
    -because the person is attacking an exaggerated or caricatured version of his opponent’s position.
    19. “Either the universe came about by chance or by design. It didn’t come about by chance. So, it must have come about by design.”
    -false dilemma
    – There is at least one other possibility: The universe appears to be designed but it isn’t. The universe has always been here in one form or another, and it takes whatever form it has at any given time due to a combination of accidental factors governed by inherent laws and constants.
    20. “There has been an increase in burglary in the area. It must be because there are more people moving into the area.”
    -Missing the point
    -the premise missed a point to support its conclusion.

  5. God Said It, Don’t Sweat It

    Petition Principii
    (Begging the Question)
    1. “Telling and behaving truthfully is healthier than conveying any kind of falsehood.”
    2. “For evry minute you remain angry, you give up sixty seconds of peace of mind.”
    False Cause
    (non causa pro causa)
    3. “ My sister got sick after ignoring the chain letter.”
    4. “ My groom left me for another woman because I wore my wedding gown before my wedding day.”
    Fallacy of Presumption (Complex Question)
    5. “Why don’t you ask me how I am?”
    Fallacy of Presumption (Accident – Sweeping Generalization)
    6. “The new professor is from Ateneo. For sue, he speaks good English.”
    Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    7. “Fathers don’t talk much. They are anti-social.”
    Ignorantio Elenchi Red Herring (Missing the point)
    8. “Why do we have to pay our taxes when our government is corrupt.”
    9. “I don’t need to respect my father. After all, he left us when we were still small.”
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    10. “Reproductive Health Bill should not be passed because my Theology professor says so.”
    Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack on the Person)
    11. “Union is communism. Union leaders only agitate their members. We should ban unionism in the country.”
    12. “I know him. He was my classmate in college. He was so damned lazy. If you’ll ask my opinion, I would not accept him in our company.”
    Argumentum ad Populum
    (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    13. “Kris Aquino is considered a strong woman. Every Filipina who loves Kris Aquino must be a strong woman.”
    Argumentum ad Baculum
    (Appeal to force)
    14. “Take it or leave it!”
    15. “If you don’t adhere to our principles, you’d better resign as a member of this organization.”
    Argumentum Misericordiam
    (Appeal to pity)
    16. “Please consider my son in your College. My grandfather, my father and all my three brothers graduated from your institution. My family will be greatly proud if my son will benefit from more than a hundred years of Benedictine education.”
    Amphiboly
    17. “See Manila for the pretty women at night.”
    18. “She had worked in a red house.”
    Composition
    19. “Straight guys play basketball. He does not play basketball but loves to watch ballets and operas. He must be a sissy.”
    False Dilemma
    20. “Either we legalize gambling, or we let the poor be robbed of their meager means.”

  6. Informal Fallacies

    Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer

    Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)

    1. “Where is General Hager?” the soldier asked. “He is dead,” Reed said. “If you don’t get him out of here (surfer), were all gonna be,” Block said.
    *Block was arguing to the soldier that if the soldier not allowed the surfer to go with them they might be all dead like what happened to General Hager. It is treating the soldier so that they can go.

    2. Sue talking to villain that if he does not tell the truth this might happen to him. “Did you know I could create a force field and send it to someone’s body and expand it until it explodes?”
    *The statement is fallacious because Sue is treating the villain to tell the truth. It also a fallacy of Argumentum ad Ignorantiam because there is no human can create a force field and sent it to a human’s body.

    Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)
    3. Reed to Torch: “Stay back. If you get with, somebody might be killed.”
    *This statement is abusive because Reed verbally abuses Torch that if Torch get along with them, something bad might happened.

    Argumentum ad Ignoratiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    4. Reporter to the audience: “Scientist unable to explain the extraordinary event. Some are beginning to wonder if the hand of God is at work.”
    *The reporter is telling the people that the extraordinary events happening are made by God. It is false because there is no scientific basis reported.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    Reed is playing with his gadgets then suddenly Torch got annoyed from what he was doing.
    5. “You know I have been both impressed and disgusted at that,” Torch said. “Sue said that I’m addicted to it,” Reed replied.
    *It is an intellectual laziness because Reed is taking Sue to reason on his behalf.

    Accent
    6. Sue talking- “My life is always in circus.”
    *It was not clear why Sue’s life is always like a circus.

    Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe

    Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    7. Edmund to Peter: “I-I was just playing along. I’m sorry, Peter. I shouldn’t have encouraged her. You know what little children are like these days. They just don’t know when to stop pretending.”
    *It is jumping to conclusion that all little children don’t tell the truth and they keep on pretending to the things they’ve said and done.

    Complex Question
    8. White Witch to Edmund: “And your brother. Is he…unintelligent?”
    *The statement is fallacious because there is no basis for asking Edmund a question like that.

    Petitio Principli (Begging the Question)
    9. White Witch: In that knowledge… Despair… and DIE!
    *Despair and die are the same.

    Equivocation
    10. Aslan to Peter: “Once a king or queen of Narnia, always a king or queen. May your wisdom grace us until the stars come raining down from the heavens.”
    *The words king or queen was both used in the statement.

    Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)
    11. Mr. Beaver to Fox: “Take one more step, traitor, and I’ll chew you to splinters!”
    *Mr. Beaver is treating the Fox to tell the truth.

    from Shrek Movies

    False Analogy

    12. Gingerbread man said, “This is worse than Love Letters! I hate dinner theatre,” while watching the play.
    *Gingerbread man is making love letters and dinner theatre the same but they are actually different.

    Accent
    13. King Harold (dying) to Lillian: “Don’t forget to pay the gardener, Lillian.”
    *The statement is not clear, what is the connection of the gardener to the dying king? Why his wife Lillian will pay to the gardener?

    Argumentum Misericodiam (Appeal to Pity)
    14. Donkey to Shrek: “Cause I’m all alone. There’s no one here beside me. My problems have all gone, there’s no one to deride me. But you gotta have friends -”
    *Donkey is appealing pity to Shrek so that Shrek will allow him to be his friend.

    Equivocation
    15. Shrek to Donkey:” No! Layers! Onions have layers. Ogres have layers. Onions have layers. You get it? We both have layers.”
    *The usage of layers has different meaning in the statement but it was taken as one.

    Other Sources

    Amphiboly
    16. Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.
    *Because of the loose and awkward construction, the fallacy of amphiboly occurs.

    Composition
    17. Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.
    *The argument moves from part to whole.

    Division
    18. Stanford produces the best graduates in the United States. Therefore, any every Ph.D. from Stanford is better than any other Ph.D. in the country.
    *The argument moves from whole (best graduates in general) to part (each graduate in distributive sense).

    Petitio Principii
    19. Student to a professor: “I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.”
    *The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible.

    20. In recent studies researchers have show that women have more accurate intuition than men do. The reason cited is that men’s intuition is more often mistaken.
    *The reason and the conclusion offered are logically the same.

  7. Argumentum ad Baculum
    1. I created Death Race six years ago. I now have as many viewers as the Super Bowl. The drivers are convicts and the rules are simple, there are no rules. Win and get your freedom or die trying. – Prison Warden “Death Race”
    – Convicts are forced to race to get their freedom
    2. Everybody listen up. The Gridiron is a football field. On the Gridiron, we do it my way, not your way. Your way got you here. Whatever gang you claim, whatever hood you’re from, this is your hood now. – Sean Potter “Gridiron Gang”
    – Gang members are member of the Gridiron football field, that’s why they are forced to follow whatever their coach says.
    3. [On the phone] Disobey and you die. – Mysterious woman voice “Eagle Eye”
    – If they doesn’t follow what the voice on the phone says, then they will die.
    Accent
    4.
    Dojo Master: May I Help You?
    Detective James Carter: I’ll be asking the questions old man. Who are you?
    Dojo Master: Yu.
    Detective James Carter: No not me you!
    Dojo Master: Yes I’m Yu!
    Detective James Carter: Are you deaf?
    Dojo Master: No Yu is blind!
    Detective James Carter: I’m not blind, you blind
    Dojo Master: That is what I just said.
    Detective James Carter: You just said what?
    Dojo Master: I did not say what, I said Yu.
    Detective James Carter: That’s what I’m asking you!
    Dojo Master: And Yu is answering.
    Detective James Carter: Shut up!
    Detective James Carter: You!
    Dojo Master: Yes?
    Detective James Carter: Not You, Him! What’s your name?
    Dojo Student: Mi.
    Detective James Carter: Yes You!
    Dojo Student: I’m Mi.
    Dojo Master: He’s Mi and I’m Yu.
    Detective James Carter: And I’m about to whoop your old ass man because I am sick of playing games! “Rush Hour 3”
    – They can’t understand each other because Carter doesn’t know that “Yu” and “Mi” is their name.
    5. I just want to make people silky-smooth! – Zohan “You Don’t Mess With The Zohan”
    – It doesn’t show what Zohan reall want to be silky-smooth about people.
    6. No, I’m Australian, You know Kangaroo? – Zohan “You Don’t Mess With The Zohan”
    – The guy thought that he’s not Australian but an Iraqi because he sounds like an Iraqi.
    Ignorantio Elenchi
    7. I am the messenger of God. – Silas “Da Vinci Code”
    – It is not clearly stated why he is the messenger of God, there is no proof that he is really messenger of God.
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    8. I remember the first time I saw someone move like they were from another planet; I couldn’t keep my eyes away. I was little mom took me to a jam session in the neighborhood, it started off small but word spread and soon some of the best dancers around were showing up to compete in something they eventually called the streets. It became home, I got a front row seat to history. I wanted to glide and spin and fly like they did, but it didn’t come easy. My mom would tell me don’t give up, just be you, because life’s too short to be anybody else. She was right. When I was 16 my mom got sick and in a couple months she was gone. Everything changed, including the streets. – Andie “Step Up 2”
    – It is the first time that Andie saw a dance step like that. That’s why she is impressed and tell the story of when did she start to dance.
    9. If I had not done what I did, you would all be dead. I saved your lives. Now look where we are. We are stronger than ever, changing the course of history as we see it. Choosing the targets we select. We can redistribute power where we see fit. The wolves rule, not the sheep. Now, if any of you feel the need to follow the code of the Fraternity to the letter, I invite you to take your gun, put it in your mouth, and pull the trigger. That is what Wesley demands. Otherwise, shoot *this* motherfucker and let us take our Fraternity of assassins to heights reserved only for the gods of men! You choose. – Sloan “Wanted”
    – Sloan made a fraternity who saved the lives of the member. He appeals to be the savior that’s why he want himself to be followed and kill Wesley who wants to end the fraternity. It appears that Sloan is the authority.
    Complex Question
    10. So, what’s my favorite color? – April
    – How the person being does questioned answer if he/she doesn’t know her favourite color.
    11. Can I ask a stupid question? – Rich Brown
    – You may answer yes if you’re stupid to or ignore because the question will be nonsense.
    12. How many of your friends have I killed? – The Joker “Batman the Dark Night”
    – The person being asked is insulted that’s why he became mad at The Joker.
    Converse Accident
    13. Well… You always wear green eye shadow. Your favorite ring has green in it. And I’m gonna bet your car is green. Right? – DJ
    – It doesn’t mean that she has green eye shadow, green ring, and green car that her favourite color is green. It may just happen that she wear green that day.
    Composition
    14. Exactly, how can you fill your cup if already full? How can you learn Kung Fu, you already know so much. No Shadow Kick, Buddha Palm! Empty your cup. – Lu Yan “Forbidden Kingdom”
    – Lu Yan is comparing knowledge to a cup filled with water. He said that how can you learn more if your know so much.
    15. If one does not attach himself to people and desires, never shall his heart be broken. But then, does he ever truly live? I would rather die a mortal, who has a care for someone, than a man free from his own death. – Lu Yan “Forbidden Kingdom”
    – Lu Yan said that “if one does not attach himself to people and desires, never shall his heart be broken. But then, does he ever truly live?” which he wants to say that it is better to help people even it take risk than to let them suffer.
    16. Most sixteen/seventeen year old kids, they make a bad choice. Something gets broken, they screw up in class, hurt somebody’s feelings, show up at the prom drunk. They get sent to the Principal office, have their car keys taken away or get grounded. Then there’s kids that make a bad choice, somebody ends up shot dead in a parking lot. Those kids get sent here – Sean Potter “Gridiron Gang”
    – Those people which Sean had conversation at is the people who are lucky because they doesn’t end up dead and they still have a chance in life, the chance to change.
    17. Sometimes, truth isn’t good enough, sometimes people deserve more. Sometimes people deserve to have their faith rewarded. – Batman “Batman The Dark Night”
    – Batman is telling that, you may hide the truth to be loyal to a person you have faith and trust with.
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    18. You don’t know how to spell ‘Mustang’? You have GOT to be SHITTIN’ me! – Sean Potter “Gridiron Gang”
    – The uneducated gang members cannot spell their team name “MUSTANG”
    Argumentum ad Misericordiam
    19.
    Fox: I want you to curve the bullet.
    Wesley: How am I supposed to do that?
    “Wanted”
    – Wesley appeals that how does he suppose to curve that bullet and hit the target.
    20. Never start with the head, the victim gets all fuzzy. – The Joker “Batman the Dark Night”
    – The joker appeals that, when a victim is banged at the head, victims gets all fuzzy

  8. 1.) Hasty Generalization- Making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate
    “My roommate said her philosophy class was hard, and the one I’m in is hard, too. All philosophy classes must be hard!”
    – Two people’s experiences are, in this case, not enough on which to base a conclusion.
    2.) Missing the Point- The premises of an argument does support a particular conclusion—but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
    “The seriousness of a punishment should match the seriousness of the crime. Right now, the punishment for drunk driving may simply be a fine. But drunk driving is a very serious crime that can kill innocent people. So the death penalty should be the punishment for drunk driving.”
    – The argument actually supports several conclusions—”The punishment for drunk driving should be very serious,” in particular—but it doesn’t support the claim that the death penalty, specifically, is warranted.
    3.) Post Hoc – also known as false cause, coincidental correlation or correlation not causation.
    “President Jones raised taxes, and then the rate of violent crime went up. Jones is responsible for the rise in crime.”
    – The increase in taxes might or might not be one factor in the rising crime rates, but the argument hasn’t shown us that one caused the other.
    4.) Slippery Slope – The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but there’s really not enough evidence for that assumption.
    “Animal experimentation reduces our respect for life. If we don’t respect life, we are likely to be more and more tolerant of violent acts like war and murder. Soon our society will become a battlefield in which everyone constantly fears for their lives. It will be the end of civilization. To prevent this terrible consequence, we should make animal experimentation illegal right now.”
    – Since animal experimentation has been legal for some time and civilization has not yet ended, it seems particularly clear that this chain of events won’t necessarily take place. Even if we believe that experimenting on animals reduces respect for life, and loss of respect for life makes us more tolerant of violence, that may be the spot on the hillside at which things stop—we may not slide all the way down to the end of civilization. And so we have not yet been given sufficient reason to accept the arguer’s conclusion that we must make animal experimentation illegal right now.
    5.) Weak Analogy – Many arguments rely on an analogy between two or more objects, ideas, or situations. If the two things that are being compared aren’t really alike in the relevant respects, the analogy is a weak one, and the argument that relies on it commits the fallacy of weak analogy.
    “Guns are like hammers—they’re both tools with metal parts that could be used to kill someone. And yet it would be ridiculous to restrict the purchase of hammers—so restrictions on purchasing guns are equally ridiculous.”
    – While guns and hammers do share certain features, these features (having metal parts, being tools, and being potentially useful for violence) are not the ones at stake in deciding whether to restrict guns. Rather, we restrict guns because they can easily be used to kill large numbers of people at a distance. This is a feature hammers do not share—it’d be hard to kill a crowd with a hammer. Thus, the analogy is weak, and so is the argument based on it.
    6.) Appeal to Authority – where an assertion is deemed true because of the position or authority of the person asserting it
    “We should abolish the death penalty. Many respected people, such as actor Guy Handsome, have publicly stated their opposition to it.”
    – While Guy Handsome may be an authority on matters having to do with acting, there’s no particular reason why anyone should be moved by his political opinions—he is probably no more of an authority on the death penalty than the person writing the paper.
    7.) Ad Populum – the arguer tries to convince the audience to do or believe something because everyone else (supposedly) does.
    “Gay marriages are just immoral. 70% of Americans think so!”
    – While the opinion of most Americans might be relevant in determining what laws we should have, it certainly doesn’t determine what is moral or immoral: There was a time where a substantial number of Americans were in favor of segregation, but their opinion was not evidence that segregation was moral. The arguer is trying to get us to agree with the conclusion by appealing to our desire to fit in with other Americans.
    8.) Ad Hominem – attacking the personal instead of the argument.
    “Andrea Dworkin has written several books arguing that pornography harms women. But Dworkin is an ugly, bitter person, so you shouldn’t listen to her.”
    – Dworkin’s appearance and character, which the arguer has characterized so ungenerously, have nothing to do with the strength of her argument, so using them as evidence is fallacious.
    9.)tu quoque – the arguer points out that the opponent has actually done the thing he or she is arguing against, and so the opponent’s argument shouldn’t be listened to.
    Parents: “You should not smoke. It can just damage your health and it is very expensive.”
    Daughter: “I won’t accept your argument, because you used to smoke when you were my age. You did it, too!”
    – The fact that your parents have done the thing they are condemning has no bearing on the premises they put forward in their argument (smoking harms your health and is very expensive), so your response is fallacious.
    10.) Appeal to Pity – The appeal to pity takes place when an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
    “I know the exam is graded based on performance, but you should give me an A. My cat has been sick, my car broke down, and I’ve had a cold, so it was really hard for me to study!”
    – The conclusion here is “You should give me an A.” But the criteria for getting an A have to do with learning and applying the material from the course; the principle the arguer wants us to accept (people who have a hard week deserve A’s) is clearly unacceptable. The information the arguer has given might feel relevant and might even get the audience to consider the conclusion—but the information isn’t logically relevant, and so the argument is fallacious.
    11.) Appeal to Ignorance – The fallacy of assuming that something is true/false because it has not been proven false/true.
    “People have been trying for centuries to prove that God exists. But no one has yet been able to prove it. Therefore, God does not exist.”
    Opposing argument: “People have been trying for years to prove that God does not exist. But no one has yet been able to prove it. Therefore, God exists.”
    – In each case, the arguer tries to use the lack of evidence as support for a positive claim about the truth of a conclusion. There is one situation in which doing this is not fallacious: If qualified researchers have used well-thought-out methods to search for something for a long time, they haven’t found it, and it’s the kind of thing people ought to be able to find, then the fact that they haven’t found it constitutes some evidence that it doesn’t exist.
    12.) Argumentum ad lazarum or appeal to poverty – is the logical fallacy of thinking a conclusion is correct because the speaker is poor.
    “The jobless tell us it’s hard to find jobs. Thus it must be.”
    – In this statement, it became true if the speaker is a poor person. Being true of a statement is in the speaker who says it, according to his status in life. So in this, it can be concluded that the statement is fallacious. Having difficulty in finding job is for the jobless only and not for all.
    13.) Red herring – the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what’s really at stake. Often, the arguer never returns to the original issue.
    “Grading this exam on a curve would be the fairest thing to do. After all, classes go more smoothly when the students and the professor are getting along well.”
    – It’s pretty obvious that the arguer went off on a tangent—the fact that something helps people get along doesn’t necessarily make it fairer; fairness and justice sometimes require us to do things that cause conflict. But the audience may feel like the issue of teachers and students agreeing is important and be distracted from the fact that the arguer has not given any evidence as to why a curve would be fair.
    14.) False Dichotomy – the arguer sets up the situation so it looks like there are only two choices. The arguer then eliminates one of the choices, so it seems that we are left with only one option: the one the arguer wanted us to pick in the first place.
    “Caldwell Hall is in bad shape. Either we tear it down and put up a new building, or we continue to risk students’ safety. Obviously we shouldn’t risk anyone’s safety, so we must tear the building down.”
    – The argument neglects to mention the possibility that we might repair the building or find some way to protect students from the risks in question—for example, if only a few rooms are in bad shape, perhaps we shouldn’t hold classes in those rooms.
    15.) Appeal to wealth (argumentum ad crumenam)- conclude that a statement is correct because the speaker is rich (or that a statement is incorrect because the speaker is poor).
    “Carmen is the smartest among their group, therefore Carmen must be the richest one among their group.”
    – In this argument, it is not necessary that if you are smart, it means that you are rich. That is the wrong notion of some people. Smartness is not always followed by richness and therefore the argument is fallacious.
    16.) Spotlight fallacy – is committed when a person uncritically assumes that all members or cases of a certain class or type are like those that receive the most attention or coverage in the media.
    “When I grow up I want to be an actor. I want to be rich as the stars I see in the television.”
    – The only conclusion in here is, the speaker wants to be rich. He said that not because he is talented in acting or likes to act but the main reason is getting rich like the celebrities that become successful with different purposes.
    17.) Straw Man – the arguer sets up a wimpy version of the opponent’s position and tries to score points by knocking it down. But just as being able to knock down a straw man, or a scarecrow, isn’t very impressive, defeating a watered-down version of your opponents’ argument isn’t very impressive either.
    “Feminists want to ban all pornography and punish everyone who reads it! But such harsh measures are surely inappropriate, so the feminists are wrong: porn and its readers should be left in peace.”
    – The feminist argument is made weak by being overstated—in fact, most feminists do not propose an outright “ban” on porn or any punishment for those who merely read it; often, they propose some restrictions on things like child porn, or propose to allow people who are hurt by porn to sue publishers and producers, not readers, for damages. So the arguer hasn’t really scored any points; he or she has just committed a fallacy.

    18.) Misleading Vividness – involves describing some occurrence in vivid detail, even if it is an exceptional occurrence, to convince someone that it is a problem.
    Student1: “I will cheat to my seatmate if I don’t know the answer that the test will have.”
    Student2: “I will not do that. Remember the student that cheated last year? He received a punishment by the principal. He became suspended for 5 days and his parents were called for a conference. I will just study hard so I can answer the questions in the test.
    – in this argument, Student 2 gave a vivid idea to Student 1. Student 2 just convincing Student1 so Student1 will not make it a habit. Student2 used statements that can make Student 1 be convinced.
    19.) Begging the Question – the conclusion of an argument is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the premises
    “Active euthanasia is morally acceptable. It is a decent, ethical thing to help another human being escape suffering through death.”
    – The arguer hasn’t yet given us any real reasons why euthanasia is acceptable; instead, she has left us asking “well, really, why do you think active euthanasia is acceptable?” Her argument “begs” (that is, evades) the real question.

    20.) Equivocation – is sliding between two or more different meanings of a single word or phrase that is important to the argument.
    “Giving money to charity is the right thing to do. So charities have a right to our money.”
    – The equivocation here is on the word “right”: “right” can mean both something that is correct or good (as in “I got the right answers on the test”) and something to which someone has a claim (as in “everyone has a right to life”). Sometimes an arguer will deliberately, sneakily equivocate, often on words like “freedom,” “justice,” “rights,” and so forth; other times, the equivocation is a mistake or misunderstanding.

    🙂

  9. 1.As I drove to school this morning, not one car which was turning had its turn signal on. Thus, I conclude that the drivers in this state are not well trained since they never use their turn signals.
    -the number of examples cited and the method of selection are not reliable methods of generalization.(fallacy of converse accident)

    2.I can see that you are greatly impressed by the power of logic and argument. Therefore, are you going to sign up for Philosophy 102: Introduction to Philosophic Inquiry this semester or next semester?It’s got to be one or the other.
    -the question presupposes that the listener will sign up for a logic course.(fallacy of complex question)

    3. The testimony of the defendant accused of manslaughter in this indictment should be disallowed because she has been arrested for shoplifting on many occasions.
    -being a shoplifter does not entail not telling the truth(argumentum ad hominem)

    4. It should be no surprise to you that the state is, again, headed into either a recession or a deep economic downturn. After all, a Republican has just been elected governor.
    -the locuter assumes, without evidence that the election of the Republican will cause a slowing down of the country(fallacy of false cause)

    5. John Bardeen, a professor at the Advanced Institute of Physics, has gone on record to say that the American Medical Association needs to raise its standards for physicians. The opinion of a man of that brilliance should not be disregarded.
    -an authority in physics being cited outside of his field of expertise(argumentum ad verecundiam)

    6. I made low grades on my first tests in math and English. I must really be dumb.
    -too few example to justify such a conclusion(fallacy of converse accident)

    7 I think that the tests given in this class were more than fair, and I think you will agree with me because, if you do not, your grade in this course will certainly be in jeopardy.
    -the threat of the poor grade is logically unrelated to the fairness of test(argument ad Baculum)

    8.Oriental Philosophy is the best course taught at Lander University. I know this because all of my friends say so.
    -although most friends think so, that doesn’t make it so.(Argumentum ad Populum)

    9.Mr. Smith, maybe there is some truth in what you say about me being rude to sales people, but I have certainly heard may sales people complain about your manners, so you are certainly not the person to point this out to me.
    -it doesn’t mean that Mr. smith is perfect, when he blame someone else.(argumentum ad homnem)

    10. Hilda Robinson, an old backwoods, ignorant lady who never got past the fourth grade in school, claims that chicken soup is good for a cold. What does she know? She is ignorant of the scientific evidence.
    -even if Hilda Robinson did not pass her fourth grade in school it doesn’t mean that she don’t know how to cook.(argumentum ad hominem)

    11. Uncle Vernon to Harry: “any funny business, any at all.. and you won’t have any meals for a week”
    -Uncle Vernon blackmailing Harry.(argumentum ad baculum)

    12. “The glass was there and then it wa gone, lika magic.”
    -Magic is not the real cause why the glass is not there.(fallacy of false cause)

    13.There is no Hogwarts School exist.
    – there is no proof of any Witchcraft School on earth.(argumentum ad ignorantiam)

    14. Students under 17 years of age cannot join the Triwizard Tournament according to the Ministry of Magic.
    -MInistry of Magic must have the authority to setrules, and those rules must be followed.(argumentum ad verecundiam)

    15According to the Ministry of Magic, the rules are absolute, the Goblet of Fire constitutes an abunding magical contract, Harry Potter has no choice but to join the Triwizard Tournament.
    -the Goblet of Fire has the authority to decide whether or not to let the champion to join the Tournament.(argumentum ad verecundiam)

    16. Students under 17 years old coudn’t barely make it join the Triwizard Challenges, and Harry is only 14. so why accept him, if we all know he might give up in the middle of the Challenges.(argumentum ad hominem)

    17. “The whole world is counting on me.”
    -how did he knew that the whole world needs him?(fallacy of accent)

    18. “But once we get married, everything will be back to normal.”
    -it doesn’t mean that if you get married everything’s going to be fine.( fallacy of accident)

    19.“Universe began, there is no bigger than a marble and then bang, it exploited.”
    – how did he knew that it happened?thre’s no proof or evidence.(fallacy of accent)

    20. “I will no longer serve. This is the end for us both.”
    -it doesn’t mean that if he is no longer serving,it will be the end of them.(fallacy of accident)

  10. 1.False Dilemma
    “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance”
    While it is true that some education is better than none, the education we get needn’t cost as much as it does at Harvard- or it needn’t be as formal as an Ivy League Education.

    2.Affirming the Consequent
    “If the Congress and the President cannot solve the Budget problems, then the Stock market will take a nose dive. Yesterday the market dropped 100 points. This means that the Congress and the President will not solve the Budget crisis in time.”
    This argument is fallacious, even though all of the premises might be true, since it is possible that the market dropped for reasons other than the budget crisis.

    3.Ad Ignorantiam fallacy
    “Watch the Business Report at 7:00 on channel 6. It’s the best report on current dealings on Wall Street because no comparative study of business reposts has ever proved to our satisfaction that there is any better.”
    From the fact that the conclusion has not been proved, no other conclusion can be drawn.

    4.Ad misericordiam fallacy
    “Look Mr. IRS examiner, of course I owe taxes—I’m not denying that. However, I was unable to file on time because my wife was sick and my two children need my attention. Surely the IRS is not opposed to keeping the family together.”
    The unfortunate circumstances of the taxpayer are logically independent of his responsibility to pay taxes.

    5.Ad populum fallacy
    “If we took a poll right now, almost every American would agree that a vaccine for AIDS will soon be found. Therefore, there can be little doubt that AIDS will be practically wiped out in the near future.”
    From the fact that most persons believe that statement is true, it does not follow logically that the statement is true.

    6.Fallacy of converse accident
    “When I was shopping at Jean’s Fine Clothing, not one person gave me the time of day. I guess Jean’s is not a very friendly place to work.”
    More evidence would be necessary to reach the conclusion that Jean’s is not a good place to work.

    7.Ad Ignorantiam
    “The Smithson Foundation is investigating whether or not police officers are using excessive force in traffic arrests of minorities. Hence, it is quite reasonable to conclude that some police officers, at least, use excessive force in that kind of arrest.”
    An investigation does not entail that any evidence has been forthcoming so far. Since no evidence is adduced, one cannot jump into conclusion.

    8.Semantic Ambiguity:
    “Lots for sale.”
    It is fallacious because we didn’t know what is for sale either allotments of land or numerous things.

    9.Ad Baculum
    “You will back up my story and tell the committee I am reasoning logically; because if you don’t I will do everything in my power to see that you are fired.”
    The use of threat of force is being used to gain the acceptance of the conclusion.

    10.Complex question
    “I can see that the efficiency with which the Tornado Home Vacuum System works and the marvelous way in which it saves on toil and drudgery in the home impresses you. Therefore, shall I charge it to your account or do you want to pay cash?”
    The salesperson assumes that you want to buy and proposes.

    11. converse accident
    “As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.”
    The locutor is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances.

    12. Ad Misericordiam
    “Officer, please excuse my going over the speed limit, but my mother is ill and I’m being audited by the IRS, and I don’t know how I can meet all my bills.”
    Although individual might deserve pity for his plight, that pity is irrelevant to whether he was speeding or not.

    13. Ad Verecundiam
    “The late Ely Culbertson, one of the world’s outstanding bridge players, once declared that the United Nations as presently constituted has serious defects. He must be right because I don’t think the opinion of a man of his caliber should be taken lightly.”
    Mr. Culbertson is cited as an authority on bridge, not in international affairs.

    14. Ad Baculum
    “The General Assembly of the United Nations keeps voting for radical issues. Therefore, the U. S. will be forced to reduce its financial contribution to the U. N. unless there is a demonstrated change soon.”
    The threat of reducing contributions is not logically related to whether the U.N. vote for radical issues but is used persuasively toward the conclusion.

    15. Equivocation
    “I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.”
    The word ‘right’ is used in two different senses, what is ethically right and what is politically right.

    16. Fallacy of Accident
    “Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.”
    The general rule is being used in an instance not meant to be covered by the rule.

    17. Ad populum
    “Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be.”
    It is fallacious because many people believe that it’s true, this fact does not make it true.

    18. Ad Baculum
    “You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re not taking your school work seriously.”
    The threat of embarrassment is a reason for Samuel to study more diligently.

    19. Appeal to ignorance
    Hogwarts has a moving and talking newspaper.
    It is impossible for a newspaper to talk and to move.

    20. Appeal to ignorance
    In the movie Narnia, the characters can pass through the wardrobe and go to another place.
    It is impossible to pass through a wardrobe to go to another place.

  11. INFORMAL FALLACIES

    1.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam:
    In spite of all the talk, not a single flying saucer report has been authenticated. We may assume, therefore, there are not such things as flying saucers.

    :it is fallacy of Argumentum ad Ignorantiam because it has not been proved false or that it is false simply because it has not been proved true.

    2.Argumentum ad Verecundiam:
    The United States policy toward mainland China was surely mistaken because Shirley McLaine, the well known actress, said, at the time, she had grave misgivings about it.

    :it is fallacy of Argumentum ad Verecundiam because the reason for assenting to the conclusion is based on following the improper authority.

    3.Argumentum ad Hominem:
    A prosecutor asks the judge to not admit the testimony of a burglar because burglars are not trustworthy.

    :it is fallacy of Argumentum ad Hominem because the prosecutor is making a personal attack to the burglar

    4. Argumentum ad Populum
    “But officer, I don’t deserve a ticket; everyone goes this speed. If I went any slower, I wouldn’t be going with the stream of traffic.”

    :it is fallacy of Argumentum ad Populum because the one who got caught is trying to win popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the feeling and enthusiasms of the officer.

    5.Argumentum ad Misericordiam
    Oh, Officer, There’s no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed.

    :it is a fallacy of Argumentum ad Misericordiam because the one who was caught was trying to excuse himself by showing sympathy pity or a related emotion to accept his excuse.

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum:
    Chairman of the Board: “All those opposed to my arguments for the opening of a new department, signify by saying, ‘I resign.'”

    :it is a fallacy of Argumentum ad Baculum because the chairman is threatening of those who opposed me. giving them fear

    7. Ignoratio Elenchi:

    FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    8. Complex Question:
    How can we save our country from the bureaucratic dictatorship, the corruption, and the creeping socialism of the present administration? Only one way: vote Independent.

    :it is a fallacy of Complex Question because it is phrased of a question by the way it is worded and presents a implicitly or explicitly.

    9. False Cause:
    “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”

    :it is a fallacy of False Cause because If this were a causal inference, then all short people would become emperors.

    10. Petitio Principii:
    “Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree.”

    :it is a fallacy of Petitio Principii because of the repetition of the repetition of words in the same order in both premis and conclusion.

    11. Accident:
    “Thou shalt not kill”

    :it is a fallacy of Accident because if we will use this statement then therefore you should not try to control termites in your home or fight for your country.” and because the statement qualified meaning as if it had no qualification whatsoever.

    12. Converse Accident:
    “Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”

    : it is a fallacy of converse accident because the statement shows that there is insufficient basis of the teenager running that red light.

    13. Fallacy Of False Dilemma
    Bill: “Jill and I both support having prayer in public schools.”
    Jill: “Hey, I never said that!”
    Bill: “You’re not an atheist are you Jill?”

    : it is a fallacy of false dillemma because the dialog shows reasoning about bill and jill having support prayer in public schools

    FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY

    14. Fallacy of Amphiboly:
    A reckless motorist Thursday struck and injured a student who was jogging through the campus in his pickup truck. – From a Radion

    :it is a fallacy of Amphiboly because the premise could be interpreted in many ways creating a different inference to the conclusion

    15.Fallacy of Equivocation:
    Nothing would be better than a high score on this test, but a poor grade would be better than nothing, so conclude that a bad grade would be better than a high score.

    : it is a fallacy of equivocation because ‘Nothing” is being used in two different senses in the statement.

    16. Fallacy of DIVISION
    As the convener of the ninth annual Women’s Freedom Movement, let me remind you once again that women have been discriminated against for centuries, and they have suffered as second-rate people for centuries. I, for one, refuse to submit to this discrimination and second-rate treatment any longer.

    : it is a fallacy of division because The speaker obviously did not suffer for centuries; she is part of a whole.

    17. Fallacy of Composition
    Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.

    :it is a fallacy of Composition because the argument moves from part to whole

    18. Fallacy of Slippery Slope
    The choice of what should be taught in universities should be left to professors. If students are allowed to influence this choice, they will see themselves as running the school. This will lead to a breakdown of order and discipline, and pretty soon there will be no learning at all in the University.

    : it is a fallacy of slippery slope because it justifies an action that show a justification of also other actions that leads to undesirable conclusion

    19. Fallacy of Affirming the consequent
    If the Congress and the President cannot solve the Budget problems, then the Stock market will take a nose dive. Yesterday the market dropped 100 points. This means that the Congress and the President will not solve the Budget crisis in time.

    : it is a fallacy of Affirming the conSequent because even though all of the premises might be true, since it is possible that the market dropped for reasons other than the budget crisis.

    20.Fallacy of Begging the Question:
    God exists because the bible says that he does. We all know that the bible is accurate because it was written by inspired men, men inspired by God to write down his words.

    : it is a fallacy of begging the question because in order to take this as evidence for the existence of God, you already have to believe in God. So the argument really doesn’t prove anything, it just repeats one of the premises as the conclusion.

    Tapos narin sa wakas. sir di ko na nasulat ung Source every number kasi iba ung source. thank you sir.

  12. Samurai X

    Fallacies of Relevance

    1.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Kenshin: The one who killed Gentatsu is the one who is so-called Battosai. That’s me. I’m the one responsible for it.

    This does not necessarily disprove anything about Gentatsu as being killed unless there someone who witnessed the truth about what happened.

    2.Argumentum and Hominem

    Kenshin: The killing Master Gentatsu at that time we’re killing each other for the purpose of avoiding this kind of stuff to happen again. This society cannot bear any more tragedy.

    The arguer presented this as hominem based from circumstances about having revenge of killing to avoid tragedies involving many people to be killed.

    3.Argumentum ad Populum

    Shigure: We’re all sacrificed for a war.

    Kenshin: Would you sacrifice more young life again?

    The cases are indirect because we all know that most people at war sacrificed themselves seeking peace but these decisions were not the right thing for including young men to fight at their young age because of the fact that they have no experiences to fight and having not much skill to defend from the oppressed.

    4.Argumentum ad Baculum

    Kenshin: Shed my blood for as much as you want.

    The reason for telling the arguer to eb killed is for the purpose that taking revenge form him by his opponent will grant it but unlikely to happen he’ll be the one to be killed or else it will take him as a regret.

    5.Argumentum Misericordian

    Kenshin: Do you actually think Gentatsu would want to witness Toki’s tears.

    The arguer presents about including a person who died a long time ago as witnessed making his sister to be sad because if the opponents about taking revenge. Taking revenge would make the girl sad.

    6.Ignorantio Elenchi

    Shigure: I will take your life.

    Killing one person by means of revenge because Shigure thinks Kenshin was the cause of everything would not make sense to avoid tragedies of sacrificing other people’s lives.

    Fallacies of Presumption

    7.Complex Question

    Shigure: Isn’t that you? Hitoriki Battosai? The one who killed Gentatsu?

    The question was done by accusing Kenshin who killed Gentatsu not knowing the truth what is kenshin’s reason behind that incident.

    8.False Cause

    Tomono: They are government’s evil pawn! Kill them!

    Killing people against government law is immoral in sense to be revealed because they’re the one which causes tragedies.

    9.Petitio Principii

    Tomono: Kill them! Have no mercy!

    The argument is done because killing is similar to having no mercy.

    10.Accident

    Saito: You’re the real betrayal.
    Man: No! I’m just a witness here!

    Making himself a witness is a lie because no one saw that he did something wrong. But it will still make him a betrayal because of a hidden intention that was already knew by Saito about negotiating with Tomono just to kill both Kenshin and Shigure.

    11.Converse Accident

    Shigure: I knew this sword skill for the rest of my life!

    It doesn’t mean that he knows it, he can avoid it. There can be some chances that there will be some changes occurring.

    12.Equivocation

    Sigure:You kill Battosai! Battosai kill Gentatsu! You are Battosai!

    Kenshin was accused who kill Genatsu but in manner that it hapened in the past. What Kenshin now was the wonderer giving the reason that he had already forgot it not to kill again.

    13.Amphiboly

    Tomono:Aim and Fire! My purpose is to kill all of you!

    It implies about betrayal not mentioning who were going to b killed.

    14.Accent

    Man: Damn. That Tomono betraying me.

    The person was betrayed by reason of opposing his command. There are no other situations included.

    15.Composition

    Kenshin: You are the killing master…
    Shigure causes many tragedies proven by Kenshin amking young men sacrificed at war.

    16.Red Herring
    Saito: Shigure is adangerous man because if his sword skill.
    Having a sword skill cannot make a person dangerous. He can be dangerous if he use it in a wrong way.

    17.Slippery Slope
    Shigure: Go to hell.
    It does not follow that the purpose of killing someone can resolve anything that is a regret for a long time.

    18.False Analogy

    Shigure: I will take your life.
    This is a false analogy. It is immoral.

    19.Staw Man
    Man: We just wanted to play with you.
    The term play here means to play in bad intention of tricking another person..

    20.False Dilemma
    Shigure: If only I could wipe your tears.
    In this case, Shigure is dying and he asked to for another chance to live with Toki. Shigure blame himself.

    Sir!!! Make it 20 points na!!plzzz!!

  13. Propositions from the movie “Pay it Forward”. This is a story of a 12 year-old boy named Trevor who has a point of view like no other kid has. He was inspired by his Social Class teacher, Mr. Eugene Simonet, because he was given a whole year assignment that involves the whole world of challenges to this kid. He then struggles to accomplish this task and had some struggles with his mother, Arlene McKinney and his teacher.

    1. Mr. Simonet: Some of you might think you can’t get pass to this class fast enough; that you rather hold your breath, close your eyes and not think about anything before its all over. Well I’m here to tell it’s not an option in this class.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Missing the point
    =Mr.Simonet only tries to confuse his listeners by implying a conclusion which is not based from his previous premises. With that kind of cause, it expresses the certainty of a Fallacy which is the Fallacy of Missing the point.

    2. Mr. Simonet: What do we expect from you?
    -Fallacy of Presumption; Complex question
    =In this proposition, is assumpts that the receiver is not capable of being of something.

    3.Trevor: What did you ever do to change the world?
    Mr. Simonet: Well Trevor, I get goodnight sleep; i eat a hardly breakfast; I show up on time, and I pass this bucket to you.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Missing the point
    =In here, Mr.Simonet tries to move to different topics that appear to be valid. It then gives different points so then it becomes a Fallacy.

    4.Trevor: Are you sure you won’t throw up? What do you think it means?
    -Fallacy of Presumption; Complex question
    =The statements stated gives an assuming answer to these questions.

    5.Trevor: He’s my friend because Mr. Simonet said that he is.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    =It doesn’t necessarily indicate that something is already true just because a judgement came from a party that appeal to be convicing.

    6.Arlene: What is this assignment? What did you tell my son to bring home a homeless man into my house?
    -Fallacy of Presumption; Missing the Point
    =The conclusion in this argument doens’t connect to its antecedent.

    7.Arlene: Did you ever think that you can do everything you want, just because your face is messed up?
    – Fallacy of Presumption; False cause
    =In this proposition, it treats as the cause of a thing what is not really its cause.

    8.Arlene: I know you’re there. I want you to come out or I will shoot you.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Appeal to force
    =The statement “I will shoot you” makes this statement a Fallacy Appealing to Force.

    9.Trevor:Are you just being nice?
    -Fallacy of Presumption; Complex question
    =It is a Fallacy because it presupposes the truth of some assumption.

    10.Arlene:I thought you would talk to me because according to Trevor, you said that you needed to talk to me about something?
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Appeal to Authority
    =Just a judgement from something doesn’t make a statement already valid.

    11.Mr.Simonet: Trevor seems to be very happy because he likes you.
    -Fallacy of Presumption; Converse Accident
    =This a hasty generalization because one presumes that what is true of this one thing to be true of everything.

    12.Trevor: You can’t just put two people together and make them like each other.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Appeal to Ignorance
    =This argument is invalid because just as it is not already proven false doesn’t necessarily makes it true.

    13.Trevor: You really like people who you get drunk with.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Appeal to Ignorance
    =This premise is not yet proved, yet conclusion is already drawn that’s why it makes it as a Fallacy of Ignorance.

    14. Arlene: For the rest of my life, I can never be sorry for what ever I did to you as a mother.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Missing the point
    =The conclusion in this argument doens’t connect to its antecedent.

    15.Arlene: If you can be with me on this, and you make it think that it’s possible, then I think maybe I can.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Missing the point
    =In here, it tries to move to different topics that appear to be valid. It then gives different points so then it becomes a Fallacy of Missing the point.

    16.Mr. Simonet: You know about kids, they are just fond of hitchhiking.
    -Fallacy of Presumption; Converse Accident
    =This a hasty generalization because one presumes that what is true of this one thing to be true of everything.

    17.Arlene: Do you want to come back here sometime? have dinner with me?
    -Fallacy of Presumption; Complex question
    =The statements stated gives an assuming answer to these questions.

    18.Trevor: If you’re late, it means like you don;t respect them because Mr. Simonet said it.
    -Fallacy of Relevance; Appeal to Authority

    19.Trevor: You’re too late, now you owe him.
    -Fallacy of Presumption; False Cause
    =In this proposition, it treats as the cause of a thing what is not really its cause.

    20.Trevor: When someone does you a big favor, don’t pay it back
    -Fallacy of Presumption; False Cause
    =The reaseon that had been concluded doesn’t collide with its previous statement.

  14. INFORMAL FALLACIES

    1. “Do you think your daughter is sick?” -Magneto, X-Men 3
    ||Complex Question||–Jumping to conclusions without any warrants.

    2. “Do you control your powers or does it control you?” -Prof. X, X-Men 3
    ||False Dilemma||–Jean Gray may not choose from the two options, cause in reality, she can ignore her powers and use it at all, therefore, she will not have a problem to control or be controlled by her powers.

    3. “Magneto is not a problem” -Henry/Beast, X-Men 3
    ||Appeal to Ignorance||–Henry/Beast concluded that Magneto is not a problem, though he didn’t have a proof that Magneto will not be a problem.

    4. “These so-called “Mutants” are just like us, they are human” –The President, X-Men 3
    ||Appeal to Inappropriate Authority||–The president must have been disoriented about the mutant’s current condition, for mutants are not merely human.

    5. “Who would want this cure? I mean, what kind of coward would take it just to fit in?” –Storm, X-Men 3
    ||Missing the point||–Storm didn’t realize that not all mutants want to stay as is. She misses the point that other mutants would benefit with the so-called “Cure.”

    6. “Love is Blind, God is Love, and Therefore, God is blind”
    ||Equivocation||–Love in the first statement has a different meaning from the word “Love” in the second statement.

    7. “He is my enemy since first year high school, why would I listen to his explanations?!”
    ||Attack to the Person||–He disregard the fact that his “enemy” will justify for something good, but because of their situation as an enemy, he didn’t trust the statements his enemy told him.

    8. “Everybody is talking about the new movie, so I watched it yesterday.”
    ||Appeal to popular prejudice||–He watched the movie not because he wants to but he watched it because he heard it from his friends.

    9. “It’s right because it is not wrong!” –Dj Ramon Bautista, Brewrats
    ||Begging the Question||–He just reasoned the same question out, resulting in a circular argument.

    10. “Troubles come when I’m with you! If you didn’t come, nothing will ever happen to us!” –Shrek, Shrek 2
    ||False Cause||–He accused donkey that he is the cause of their misadventures even though donkey has no connection to the things that they are encountering.

    11. “Jasmine! I love you, and I’m gonna die if I’m not gonna be with you!” –Julian, My Girl
    ||Appeal to the Pity||–He made a statement that replaced his careful reasoning into an insinuated threat causing Jasmine to accept his love for her.

    12. “Give up or we’ll have to arrest you!” –Solider, Shrek
    ||Appeal to Force||–He threatens Shrek to give up so he will get what he wants.

    13. “He’s from Ateneo. He must be rich or intelligent.”
    ||Accident||–He concluded that the student is intelligent or rich just because the student is an Atenian.

    14. John speaks in English, Maria also speaks in English. They are both Filipino, Therefore, all Filipinos speaks in English.
    ||Converse Accident||–He concluded that all Filipinos speak in English just because John and Maria speak in English and they are both Filipino. He already concluded the general view without knowing the real fact.

    15. “Rejecting God add mandates total analogism” -HanifXHier, Youtube
    ||Slippery Slope||–Don’t accept the primary reason must not be accepted cause the extreams of the reason must also be accepted.

    16. “We do believe in God but we decided to reject Him” –TheAmazingAtheist, Youtube
    ||Straw Man||–He Distort his position into a view that no atheist would recognize and proceeds to argue for that position rather than to the position he actually hold.

    17. “The writings in the Bible is real because the Priest said so” –TheAmazingAtheist, Youtube
    ||Appeal to Inappropriate Authority||–Not because a leader (in this case, The Priests) said that a certain thing is real, you should believe that it is real.

    18. “Many people believes that God is real, therefore, God is real”
    ||Appeal to popular prejudice||–Because many people believe that a certain thing is true, it doesn’t mean that it’s true.

    19. “Before I tell you why I shot your mother, you must first listen to my story”
    ||Red Herring||–He shifted the topic from the question asked.

    20. “If I tell you me school, I’m sure, everybody will follow me everywhere” –KevJumba, Youtube
    ||Slippery Slope||–He predicted that everybody will follow him everywhere when he gives his the information asked from him.

    Sir! Sorry kung medyo parang mali mali…Yan lang po kasi ang intindi ko… Iba iba din po kinuhanan ku ng mga fallacy… yun lang … ÜÜ

  15. 1. “Do you think your daughter is sick?” -Magneto, X-Men 3
    ||Complex Question||–Jumping to conclusions without any warrants.

    2. “Do you control your powers or does it control you?” -Prof. X, X-Men 3
    ||False Dilemma||–Jean Gray may not choose from the two options, cause in reality, she can ignore her powers and use it at all, therefore, she will not have a problem to control or be controlled by her powers.

    3. “Magneto is not a problem” -Henry/Beast, X-Men 3
    ||Appeal to Ignorance||–Henry/Beast concluded that Magneto is not a problem, though he didn’t have a proof that Magneto will not be a problem.

    4. “These so-called “Mutants” are just like us, they are human” –The President, X-Men 3
    ||Appeal to Inappropriate Authority||–The president must have been disoriented about the mutant’s current condition, for mutants are not merely human.

    5. “Who would want this cure? I mean, what kind of coward would take it just to fit in?” –Storm, X-Men 3
    ||Missing the point||–Storm didn’t realize that not all mutants want to stay as is. She misses the point that other mutants would benefit with the so-called “Cure.”

    6. “Love is Blind, God is Love, and Therefore, God is blind”
    ||Equivocation||–Love in the first statement has a different meaning from the word “Love” in the second statement.

    7. “He is my enemy since first year high school, why would I listen to his explanations?!”
    ||Attack to the Person||–He disregard the fact that his “enemy” will justify for something good, but because of their situation as an enemy, he didn’t trust the statements his enemy told him.

    8. “Everybody is talking about the new movie, so I watched it yesterday.”
    ||Appeal to popular prejudice||–He watched the movie not because he wants to but he watched it because he heard it from his friends.

    9. “It’s right because it is not wrong!” –Dj Ramon Bautista, Brewrats
    ||Begging the Question||–He just reasoned the same question out, resulting in a circular argument.

    10. “Troubles come when I’m with you! If you didn’t come, nothing will ever happen to us!” –Shrek, Shrek 2
    ||False Cause||–He accused donkey that he is the cause of their misadventures even though donkey has no connection to the things that they are encountering.

    11. “Jasmine! I love you, and I’m gonna die if I’m not gonna be with you!” –Julian, My Girl
    ||Appeal to the Pity||–He made a statement that replaced his careful reasoning into an insinuated threat causing Jasmine to accept his love for her.

    12. “Give up or we’ll have to arrest you!” –Solider, Shrek
    ||Appeal to Force||–He threatens Shrek to give up so he will get what he wants.

    13. “He’s from Ateneo. He must be rich or intelligent.”
    ||Accident||–He concluded that the student is intelligent or rich just because the student is an Atenian.

    14. John speaks in English, Maria also speaks in English. They are both Filipino, Therefore, all Filipinos speaks in English.
    ||Converse Accident||–He concluded that all Filipinos speak in English just because John and Maria speak in English and they are both Filipino. He already concluded the general view without knowing the real fact.

    15. “Rejecting God add mandates total analogism” -HanifXHier, Youtube
    ||Slippery Slope||–Don’t accept the primary reason must not be accepted cause the extreams of the reason must also be accepted.

    16. “We do believe in God but we decided to reject Him” –TheAmazingAtheist, Youtube
    ||Straw Man||–He Distort his position into a view that no atheist would recognize and proceeds to argue for that position rather than to the position he actually hold.

    17. “The writings in the Bible is real because the Priest said so” –TheAmazingAtheist, Youtube
    ||Appeal to Inappropriate Authority||–Not because a leader (in this case, The Priests) said that a certain thing is real, you should believe that it is real.

    18. “Many people believes that God is real, therefore, God is real”
    ||Appeal to popular prejudice||–Because many people believe that a certain thing is true, it doesn’t mean that it’s true.

    19. “Before I tell you why I shot your mother, you must first listen to my story”
    ||Red Herring||–He shifted the topic from the question asked.

    20. “If I tell you me school, I’m sure, everybody will follow me everywhere” –KevJumba, Youtube
    ||Slippery Slope||–He predicted that everybody will follow him everywhere when he gives his the information asked from him.

    Sir! Sorry kung medyo parang mali mali…Yan lang po kasi ang intindi ko… Iba iba din po kinuhanan ku ng mga fallacy… yun lang po… ÜÜ

  16. 1.R1: Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Frailty
    Fenton: Nothing that crazy could be real.
    Explanation: Fenton is being ignorant and close-minded. Just because something is completely absurd or far from reality does not mean it could not be real or possible.

    2.R2: Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    South Park
    Kyle: What I understand is that you two really screwed me over! Why should I have to listen to you?!
    Gerald: (angrily) because we’re your parents.
    Explanation: Gerald cannot use the fact of him being the father of Kyle as a reason for Kyle to listen to what he says.

    3.R3: Argumentum ad Hominem
    Fight Club
    Tyler Durden: People do it everyday, they talk to themselves… they see themselves as they’d like to be, they don’t have the courage you have, to just run with it.
    Explanation: Tyler Durden attacks directly on the being of people in general which is unacceptable because people cannot be generalized. We are situated beings and each of us holds differences.

    4.R4: Argumentum ad Populum
    Desperate Housewives
    Bree: (quietly, to herself) “I’ll wear green; everyone likes green.”
    Explanation: Bree chooses green because she based it on what everybody likes.

    5.R5: Argumentum ad Baculum
    One Tree Hill
    Lucas: I’m building a team. You play your part and do as I say or you are gone. So we’re clear.
    Explanation: Lucas’ given option is irrational. He uses threat rather than reason.

    6.R6: Argumentum Misericordiam
    Charmed
    Victor: How can you be so sure?
    Phoebe: Because he loves me as much as I love him.
    Explanation: Phoebe does not answer Victor’s question. Phoebe used emotion or love as an excuse.

    7.R7: Ignoranti Elenchi
    Charmed
    Piper: Why are you being so stubborn about this?
    Phoebe: Because I’m a Scorpio, what’s your excuse?
    Explanation: Phoebe being a Scorpio cannot be the reason for her being stubborn. Getting basis on zodiac signs does not hold rationality nor logic.

    8.P1: Complex Question
    Se7en
    David Mills: Do you like what you do for a living?
    Explanation: David Mills assumes that the person he is talking to already has ‘something to do for a living’ or a job.

    9.P2: False Cause
    Edward Scissorhands
    Kim: (talking about Edward) You see, before he came down here, it never snowed. And afterwards, it did. If he weren’t up there now… I don’t think it would be snowing. Sometimes you can still catch me dancing in it.
    Explanation: Edward cannot be the cause of snow, he does not hold this power. The cause of snow is water vapor.

    10.P3: Petitio Principii
    One Tree Hill
    Rachel: Everybody can’t be popular because if they were, no one would be popular.
    Explanation: The argument only creates a cycle.

    11.P4: Accident
    Pulp Fiction
    Vincent: Want some bacon?
    Jules: No man, I don’t eat pork.
    Vincent: Are you Jewish?
    Explanation: Vincent generalizes the Jews. His view is that, all Jews do not eat pork which is unlikely.

    12.P5: Converse Accident
    The O.C.
    Marissa: [about Ryan] I think he hates me.
    Summer: He doesn’t hate you!
    Marissa: He turned down sex!
    Explanation: Ryan turning down sex with Marissa does not necessarily mean that he hates her. It is irrelevant. There might be reasons which are best left unspoken.

    13.A2: Amphiboly
    Pulp Fiction
    Lance: If you’re all right, then say something.
    Explanation: What does Lance actually mean? Should word “something” be said or should a word, not necessarily something be uttered? It is unclear.

    14.A3: Accent
    Elizabethtown
    Claire Colburn: Men see things in a box, and women see them in a round room.
    Explanation: The emphasis on the word “them” might pertain to men or it might pertain to things in box. The meaning can shift.

    15.A4: Composition
    The Thirteenth Tale
    Vida Winter: I am human. Like all humans, I do not remember my birth.
    Explanation: Though this the possibility of this holds true, Vida Winter cannot sum up humanity based on herself alone.

    16.D1: Red Herring
    Signs
    Morgan: It’s not contaminated; you don’t even know what that word means.
    Explanation: Not knowing the meaning of “contaminated” does not make it uncontaminated. It is irrelevant.

    17.Slippery Slope
    Colors of Chaos
    If you do not survive what you do now, you will not reach the future. If you do not think now about where you go, you will have precious few choices when you reach next year or the years after.
    Explanation: Failing to accomplish what one does at the present does not necessarily mean one will have few or fewer choices. There are infinite possibilities of upcoming events.

    18.False Analogy
    Fight Club
    Tyler Durden: Shut up! Our fathers were our models for God. If our fathers bailed, what does that tell you about God?
    Explanation: The bailing of fathers does not tell something about God. They are only models. Models cannot define the creator.

    19.Straw Man
    Kill Bill Vol. 1
    Hattori Hanzo: [Japanese] Oh, so you’d be General, huh? If you were General, I’d be Emperor, and you’d STILL get the sake. So shut up and get the sake.
    Explanation: For Hattori Hanzo putting himself into a higher position such as Emperor, he clearly overrules the General and distorts the argument. He uses the state being of ‘Emperor’ as a right to command.

    20.False Dilemma
    American Gods
    It’s easy, there’s a trick to it, you do it or you die.
    Explanation: This is not the only alternative. Not doing the trick does not cause death. It can lead to other things, but not only death.

  17. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    See, rabbi, we don’t believe in the resurrection of the dead, because it’s impossible.
    Explanation: Even though the Pharisees don’t want to believe in the resurrection of the dead, that doesn’t mean that it is not true. Also we can’t say that it isn’t possible just because they haven’t seen it.
    “Pharisees” =Manga Messiah=

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    1. The teachers of the law came, and state that this man is not our Messiah. He is blaspheming! The opinion of these great men cannot be disregarded.
    Explanation: Even though the one who said a conclusion has authority over the topic, it doesn’t mean that the one they concluded is the same as yours. Perhaps, for these teachers of the law, God is not the messiah and he is only blaspheming that doesn’t follow that their conclusions are correct.
    “Teachers of the law” =Manga Messiah=

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem
    Tax collectors are not trustworthy. They always give false testimony.
    Explanation: First case is abusive; the people attack the character of the person. In this fallacy the attack is leveled on the person of the opponent not on the claims. They defame and discredit the opponent, just like in my example. They judge all the tax collectors as not trustworthy.
    “People” =Manga Messiah=

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum
    Every tax collector does this. If I don’t charge high, I wouldn’t be going with the others. I don’t deserve to be punish for my sin.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because even though that many tax collectors charge high, it is still wrong. That’s why Zacchaeus still deserve to be punish for his sins.
    “Zacchaeus” =Manga Messiah=

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum
    Walk quickly! Don’t slow down! Or else you will feel the wrath of our whips!!!
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because the conclusion is being messed up by the emotion of fear or threat. Jesus is being threatened to walk quickly and don’t slow down that’s why the conclusion that have been made is messed up. And forced Jesus to walk quickly or else he will be whip.
    “Guards” =Manga Messiah=

    R6 Argumentum ad Misericordiam
    Son of God!!! Our time has not yet come!!! Don’t torture us!!! Because we are many!!!
    Explanation: This is also a fallacy because it used “an appeal to pity”. Instead of a careful reasoning it is replace by threats just to bring acceptance in the conclusion. Like in the sentence, it is still not an accepted reason for God not to rebuke those evil spirits in those men, because they are just many and they say that their time has not come yet.
    “Possessed men” =Manga Messiah=

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi
    Yaaaaaaaaa! Yeshuah of Nazareth… Leave us!!! Have you come to destroy us? Why protect these sinners.
    Explanation: This is fallacy is missing the point, because sure these people are sinners. But that doesn’t mean that God will not rebuke the evil spirit and destroy him just because these people are sinners.
    “Possessed man” =Manga Messiah=

    P1 Complex question
    Have you quit drinking?
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because you are accusing some one for doing something even though you don’t have the proof to prove it. You are just jumping into a conclusion that the one you are asking drinks. The question has a quick conclusion and assumption in it, and that’s why this is a fallacy.
    “Karlos” =Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak=

    P2 False Cause
    Mae became a great teacher because she was cute.
    Explanation: If this sentence is not a fallacy and error in its reasoning, then all the cute teachers are great in teaching. This cause is false, because it’s not necessary that when your teacher is cute, he/she is good in teaching.
    “Kevin” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    P3 Petitio Principii
    Doing the right thing is good because it is not bad.
    Explanation: In this fallacy there is an illusion and a circle of reasoning. Doing the right things of course is good and automatically & logically it is not bad. For me, this fallacy is like “pilosopo”. =p
    “A student” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    P4 Accident
    He is from that University. He is either smart or rich.
    Explanation: This fallacy always concludes with its generalization. We know, in the story that most of the students who are enrolled in that University are rich and smart, but that doesn’t mean that they are all like that, but still there would be some who are not that smart and that rich.
    “Nancy’s Dad” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    P5 Converse Accident
    That teenager runs that red light. Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”
    Explanation: This fallacy is just like the accident fallacy but in here, it’s from particular to generalization. For example, they saw the teenager run the red light and assumed already that all teenagers are like that and pathetic. But we all know that we cannot assume from a particular to general.
    “Nancy’s Dad” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    A1 Equivocation
    I’m little! Cuties are little! Then of course I’m cute!
    Explanation: In this fallacy Nancy’s little brother used two meanings of a word that’s why the conclusion is messed up and it cannot support the premises because of the change in the meaning.
    “Nancy’s little brother” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    A2 Amphiboly
    Haha! Let the world see your beauty!
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because Veronica used two plausible meaning of beauty. For me, this fallacy is like and irony in figure of speech, because in the story Veronica is just teasing her classmate, but not really appraising her.
    “Veronica” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    A3 Accent
    Nancy’s brother plays with him when he’s bored.
    Explanation: In the story there is a part that when Nancy’s brother is bored his friend plays with him. But wait there can also be another meaning of this sentence. This also means, when his friend is bored, Nancy’s brother plays with him. That’s why this is a fallacy.
    “Me” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    A4 Composition
    Nancy’s brother thinks that his shorts make him good in playing basketball. Therefore, the NBA players would be really good if they wear his shorts.
    Explanation: In this situation, Nancy’s brother thinks that his shorts make him good in playing basketball, but I added that if that’s true, then every one can be good in playing basketball by just wearing his shorts.
    “Me” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    A5 Division
    Well! well! well! We all know that my daughter Nancy is beautiful, since I’m her mom, we can say that I’m the root of his beauty.
    Explanation: This fallacy is just like the other one, but in here Nancy’s mother said that her daughter is beautiful and it’s because of her. And that’s not a true/satisfactory conclusion.
    “Nancy’s Mom” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    D1 Red Herring
    Cops are useless because there are still crimes everywhere.
    Explanation: This statement of the father is a fallacy because it’s not because of the cops is useless that’s why crimes is still happening. It’s just their job to try to lessen it and help our country to overcome them.
    “Nancy’s Dad” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    D2 Slippery Slope
    Daughter! Don’t hang out with your friends anymore! They are bad influence! With your studies, life style, way of living, and many more! And next thing you’ll know is that your life is being ruined!
    Explanation: Just like what Nancy’s Dad told to her, this is a fallacy because, her father assumed already that if this happens, then that happens, and also that and that. And you’ll end up with this. And that’s what makes this statement a fallacy a slippery slope.
    “Nancy’s Dad” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

    D4 Straw Man
    Cheating is bad because it makes you sin. Sin is unpleasant to God’s eyes. Therefore, those who cheat are unpleasant to God’s eyes.
    Explanation: This fallacy is cool, because it ‘s just like fooling your enemy with a straw man made with hay, if they thought that the hay is demolished then that’s the time when they are being attacked. Just like in the statement.
    “Nancy’s teacher” = Nancy Drew the secret of the old cloak =

  18. Informal Fallacies

    The Little Prince – Antoine De Saint-Exupery

    1. “That is a hat, Then I would not talk about boa constrictors, or primeval forests, or stars.”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – the man is answers that it’s a hat and nobody mentions about a hat.

    2. “When at last I was able to talk to him. I said to him: But what are you doing here? … If you please draw me a sheep…”
    – Ignoratia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – He is asking if what he is doing in the dessert and the prince replied with a request for a drawing which draws the answer away of the question.

    3. “Grown-ups love figures. When you tell them you have made a new friend, they never say to you, what does his voice sound like? What games does he loves best? Does he collect butterflies? Instead they demand: how many brothers has he? How much does he weigh? How much money does his father make?”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – the boy is telling about his new friend, grown-ups asks much in figures and things that consider as earthly things rather than talking on how the he behaves.

    4. “You would have to say to them: I saw a house that costs $4,000. then they would exclaim: Oh what a pretty house that is!”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – the boy is talking about the cost of the house and the grown-up exclaimed figuratively (just like in no. 3).

    5. “Then it follows that they also eat baobabs? I pointed out to the prince that baobabs were not little bushes, but, on the contrary, trees as big as castles.”
    – Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance)
    – The prince is talking about the sheep eating grass and baobabs, then the man exclaimed that sheep can’t eat baobabs because its enormously big.

    6. “The king made a gesture, which took in his planet, and all the stars. Over all that? Asked the little prince. Over all that. The king answered.”
    – Accent
    – The king restated the question of the little prince with repeating the statement the meaning differs from a question to a statement.

    7. “I am drinking. Replied the tippler, with a lugubrious air.
    Why are you drinking? Demanded the little prince.
    So that I may forget. Replied the tippler.
    Forget what? Inquired the little prince, who already was sorry for him.
    Forget that I am ashamed, the tippler confessed, hanging his head.
    Ashamed of what? Insisted the little price, who wanted to help him.
    Ashamed of drinking.”
    – Slippery Slope
    – A series of cause and effect happens from the start to the end of the conversation.

    8. “Good morning , the little prince said to him. Your cigarette gone out.” Said the little prince. “Three and two make it five, five and seven make twelve. Twelve and three make fifteen. Said the businessman.”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – The businessman answers away of the point of the
    prince have.

    9. “And what good does it do you to own the stars?”
    “It does me the good of making me rich.”
    “And what good does it do you to be rich?”
    “It makes me possible for me to buy more stars, if any are discovered.”
    – Slippery Slope
    – From the question of the prince about owning a star
    they end up from sequence of stars.

    10. “Good morning, sir. Why have you just put up your
    lamp?” said the prince. “Those are the orders” said
    the lamplighter.
    – Argumentum Ad Verecundiam
    – The lamplighter let other reason for the question of the prince.

    11. “Where do you come from?” the old gentleman said to
    him. “What is that bog book?” said the little prince.
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – The business man is asking the prince but he replied
    with another question.

    12. “I have three volcanoes. Two volcanoes are active and
    the other is extinct. But one never knows.” Said the
    prince. “One never knows,” said the geographer.
    – Petitio Principii
    – The conclusion is restated by the geographer.
    13. “What does that mean ‘ephemeral’? ” said the little
    Prince. “whether volcanoes are extinct or alive, it
    comes for the same thing for us.”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – The geographer answers away of the prince’s question.

    14. “Where are the men?” said the little prince. “men?”
    said the flower.
    – Petitio Principii
    – The flower repeat what the prince said.

    15. “But if you tame me, then we shall need each other. To
    me, you will be unique in all the world. To you I shall
    be unique in the world.
    – Slippery Slope
    – The taming leads the effects written just like cause
    And the effect causing a reaction.

    16. “Men have no more time to understand anything, They
    buy things all ready made at the shops.”
    – Accident
    – The fox tells that all man shops ready made which
    Leaves for the prince to do the same.

    17. “On earth one sees all sort of things” said the fox. “But
    this is not on earth” said the little prince.
    – Converse Accident
    – The fox mistaken that the flower can tame human
    (on earth) but the fox didn’t know that it is from other
    planet where flowers also lives.

    18. “You are not all alike” he said. “As yet you are
    nothing. No one tamed you, and you tamed no one…”
    – Argumentum Ad Hominem
    – The prince used Abusive Ad Hominem because he
    directly defame the reose.
    19. “One could not die for you.”
    – Argumentum Ad Hominem
    – The prince defame again the roses.

    20. “they are pursuing nothing at all.” Said the switchman.
    “They are asleep there, or if they are not asleep they
    are yawning. Only the children are flattening their
    noses against the window-panes.”
    – Converse Accident
    – The switchman talk generally which is not true that
    some grown-up is widely awake.

  19. 1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “Since the class has no questions concerning the topics discussed in class, the class is ready for a test.”
     The students have no more questions regarding the topic, it means that they understood the lesson and they can already take the test.

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Prof. Smith says to Prof. White, “You are much too hard on your students,” and Prof. White replies, “But certainly you are not the one to say so. Just last week I heard several of your students complaining.”
     Prof. White attacked Prof. Smith personally, and it is so obvious.

    3. Argumentum ad Populum
    “But officer, I don’t deserve a ticket; everyone goes this speed. If I went any slower, I wouldn’t be going with the stream of traffic.”
     The guy appealed to the majority, to everyone that goes like his speed. So that, he would not have the ticket.

    4. Argumentum ad Misericordiam

    “Oh, Officer, There’s no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed.”
     The man, made the police man pity him by making an excuse so that he would not be given a ticket.

    5. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Chairman of the Board: “All those opposed to my arguments for the opening of a new department, signify by saying, ‘I resign.'””
     The Chairman scared his inferiors that when they disagree with his arguments, they will lose their jobs.

    6. Complex Question
    “Look very closely. You will see that no person and no circumstance can prevent you from becoming a self-understanding man or woman. Who is stopping you at this very moment? No one.” Vernon Howard, The Mystic Path of Cosmic Power (New Life Foundation, 1999), 64.
     This assumes something not true, or assumes a false dischotomy. The conclusion here is present.

    7. False Cause

    “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”

    — If this were a causal inference, then all short people would become emperors.
    8. Petitio Principii
    “Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree.” Oscar Wilde, De Profundis.
     Circular reasoning, he repeated what he said.

    9. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “I’m sure you can support the proposal to diversify into the fast food industry because if I receive any opposition on this initiative, I will personally see that you are transferred to the janitorial division of this corporation..”
     If the person didn’t support the proposal, he will be transferred to the janitorial division at the corporation.

    10. Petitio Principii
    “The soul is simple because it is immortal, and it must be immortal because it’s simple.”
     The conclusion just returned at the beginning.

    11. Accident
    “All persons are created equal, so since you made a C in this class, you haven’t been working as hard as you should.”
    Even though people are supposedly created equal politically, it does not follow that they are created equal in academic pursuits.”
     This comes from a statement which has a qualified meaning, as if it had no qualification whatsoever.

    12. Argumentum ad Misericordiam

    “Public Schools, K through 12, need to have much easier exams for students because teachers don’t fully realize the extent of the emotional repercussions of the sorrow and depression of the many students who could score much better on easier exams.”
     For the students to be able to have much easier exams, they also showed pity and sympathy with the hard works of the students.

    13. Accident
    “People are defined as rational animals. Therefore, you should spend more time reasoning and thinking rather than enjoying yourself with what you do.”
     This arises from believing the general premiss which has a qualified meaning applies in all circumstances without restriction.

    14. Converse Accident
    “Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”
     Not all teenagers run the red light.

    15. Strawman
    “Evolution is a religion, therefore it should not be taught in schools.”
     A person misrepresents his opponent’s argument, then the argument will be demolished, like here, the evolution was demolished.

    16. Argumentum ad Hominem
    “I can’t see that we should listen to Governor Smith’s proposal to increase the sales tax on automobiles. He has spent the last twenty years in state government and is hardly an unbiased source.”
     He judged Governor Smith with his past, not knowing or giving him the chance to explain what he knows.

    17. Equivocation
    “Feathers are light. But dark is the opposite of light, so no feathers can be dark.”
     The person used the word light in 2 different senses that created confusion.

    18. False Dichotomy
    “You’re either with us or against us.”
     This argument have two competing alternatives, although there’s more.

    19. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “No one has objected to Lander’s parking policies during the last month of classes, so I suppose those policies are very good.”
     Anyone didn’t complain about the parking policies that Lander proposed. Meaning, they are good, because they agreed with it.

    20. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
    “I had a very annoying squirrel who had gotten into my attic somehow… Anyway, I was really worrying about how I was going to get this squirrel out… I just said oh Lord, what am I going to do about this squirrel?… Well to my surprise, God answered me and said ‘speak to it and tell it to leave’… I said Squirrel, In the name of Jesus I command you to take your nest and leave and not return… And do you know what? I’ve never heard that squirrel again since… it’s gone!”
     Because it happened after the first, the other caused the other event.

  20. sir hindi poh ako ung gumawa nung sa Michael Angelo L. Bocado .. may nangaya lang poh nang name ko.. wala akong gawa sir…

  21. *FALLACY OF RELEVANCE (argumentum ad Baculum)
    >appeal to force.
    1. “Surrender now or prepare for fight, fight, fight…” James of team rocket, “Pokemon”
    >> James is recommending surrender to avoid harm and fight.

    *FALLACY OF REVELANCE (argumentum ad Ignorantian)
    >appeal to ignorance
    2. “Inuyasha said that he is smarter than Shipu, but he didn’t prove it, so it must be false.” Kagome, “Inuyasha”
    >>Kagome is stating that he don’t believe about what Inuyasha said because what Inuyasha said is not yet proven.

    *FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION
    >Complex Question
    3. “Hey, is this heaven?” Ray Liotta (Shoeless Joe), “Field of Dreams”
    >> The question can lead into different answers…

    *FALLACY OF RELEVANCE (argumentum ad verecundiam)
    > appeal to inappropriate Authority
    4. “My mom said so, therefore it must be so.” Momoko Sakura, “Chibi Maruko-chan”
    >>Maruko only believe because her mother said so. It don’t have any meaning and stronger reason.

    *FALLACY OF RELEVANCE (argumentum ad Hominem)
    >attack on the person
    5. “Shut up, you slowass driver. You drive like a bitch!” Mike, “Bad Boys”
    >> Mike use a direct word in attacking and hurting the feeling of the one he is talking to.

    *FALLACY OF RELEVANCE (argumentum ad populum)
    >appeal to popular prejudice
    6.”They are my friend because they are popular. It’s popularity my dear.” Karen, “Mean Girls”
    >>Karen shows that she is just after the popularity of her friends.

    *FALLACY OF RELEVANCE (argumentum ad misericordiam)
    >appeal to pity
    7. You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so sad and unhappy!” Sharpay, “High School Musical”
    >> Sharpay is asking for a higher grade because she know that she do her best therefore, she should get a very high grade.

    *DISTRACTION FALLACY (red herring)
    >missing the point
    8. “We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.” Jake, “Major League”
    >> Jake don’t know what to do about the popularity of the measure. Because even though it is popular it have many issues on this bond.

    *FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION (complex question)
    9. “How many times do I have to kill you, boy?” Jafar, “Aladdin”
    >>Jafar is asking about something that is hard to answer. His question may lead into different answers. Like, did Jafar killed the one he is talking to once?…

    *FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY (accent)
    10. “Itsetsek ko yan!” Hikoichi Aida, “Slam dunk”
    >>It is not clear what he would check.

    *FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION (false cause)
    11. “When the telephone was first introduced to Saudi Arabia, some contended it was an instrument of the devil. But others pointed out that, according to Moslem doctrine, the devil is incapable of reciting the Koran. When several verses of the Koran were recited and heard over the phone, skeptics were convinced that the instrument wasn’t evil.” Wall Street Journal (11.11.79).
    >> The phone is created to establish communication in every place in the world that lot of people use. This is not used or created by the devils. The Koran is holy so no devil can recite the Koran.

    *FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION (petitio principii)
    12. “Women write the best novels because men do not write novels as well.” Oscar Wilde, De Profundis.
    >> The reason here is restated in other term like Women and Men but prove the very same conclusion.

    *FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION (accident)
    13. “Thou shalt not kill; therefore, you should not try to control termites in your home or fight for your country.” Simon, “The Saints”
    >>Simon have a wrong interpretation about the 6th commandment of God. God allow us to fight if we need to.

    *FALLACY OF PRESUMPTION (converse accident)
    14. “As I drove to school this morning, not one car which was turning had its turn signal on. Thus, I conclude that drivers in South Koreans are not trained to drive very well.” Gekko, “Wall Street”
    >> Gekko believe that all the South Koreans are the same.

    *FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY (equivocation)
    15. “All Jackasses have long ears, Donkey is a jackass, and Therefore, Donkey has long ears” Shrek, “Shrek”
    >>Shrek believe that Donkey is truly a jackass so he conclude that Donkey has long ears.

    *FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY (amphiboly)
    16. “I am opposed to taxes which slow economic growth.” Ryan, “Wrongfully Accused”
    >>Ryan is connecting slow economic growth from taxs.

    *FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY (composition)
    17. “Every player on the team is a superstar and a great player, so the team is a great team.” Mitsuyoshi Anzai, “Slam Dunk”
    >> This is fallacious since the superstars might not be able to play together very well and hence they could be a lousy team.

    *FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY (division)
    18. “Thomas lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large.” Vada, “My Girl”
    >>Vada is making her own conclusion about what is the look of the apartment of Thomas.

    *DISTRACTION FALLACY (red herring)
    19. “I think there is great merit in making the requirements stricter for the graduate students. I recommend that you support it, too. After all, we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affected.” Jack Taylor, “One Fine Day”
    >>Jack Taylor is recommending a support to his acquaintance because of some affections that will happen to them if they support the making of the requirements stricter.

    *DISTRACTION FALLACY (false dilemma)
    20. “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.” Dusty, “Three Amigos”
    >>Dusty is asking his friend about his decision.

  22. ::::Informal Fallacies::::

    [][][]FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE[][][]

    R1: Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    (Appeal to Ignorance)

    “Kids Are Afraid of the dark.”
    -Marv (Home Alone)

    –Marv immediately concluded that kids
    are afraid of the dark without any
    proof or evidence.

    ===================================

    R2: Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Authority)

    “I am here because Dumbledore asked
    me. End of story, Goodbye, The end.”
    -Mad Eye Moody (Harry Potter and the GoF)

    –an example of intellectual laziness.
    he let other people to reason out on
    his behalf.

    ===================================

    R3: Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack on the Person)

    “Hm! Teenagers! they think they know
    everything. You give them an inch, they
    swim all the way.”
    -Sebastian (The Little Mermaid)

    –Sebastian attacked teenagers to make
    others have a bad impression to teens.

    ===================================

    R4: Argumentum ad Populum
    (Appeal to popular prejudice)

    “Those who say that extrasensory perception
    is not reliable are mistaken. The Police,
    hollywood stars, and politicians have all
    relied on it.”
    -Caught in the act (pamphlet)

    –This statement creates a bandwagon thinking
    making other person also believe on it.

    ===================================

    R5: Argumentum ad Baculum
    (Appeal to force)

    “You ought to try to study harder this year,
    John, because it will spare your dad the
    embarrasment of a not from your teacher telling
    him you’re not doing well in school.”
    -Teenage Years (2001)

    –John was forced to study harder because of the
    consequence that he does not want to happen.

    ===================================

    R6: Argumentum ad Misericordiam
    (Appeal to Pity)

    “Now, You’ll hurt me if you dont trust me, all right?”
    – Johny (Dirty Dancing)

    –careful reasoning is replaced with direct threats.
    johny would be hurt if his partner would not trust him.

    [][][]Fallacies of Presumtion[][][]

    P1: Complex Question

    “You’re not a postal worker, are you?”
    -Gun Salesman (Jumanji)

    –The Gun salesman already assumed that
    the guy is a postal worker. He’s jumping
    into a conclusion without a warrant.

    ===================================

    P2: False Cause
    (non causa pro causa)

    “We’re done Frank. Now, get out of here
    before my ulcer starts bleeding”
    -Frank’s Boss (Hollow man 2)

    –The Prescence of frank has nothing to
    do with his boss’ ulcer bleeding.

    ===================================

    P3: Begging the Question
    (petitio principii)

    “Everything inside is eatable, I mean edible,
    I mean you can eat everything.”
    -Willy WOnka (Charlie and the chocolate factory)

    — Eatable, edible and “can eat everything” has
    only one meaning.

    ===================================

    P5: Converse Accident

    “As a result of a poll of 28 adults interviewed
    on Main Street in greenwood, S.C. on friday night,
    we conclude that all people in greenwod prefer
    going downtown to watching TV.”

    –the statement quickly jumped into a conclusion.
    it presumed few things to be general.

    [][][]Fallacies of Ambiguity[][][]

    A1: Equivocation

    “I ought always to do what is right. I have a
    right to say what i think. therefore, I Ought
    always to say what I Think.”
    -Minna (Love Monster)

    –This statemet uses one word in a two
    different meaning which is RIGHT. The conclusion
    drawn is wrong becuase the word RIGHT is used in a
    two different meaning.

    ===================================

    A2: Amphiboly

    “A description of a candidate who is woefully inept:
    I most enthusiastically recommend this candidate
    with no qualifications whatsoever.”

    — The use of with no qualifications whatsoever
    made the statement to have more than one meaning.

    ===================================

    A3: Accent

    “Im in love with Robbie six years ago.”
    -Linda (The Wedding Singer)

    –the follow-up question would be
    HOW ABOUT NOW? it has a different emphasis
    if we’re going to study it very well.

    ====================================

    A4: Composition

    “Priests take a vow of poverty.
    The Church is a corporate body composed of priests.
    Therefore, the Church should not own property.”

    –the argument moves from part to whole.

    ====================================

    A5: Division

    “Water extinguishes fire. Water contains Oxygen.
    therefore, Oxygen will extinguish fire.”

    –as you can see, it derives a wrong conlcusion.
    the passage made a wrong combination of separate
    thoughts into a one unit.

    [][][]Distraction Fallacies[][][]

    D1: Red Herring
    (Missing the point)

    “We do not claim to have achieved perfection,
    but we have a system and it works.”
    -klaatu (The day the earth stood still)

    –as you can see, a system and perfection
    has no connections at all.but in this case,
    system was used to make the reader/listener
    to agree to the first statement.

    =====================================

    D2: Slippery Slope

    “We’ve got to stop them from banning pornography.
    Once they start banning one form of literature,
    they will never stop. Next thing you know, they will
    be burning all the books!”

    –In these statement, we could see that the consequences
    lead into a something which is unclear.

    ======================================

    D3: False Analogy

    “Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be
    hit in the head in order to make them work, so
    must employees.”
    -Reader’s Digest November 2001.

    –as you can see, it reached a conclusion by
    likening or comparing two incomparable cases.

    ======================================

    D4: Straw Man

    “Cotraceptives is a method of birth control.
    Birth control is like killing a child.
    Therefore, contraceptives is another way of killing.”
    -Reader’s Digest Mother’s day Special

    –contraceptives just STOP birth, but it does
    not kill a child.

    ======================================

    D5: False Dilemma

    “”You’re either with us or against us in the fight
    against terror”
    -George Bush (2001)

    –The presentation of a false dilemma often reflects
    a deliberate attempt to eliminate the middle ground
    on an issue.

  23. Petition Principii
    (Begging the Question)
    1. “Pre-marital sex is bad because it is morally wrong.”
    The premise “Pre-marital sex is morally wrong” is exactly the same as the conclusion “Pre-marital sex is bad”. “Morally wrong” is the equivalent of the term “bad”.
    2. “Cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health because it will risk your life.”
    The premise “Cigarette smoking will risk your life” is exactly the same as the conclusion “Cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health”.
    False Cause
    (non causa pro causa)
    3. “ My sister got sick after ignoring the chain letter.”
    Breaking the chain letter does not mean that one will get sick. So it does not follow that because the sister of the speaker did not adhere to the demand of the chain letter, she will get sick already.
    4. “ My groom left me for another woman because I tried my wedding gown before my wedding day.”
    Old people always caution the bride not to try the wedding gown before the wedding day or else the wedding won’t push through. Such reasoning is fallacious because the two events are not causally related.
    Fallacy of Presumption (Complex Question)
    5. “Have you really finished your course?”
    The question not only elicits one answer. The unstated question is “Have you been serious in your undergraduate study?” The next question may be “How many years did you finish your course?”
    Fallacy of Presumption (Accident – Sweeping Generalization)
    6. “The new professor is a graduate of Ateneo. For sure, he can be a Chair of the English Department.”
    While graduates of Ateneo are known to have a good command of the English language, this does not mean that he has all the qualifications required in becoming a Department Chair.
    7. “He is a Muslim from Mindanao. He is a terrorist.”
    According to news, some terrorists are Muslims from Mindanao. But this does not follow that if one is a Muslim from Mindanao, he is automatically a terrorist.”
    Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    8. “Fathers don’t talk much. They are anti-social.”
    Usually, fathers seldom talk. But it is a hasty generalization if we say that fathers are anti-social. There are fathers who also talk a lot. And there are fathers who are sociable.
    9. “Jermaine is a very rich girl, so is Jillian. They study in La Salle. Therefore, all students in La Salle are very rich.”
    You can’t make an inference on just the sample of he entire thing. It does not mean that if you study in La Salle, you are very rich already.
    Ignorantio Elenchi Red Herring (Missing the point)
    10. “Why do we have to pay our taxes when our government is corrupt.”
    We can see so much corruption in our government. But that does not mean that we have to negate from our duty of paying our taxes.
    11. “I don’t need to respect my father. After all, he left us when we were still small.”
    Although the father here had abandoned the family when the speaker was still small, this does not mean that the speaker should not respect the father anymore.
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    12. “Reproductive Health Bill should not be passed because my Theology professor says so.”
    One has to examine the pros and cons of the Reproductive Health Bill. Perhaps, the Theology professor believes that the Bill is not for a country like ours. But the Theology professor is not an authority to for an honest and unbiased opinion.
    13. “Divorce should not be applied in a Catholic country like the Philippines because our Parish Priest included that in his homily.”
    Again, the Parish Priest is not the sole authority in an issue like divorce. In this cae, we let others do the reasoning for us.
    Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack on the Person)
    14. “Union is communism. Union leaders are communists who only agitate their members. We should ban unionism in the country.”
    The attack here is directly against the union leaders. It seeks to discredit the union leaders by calling them communists who only fires the emotions of the members.
    15. “I know him. He was my classmate in college. He was so damned lazy. If you’ll ask my opinion, I would not accept him in our company.”
    This also called “poisoning the well”. It is unfair to the classmate. The classmate who may be an applicant to the company is not there to defend himself. He had already been labeled as “damned lazy” before he could prove himself.
    Argumentum ad Populum
    (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    16. “Kris Aquino is considered by many as a strong woman. I like her because she projects that image.”
    This is considered as “mob mentality”. Since many consider Kris Aquino as a strong woman, the speaker thinks that her popularity is already a proof of her strength. This is a fallacious way of reasoning. Popularity is not a hallmark of what is perceived to be right.
    Argumentum ad Baculum
    (Appeal to force)
    17. “Take it or leave it!”
    Here the main reason that one should adhere is because of force. So as to avoid harm or further consequences, one must follow. Either s/he should take it or leave it.
    18. “If you don’t adhere to our principles, you’d better resign as a member of this organization.”
    This appeals to fear. There is threat in this. If one will not follow to the principles, then there is no other alternative but to resign from the organization.
    Argumentum Misericordiam
    (Appeal to pity)
    19. “Please consider my son in your College. My grandfather, my father and all my three brothers graduated from your institution. My family will be greatly proud if my son will benefit from more than a hundred years of Benedictine education.”
    The situation here is not a favorable one so the parent appeals to the Board of Admission for sympathy. However, the parent should not expect that the child will be considered because his grandparents and uncles being alumni of the school is no guarantee that the request will be granted by the Board.
    Amphiboly
    20. “See Manila for the pretty women at night.”
    The premise has a double meaning. The pretty women at night in Manila may mean that these women are either really pretty or these pretty women peddle themselves at night.
    18. “She had worked in a red house.”
    Again this premise has a double meaning. The red house where she had worked may mean the house was painted red or it may mean that she had worked in a prostitution house.
    Composition
    20. “Straight guys play basketball. He does not play basketball but loves to watch ballets and operas. He must be a sissy.”
    This is fallacious. What is true of the part is not a representation of the whole. Not all guys who loves to watch ballets and operas are gays.
    False Dilemma
    21. “Either we legalize gambling, or we let the poor be robbed of their meager means.”
    Only two alternative actions are given in this premise. The real reason may be hidden here. Legalizing gambling is given premium in this premise. Other options are not offered. There is distraction of truth in this.

  24. 1. ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM

    * Harry Potter: The Order of the Phoenix
    > “Voldemort is not alive! Stop inventin this nonsense!”

    The people in the Ministry of Magic did not believe that Voldemort is still alive until they found out in the end that Harry’s telling the truth.

    2. ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM

    *Kingdom of Heaven
    > “To kill an infidel is not murder, its the path to heaven.”
    -peasant

    The peasants believed that infidel is not a murderous act because they were influenced by the Crusaders.

    3. ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM

    * Click
    > “Please don’t let the kids hope for it again”
    – Donna Newman

    Adam Sandler’s wife in the movie told that he should not make their kids hope for a vacation trip that has never happened because he was busy at work.

    4. ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM

    * School of Rock
    > “Grown-ups drink beer, I think there is nothing wrong to try a bit?”

    The kids thought it would be okay to drink for they see adults drink alot.

    5. ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM

    * The Matrix
    “Go back to the fake life, or take the real like with the greater risk of killing yourself.”
    – Morpheus

    Neo can go back to his life but it’s riskier

    6. ARGUMENTUM MISERICORDIAM

    * Fun With Dick and Jane

    The part when Dick and Jane was fired and lost their company. Dick and Jane decided to rob their boss but they got caught in the end so they reasoned out that he fired them and so they had no source of income.

    7. FALSE CAUSE

    * LIKE MIKE

    The part when Calvin wore the magical rubber shoes and he played like Michael Jordan. He thought that it’s the shoes that made him a good player so he wore it every game.

    8. PETITIO PRINCIPII

    ” Pre-marital sex is immoral because it is not moral.

    9. CONVERSE ACCIDENT

    ” The girl from UST is very religious, Thomasians must be religious.”

    10. EQUIVOCATION

    ” Everybody deserves a second chance. I made a first mistake therefore I should be given a second chance.”

    11. DIVISION

    ” We all know that Ateneo and La Salle are rivals. My friend is from Ateneo and my other friend is from La Salle, they must be rivals too.”

    12. STRAW MAN

    ” Making white lies is evil because it is a for of lie. Making lies is evil. Therefore, making white lies is evil.”

    13. ACCIDENT

    ” He is a Muslim. He is a Terrorist.”

    Sir sobrang wala na ako maisip kaya eto lang po. Wag niyo na ako minusan please konti na nga lang po toh eh. =( We’ll gonna miss you Sir Odch! =D

  25. CONTINUATION!

    8. The line just got the opposite of moral to define pre-marital sex.

    9. The one who saw the girl thinks that Thomasians are religious because he/she saw a very religious girl who is a Thomasian.

    10. He justified that he should get a 2nd chance based from the famous saying “Everybody deserves a second chance” .

    11. He thinks that all students from the archrivals, Ateneo and La Salle, are against each other.

    12. He just twisted the conclusions to explain something.

    13. He concluded that all Muslims are terrorist because based on facts, some terrorists came from the Muslim clan.

  26. 1. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Listen, Judy. I really need to know what you’re doing here. Otherwise, I’ll have to call the police” –Kendra Bishop/ ‘The Black Sheep’.
    -Kendra threatens that she’ll call the police so that she can force Judy to tell her what she’s dong in Kendra’s house.
    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “My mom took me to see Mel Gibson’s movie The Passion, and Mel Gibson says you (Jews) are snakes, and you are liars. And if the Road Warrior says it, it must be true.” – Eric Cartman/ South Park
    Eric believes Jews are snakes and liars just because his favorite actor says so.
    3. Argumentum ad Hominem
    “I can’t believe I thought she (Vicky) was my friend. She’s not a friend, she does not care about me….I shouldn’t care, she’s nobody to me. She can be a slut if she wants.” –Mel Browne/ ‘How to be bad’.
    Mel doesn’t want to be friends with Vicky anymore so she convinces herself by verbally insulting Vicky.
    4. Argumentium ad Ignoratiam
    “Everyone knows that only poor people get lice.”- Eric Cartman/ Southpark
    Nobody really knows if only poor people get lice. Eric is just being prejudicial.
    5. Petitio Principii
    “I’m not fat, I’m festively plump”- Eric Cartman/ South Park
    Fat and festively plump have the same meaning. It’s just that the latter sounds much nicer.
    6. False Analogy
    “Yea, hippie and a terrorist is the same thing” – Eric Cartman/ South Park
    Hippie and terrorist are not the same thing. Eric only said that because he hates both a hippie and terrorist, and that makes the two the same for him.

    7. Composition
    “Stan: You know, I think I’ve learned something today. It’s really easy not to think of images on TV as real people, but they are. That’s why it’s easy to ignore those commercials but people on TV are as real as you or I.
    Kyle: That means that MacGyver is a real person too.
    8. Complex Question
    “Stan, we’re still Valentines, right?”- Wendy/ South Park
    9. Argumentum Misericordiam
    “This isn’t just for me. You’re a part of the community, and you aren’t getting kicked out without discussion. You are far too important to us all—even the ones who would never admit it. We need you.” – Ian O’Shea/ ‘The Host’
    Ian uses other people to make Wanda stay with him.
    10. Accent
    “Dingdong is one of the hottest men today”- Boy Abunda/ The Buzz
    The emphasis that Boy gave on ‘today’implies another meaning, that maybe Dingdong will not be one of the hottest men tomorrow, that he only belongs to the list now.
    11. False Cause
    “We started crossing paths with the werewolves about seventy years ago…. We thought the line had died out with Ephraim, that the generic quirk which allowed the transmutation had been lost…. Your bad luck seems to get more potent every day. Do you realize that your insatiable pull for all things deadly was string enough to recover a pack of mutant canines from extinction? If we could bottle your luck, we’d have a weapon of mass destruction.” –Edward/ ‘Eclipse’
    Edward accuses, only teasingly, that the comeback of the werewolves has anything to do with Bella’s bad luck. When it truth, it does not have anything to do with her luck. The wolves came back to protect their people from the threats of vampires.
    12. Complex Question
    “Bella and I were just talking about next year. Have you decided where you’re going to school?” – Charlie Swan/ ‘Eclipse’
    -Charlie assumes that Edward will go to school next year, when we really don’t know for sure if he will.
    13. Accent
    Wanda: “…Jared was with Jamie. Our brother! Are they here? Did they come? Did you find them, too?
    Jeb: “No.”
    Jeb’s answer was forceful; there was no pity in it, no feeling at all. We don’t know if his answer is, “No, they’re not here with us” or if he’s only saying ‘No’ to hide the fact that Jared and Jamie are with them.
    14.
    “Yeah, well, I think the, uh, chess is a little bit like life. It scares people, intimidates them, and that’s why they invented checkers.”
    15. Argumentum ad Populum
    Everybody says that this Iranian comedy is a real barrel of laughs, so I borrowed it from the video store. Wanna watch it?”- Jamie/ “Pop!”
    Jamie borrowed the movie because he heard from everyone that it was funny though, it is unknown if it will appeal to him, too.
    16. Amphiboly
    Caroline: “Oh my God, did you do it?”
    Marit: “Do What?”
    Marit did not know what Caroline was talking about; if she was talking about an audition Marit went to, if Marit had sex with her boyfriend, or etc.

  27. IRON MAN
    1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate authority)
    Stark to media: “++I’m shutting down the weapons manufacturer!++”
    Starks’ father friend to Stark: “++We’ll make weapons. You what to do is falling the world into the chaos.”++
    —-Tony Stark is the new owner of the company; his father’s friend has no authority to dictate what Mr. Stark is going to do. Because he is the new owner”
    THE LITTLE MERMAID

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)
    “++Hm! Teenagers! they think they know
    everything. You give them an inch, they
    swim all the way.++”
    —-Sebastian attacked teenagers to make
    others have a bad impression to teens.
    MEAN GIRLS

    3. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular predjudice)
    ”++They are my friend because they are popular. It’s popularity my dear++.” Karen
    —-Karen shows that she is just after the popularity of her friends.

    IRON MAN
    4. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)
    ++Terrorist to translator to Mr. Stark: “I want you to create a Jericho missile for me. Or else I will torture you! And when you done. I will set you free. ”++
    —-The terrorist is threatening Mr. Stark to be torture if and only if he builds a missile.

    HIGH SCHOOL MUSICAL
    5. Argumentum ad Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)
    ++You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so sad and unhappy!”++ Sharpay
    —-Sharpay is asking for a higher grade because she know that she do her best therefore, she should get a very high grade.

    CHARMED
    6. Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the point)
    ++Piper: Why are you being so stubborn about this?++
    ++Phoebe: Because I’m a Scorpio, what’s your excuse?++
    —-Phoebe being a Scorpio cannot be the reason for her being stubborn. Getting basis on zodiac signs does not hold rationality nor logic.

    SE7EN
    7. Complex Questions
    ++David Mills: Do you like what you do for a living?++
    —-David Mills assumes that the person he is talking to already has ‘something to do for a living’ or a job.

    EDWARD SCISSORHANDS
    8. False Cause (non causa pro causa)
    ++Kim: (talking about Edward) You see, before he came down here, it never snowed. And afterwards, it did. If he weren’t up there now… I don’t think it would be snowing. Sometimes you can still catch me dancing in it++.
    —-Edward cannot be the cause of snow, he does not hold this power. The cause of snow is water vapor.

    ONE TREE HILL
    9. Petitio Principii (Begging the question)
    ++Rachel: Everybody can’t be popular because if they were, no one would be popular.++
    —-The argument only creates a cycle.

    THE O.C.
    10. Converse Accident (Hasty generalization)
    ++Vincent: Want some bacon?++
    ++Jules: No man, I don’t eat pork.++
    ++Vincent: Are you Jewish?++
    —-Vincent generalizes the Jews. His view is that, all Jews do not eat pork which is unlikely.

    PULP FICTION
    11. Amphiboly
    ++Lance: If you’re all right, then say something.++
    —-What does Lance actually mean? Should word “something” be said or should a word, not necessarily something be uttered? It is unclear.

    ELIZABETH
    12. Accent
    ++Claire Colburn: Men see things in a box, and women see them in a round room.++
    —-The emphasis on the word “them” might pertain to men or it might pertain to things in box. The meaning can shift.

    THE THIRTEEN TALE
    13. Composition
    ++Vida Winter: I am human. Like all humans, I do not remember my birth.++
    —-Though this the possibility of this holds true, Vida Winter cannot sum up humanity based on herself alone.
    Signs

    14. Red Herring (Missing the Point)
    ++ Morgan: It’s not contaminated; you don’t even know what that word means.++
    —- Not knowing the meaning of “contaminated” does not make it uncontaminated. It is irrelevant.

    COLORS OF CHAOS
    15. Slippery Slope
    ++ If you do not survive what you do now, you will not reach the future. If you do not think now about where you go, you will have precious few choices when you reach next year or the years after.++
    —- Failing to accomplish what one does at the present does not necessarily mean one will have few or fewer choices. There are infinite possibilities of upcoming events.

    FIGHT CLUB
    18. False Analogy
    ++ Tyler Durden: Shut up! Our fathers were our models for God. If our fathers bailed, what does that tell you about God?++
    —- The bailing of fathers does not tell something about God. They are only models. Models cannot define the creator.

    KILL BILL1
    19. Straw Man
    ++ Hattori Hanzo: [Japanese] Oh, so you’d be General, huh? If you were General, I’d be Emperor, and you’d STILL get the sake. So shut up and get the sake.++
    —- For Hattori Hanzo putting himself into a higher position such as Emperor, he clearly overrules the General and distorts the argument. He uses the state being of ‘Emperor’ as a right to command.

    AMERICAN GODS
    20. American Gods
    ++ It’s easy, there’s a trick to it, you do it or you die.++
    —- This is not the only alternative. Not doing the trick does not cause death. It can lead to other things, but not only death.

  28. **SIR, putol po pala na-send ko kanina. Eto na po yung totoo.

    1. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Listen, Judy. I really need to know what you’re doing here. Otherwise, I’ll have to call the police” –Kendra Bishop/ ‘The Black Sheep’.
    -Kendra threatens that she’ll call the police so that she can force Judy to tell her what she’s dong in Kendra’s house.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “My mom took me to see Mel Gibson’s movie The Passion, and Mel Gibson says you (Jews) are snakes, and you are liars. And if the Road Warrior says it, it must be true.” – Eric Cartman/ South Park
    Eric believes Jews are snakes and liars just because his favorite actor says so.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem
    “I can’t believe I thought she (Vicky) was my friend. She’s not a friend, she does not care about me….I shouldn’t care, she’s nobody to me. She can be a slut if she wants.” –Mel Browne/ ‘How to be bad’.
    Mel doesn’t want to be friends with Vicky anymore so she convinces herself by verbally insulting Vicky.

    4. Argumentium ad Ignoratiam
    “Everyone knows that only poor people get lice.”- Eric Cartman/ Southpark
    Nobody really knows if only poor people get lice. Eric is just being prejudicial.

    5. Petitio Principii
    “I’m not fat, I’m festively plump”- Eric Cartman/ South Park
    Fat and festively plump have the same meaning. It’s just that the latter sounds much nicer.

    6. False Analogy
    “Yea, hippie and a terrorist is the same thing” – Eric Cartman/ South Park
    Hippie and terrorist are not the same thing. Eric only said that because he hates both a hippie and terrorist, and that makes the two the same for him.

    7. Division
    “Stan: You know, I think I’ve learned something today. It’s really easy not to think of images on TV as real people, but they are. That’s why it’s easy to ignore those commercials but people on TV are as real as you or I.
    Kyle: That means that MacGyver is a real person too.
    From Stan’s statement, Kyle presumes that MacGyver is true (MacGyver is a fictional character from a show with the same name.)

    8. Complex Question
    “Stan, we’re still Valentines, right?”- Wendy/ South Park

    9. Argumentum Misericordiam
    “This isn’t just for me. You’re a part of the community, and you aren’t getting kicked out without discussion. You are far too important to us all—even the ones who would never admit it. We need you.” – Ian O’Shea/ ‘The Host’
    Ian uses other people to make Wanda stay with him.

    10. Accent
    “Dingdong is one of the hottest men today”- Boy Abunda/ The Buzz
    The emphasis that Boy gave on ‘today’implies another meaning, that maybe Dingdong will not be one of the hottest men tomorrow, that he only belongs to the list now.

    11. False Cause
    “We started crossing paths with the werewolves about seventy years ago…. We thought the line had died out with Ephraim, that the generic quirk which allowed the transmutation had been lost…. Your bad luck seems to get more potent every day. Do you realize that your insatiable pull for all things deadly was string enough to recover a pack of mutant canines from extinction? If we could bottle your luck, we’d have a weapon of mass destruction.” –Edward/ ‘Eclipse’
    Edward accuses, only teasingly, that the comeback of the werewolves has anything to do with Bella’s bad luck. When it truth, it does not have anything to do with her luck. The wolves came back to protect their people from the threats of vampires.

    12. Complex Question
    “Bella and I were just talking about next year. Have you decided where you’re going to school?” – Charlie Swan/ ‘Eclipse’
    -Charlie assumes that Edward will go to school next year, when we really don’t know for sure if he will.

    13. Accent
    Wanda: “…Jared was with Jamie. Our brother! Are they here? Did they come? Did you find them, too?
    Jeb: “No.”
    Jeb’s answer was forceful; there was no pity in it, no feeling at all. We don’t know if his answer is, “No, they’re not here with us” or if he’s only saying ‘No’ to hide the fact that Jared and Jamie are with them.

    14.
    “Yeah, well, I think the, uh, chess is a little bit like life. It scares people, intimidates them, and that’s why they invented checkers.”

    15. Argumentum ad Populum
    Everybody says that this Iranian comedy is a real barrel of laughs, so I borrowed it from the video store. Wanna watch it?”- Jamie/ “Pop!”
    Jamie borrowed the movie because he heard from everyone that it was funny though, it is unknown if it will appeal to him, too.

    16. Amphiboly
    Caroline: “Oh my God, did you do it?”
    Marit: “Do What?”
    Marit did not know what Caroline was talking about; if she was talking about an audition Marit went to, if Marit had sex with her boyfriend, or etc.

    17. Equivocation
    “Alaina loves horror movies.
    Horror movies consist of Ghosts.
    Alaina love ghosts.”
    Even though, Alaina loves Horror movies, it does not necessarily follow that she love ghosts. Maybe she only love the story plot, or what ever that makes horrormovies interesting to her.

    18. Composition
    “Cartons of Milk from China have Melamine. Therefore, all products from China have Melamine.”
    We’re not sure if all the products from China have melamine but we shouldn’t rely our generalization with just one thing.

    19. Ignorantio Elenchi
    “You should finish eating your food. Many kids now are suffering from hunger because they don’t have any money to buy some. You are lucky your parents are able to give you anything you want.”
    It is true that many kids now are suffering from hunger but that’s another topic. Finishing eating the food won’t solve the hunger crisis that many kids experience today.

    20. Slippery Slope
    “You should not get married right after you finish college. If you do, you won’t get any job, your family will be miserable, you’ll all be poor. It’ll be a wrong move.”
    Getting married at that time might be too soon for you won’t get a chance to explore your single life much further. But, it is unlikely that getting married soon will lead to those events. It’ll be difficult to find a job, but it won’t be impossible.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: