2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—”

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–”

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

49 Responses

  1. 1. “Hope is essential to your life as important as water. You cannnot survive and live without hope!”

    -Rick Warren( the purpose driven life)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    this is possibly true! If you are a a Catholic, however it is only true because it hasn’t been proven false.

    2. “If you dont have God beside you, you will never reach your full potential.”

    -Rick Warren(the purpose driven life)
    Argumentum ad Baculum

    you only will believe this kind of fallacy due to you being threat of not reaching your goal if you don’t have God beside you.

    3. “There is peace and serenity in oneself because God is there. God gave it to us.”

    -Rick Warren( the purpose driven life)
    Red Herring( missing the point)

    the real topic discusses about the peace and serenity in oneself, but it really doesn’t connect with serenity being given by God.

    4. “You should give thanks and praise God, because sooner or later you will realize what you are doing is wrong and eventaully your life will be mislead.”

    -Fr. Raymund Castillo(Parish Priest)
    Slippery Slope

    this is a chain reaction, in order to have this, you should do this. Or you shouldn’t do this to not have this or vice versa. Most likely a consequence.

    5. “It is either we study our history for the better or not study it at all and allow undesirable things in the past to repeat itself.”

    -Business Economics IV
    Fasle Dilemma

    this are just some reason why studying history is important, but to think of it, even if we study history it is up to the people if they are going to follow and prevent things from happening again. This is not our only way to prevent bad things to happen.

    6. “IF you are really sorry, yoy should have said I Love you!”

    -Sr. Diego Odchimar III
    Amphiboly

    this statement has many meaning, it differs in the point of view of a person. Maybe for Sr. Diego, the meaning is different and the meaning is also different in my point of view..

    7. “Please believe in me, I am not crazy. If you dont believe in me, many will suffer.”

    -Halle Berry (Gothika)
    Argumentum ad Misericordiam

    there is a threat for the person if he would not believe. There is a bad consequence when this action is taken for granted.

    8. “Have you changed your living style? Are you a better person now after you have read the book?”

    -Rick Warren(the purpose driven life)
    Fallacy of Presumption( Complex Question)

    this questions have many meaning , it is somehow asking the person or telling him or her if his or her bad attitude changed. meaning the life of the person before is bad! That is what the person is really asking!

    9. “Whe the government is being judged for the lack of rice in the country, the government immediately diverted the issue on the Electric Subsidy to think that it will lessen the burden of many Filipinoes.”

    -the Philippine people
    Ignorantio Elenchi

    the point was diverted into a new topic to give less emphasis on the more critical topic.

    10. “Practice makes perfect, Nobody is perfect so why practice?”

    -Bob Ong Jokes
    Equivocation

    This is one stupid fallacy, there is no real and factual explanation regarding the fallacy that is why there is something wrong with the formality of the statement.

    11. “Abortion is bad because it is not good.”

    -the Church
    Petitio Principii

    this is like a circular statement, is not good because it is bad and it is bad because it is not good! The explanation is really not clear and therefore considered as a fallacy!

  2. 1. “For thousands of years Christians have believed in Jesus Christ. Christianity must be true, to have persisted so long even in the face of persecution.”

    (It is not the antiquity of a tale that is an evidence of its truth; on the contrary, it is a symptom of its being fabulous.) -Argumentum ad antiquitatem

    2. “A flood as described in the Bible would require an enormous volume of water to be present on the earth. The earth doesn’t have a tenth as much water, even if we count that which is frozen into ice at the poles. Therefore no such flood occurred.”

    (It is, of course, possible that some unknown process occurred to remove the water. Good science would then demand a plausible testable theory to explain how it vanished.)
    – argumentum ad ignorantiam

    3. “My client is an integral part of this community. If he is sent to prison not only will this city suffer but also he will be most missed by his family. You surely cannot find it in your hearts to reach any other verdict than not guilty.”

    (Presumably, a client’s guilt or innocence of a crime is not determined by being a part of the community or being missed by his family. Since we are to feel sorry for the client.)
    – Argumentum ad misericordiam.

    4. You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re not taking your school work seriously

    (The threat of embarrassment is as a reason for Samuel to study more diligently)
    – Argumentum ad baculum

    5. I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.

    (The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible)
    – petitio principii

    6. Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.

    (Simply from the fact that someone is in education, it does not follow that they would be prejudiced. What someone argues should be assessed on independent grounds from who they might be)
    – Argumentum ad Hominem

    7. It should be no surprise to you that if a Democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by Democratic administrations.

    (The reasoning is that since recessions are preceded by Democratic administrations, the Decocrats cause them)
    – false cause

    8. As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.

    ( The locutor is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances)
    – converse accident

    9. Those who say that extra-sensory perception is not reliable are mistaken. The police, Hollywood stars, and politicians have all relied on it.

    (I think either ad populum or ad verecundiam would be considered appropriate for this passage.)

    10. Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall

    (The general rule is being used in an instance not meant to be covered by the rule)
    -fallacy of accident

    11.Stanford produces the best graduates in the United States. Therefore, any every Ph.D. from Stanford is better than any other Ph.D. in the country.

    (the argument moves from whole to part)
    – fallacy of division

    12. I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.

    (The word ”right” is used in two different senses, what is ethically right and what is politically right)
    – fallacy of equivocation

    13. Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.

    (Because of the loose and awkward sentence construction the fallacy of amphiboly occurs.)

  3. 1. Einstein became a great physicist because his parents and his teachers left him alone to dream. Had they badgered him to study, he never would have gotten beyond the Swiss patent office.
    (Since there is no casual connection between “leaving someone alone to dream” & “becoming a great physicist,” the fallacy of false cause occurs)

    2. As I drove to school this morning, not one car which was turning had its turn signal on. Thus, I conclude that the drivers in this state are not well trained since they never use their turn signals.
    (The number of examples cited and the method of selection are not reliable methods of generalization; hence, the fallacy of converse accident occurs.)

    3. The best definition distinguishing man from other animals is that man is a rational animal. Therefore, you, as a person, should spend more time studying and using your brain than you should spend for partying.

    (Although all persons, as human beings, have rational capacities, it does not follow that in this specific case one should be rational more often–fallacy of accident.)

    4. I can see that you are greatly impressed by the power of logic and argument. Therefore, are you going to sign up for Philosophy 102: Introduction to Philosophic Inquiry this semester or next semester? It’s got to be one or the other.

    (The question presupposes that the listener will sign up for a logic course; hence, the fallacy of complex question occurs.)
    5. The Smithson Foundation is investigating whether or not police officers are using excessive force in traffic arrests of minorities. Hence, it is quite reasonable to conclude that some police officers, at least, use excessive force in that kind of arrest.
    (An investigation does not entail that any evidence has been forthcoming so far. Since no evidence is adduced, one cannot justifiably come to a conclusion. The fallacy of ad ignorantiam occurs in this passage.)
    6. The testimony of the defendant accused of manslaughter in this indictment should be disallowed because she has been arrested for shoplifting on many occasions.
    (Strictly speaking, one should evaluate the cogency of the testimony and evaluate it on its own merit. Fallacy of _ad_hominem_ occurs because being a shoplifter does not entail not telling the truth.)
    7. Why haven’t you written to your Mother as often as you should? You would feel much better about yourself if you would attend to the details of life which are this important.

    (The supposition that the Mother is not written to sufficiently often is assumed without evidence and is used as the evidence for drawing another conclusion; hence, the fallacy of complex question is committed.)
    8. It should be no surprise to you that the state is, again, headed into either a recession or a deep economic downturn. After all, a Republican has just been elected governor.

    (‘The locutor assumes, without evidence, that the election of a Republican will cause a slowing down of the economy. The fallacy of false cause occurs.)
    9. When I was shopping at Bess’s Fine Clothing, not one person gave me the time of day. I guess Bess’s is not a very friendly place to work.

    (The speaker is generalizing from one experience. More evidence would be necessary to reach the conclusion that Bess\’s is not a good place to work. The speaker commits the fallacy of converse accident.)
    10. John Bardeen, a professor at the Advanced Institute of Physics, has gone on record to say that the American Medical Association needs to raise its standards for physicians. The opinion of a man of that brilliance should not be disregarded.

    (An authority in physics is being cited outside of his field of expertise. The ad verecundiam fallacy occurs.)
    11. If we took a poll right now, almost every American would agree that a vaccine for AIDS will soon be found. Therefore, there can be little doubt that AIDS will be practically wiped out in the near future.

    (Simply from the fact that most persons believe a statement is true, it does not follow logically that the statement is true—ad populum fallacy.)
    12. I made low grades on my first tests in math and English. I must really be dumb.

    (Too few examples are used to justify such a conclusion; fallacy of converse accident is committed.)
    13. As a daughter when I was four, my father taught me the beauty of numbers, and I have excelled at mathematics ever since. My conclusion as to why females do not score as high on math tests? The males with a high aptitude for mathematics are not spending enough time with their daughters.

    (The author of this example assumes that her case would be typical of all or most other daughters if they had had similar experiences. Fallacy of converse accident occurs.)
    14. I think that the tests given in this class were more than fair, and I think you will agree with me because, if you do not, your grade in this course will certainly be in jeopardy.

    (The threat of a poor grade is logically unrelated to the fairness of tests; hence the ad baculum fallacy is committed.)
    15. The result of my doing well in economics is very simple. I eat Post Toasties for breakfast every morning for breakfast, and this breakfast helps my ability to analyze in great depth. I think it must be all those complex carbohydrates.

    (No causal evidence is given for the relation between eating a breakfast cereal and ability to analyze, so the fallacy of false cause occurs.)
    16. Oriental Philosophy is the best course taught at Lander University. I know this because all of my friends say so.

    (Although most friends think so, that doesn\’t make it so. The fallacy committed is ad populum.)
    17. Look Mr. IRS examiner, of course I owe taxes—I’m not denying that. However, I was unable to file on time because my wife was sick and my two children need my attention. Surely the IRS is not opposed to keeping the family together.

    (The unfortunate circumstances of the taxpayer are logically independent of his responsibility to pay his taxes—ad misericordiam fallacy.)
    18. Mr. Smith, maybe there is some truth in what you say about me being rude to sales people, but I have certainly heard may sales people complain about your manners, so you are certainly not the person to point this out to me.

    (The ad hominem variation of “you’re another” or tu quoque is offered.)
    19. Sir, don’t you want to look more closely at our aluminium siding for your new home? When we put this up, your home will take on the glow of beauty, and you will be admired by others as someone who cares. Not only that, but your life will be richer as you proudly invite others to your home to share the better way of life.

    (Some logicians would classify this passage of an instance of the ad populum fallacy.)
    20. It is easy to see that goodness is in the world and not just in our minds, because as we look at the world, some things are obviously not evil or indifferent in themselves.
    (Although good and evil are not complementary classes, this passage can be anaylzed as petitio principii, since ceteris paribus the meanings are similar enough to be circular reasoning. If this analysis is acceptable then, in a sense, this fallacy turns of the fallacy of false dichotomy)

  4. 1.Rule Number 5:”Show no love.Love will get you killed.”

    -Majestic(Get rich or die tryin’)
    Argumentum ad Baculum bec. there is a threat that he will get killed if he show love.

    2.”All my life,I had been looking for my father. i realized, i had been looking for myself.”

    -Marcus(Get rich or die tryin’)
    Equivocation bec. it doesn’t explain why he realized that he is looking for himself, not his father.

    3.”It felt like i was walking away from the old me, and the new me was being born.”

    -Marcus(Get rich or die tryin’)
    Fallacy of Presumption bec. this statement has many meanings,it does not say if he changed from good to bad person or from bad person to good person.

    4.”there is nothing on this earth more to be prized than true friendship”

    -Saint Thomas Aquinas(Friendship Quotes)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam. this is possibly true bec. it hasn’t been proven false.

    5.”friendship…it is not something you learn in school.but if you haven’t learned the meaning of friendship, you really haven’t learned anything”

    -Muhammad Ali(Friendship Quotes)
    Argumentum ad Baculum bec. there is a threat that if you haven’t learned the meaning of friendship, you haven’t really learned anything

    6.”The only way to have a friend is to be one. ”

    -Ralph Waldo Emerson(Friendship Quotes)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam.this is possibly true bec. it hasn’t been proven false.

    7.”An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.”

    -Mohandas Gandhi(Quotes about Peace)
    Fallacy of Presumption bec. if somebody doesn’t take an eye(everybody is good) then nobody will be blind.

    8.”Peace begins with a smile.”

    -Mother Teresa(Quotes about Peace)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam. this is possibly true bec. it is not proven false.

    9.”Success is going from failure to failure without a loss of enthusiasm.”

    -Winston Churchill(Quotes about Success)
    Amphiboly bec. it depends on each other peoples meaning of Success.

    10.”Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can’t lose.”

    -Bill Gates(Quotes about Success)
    Equivocation bec. in this fallacy, there is no real and factual explanation regarding the fallacy that is why there is something wrong with the formality of the statement.

    11.”Formula for success: rise early, work hard, strike oil.”

    -J.Paul Getty(Quotes about Success)
    Fallacy of Presumption bec.it does not say why you need to do it and there are other ways to succeed.

    That’s all thank you!^^

  5. 1.”Do no believe in him,he’s a liar!”
    (Abarai Renji)
    -Poisoning the Well

    2.”That’s a huge sword!”
    (Kurosaki Ichigo)
    -Appeal to Flattery

    3.”You cannot prove that he is the winner,so i am the winner…”
    (Ishida Uryuu)
    -Burden of Proof

    4.”I’m sure that i will not disappoint you,I will finish this job because Rukia is my friend”
    (Kurosaki Ichigo)
    -Appeal to Pity

    5.”Ghosts must be true,after all 86% in Japan says so that they belive in ghosts!!!”
    (just an ordianary character)
    -Appeal to belief

    6.”I was born to defeat Shinigami,and my fellow Quincy told me that a Shinigami killed my parents,so i will deafeat all the Shinigami!!”
    (Uryuu Ishida)
    -Genetic Fallacy

    7.”He wants us to defeat the Shinigami,but i dont believe in him,since he is only saying it because he’s a Quincy”
    (Don Kanonji)
    -Cicrumstantial Ad Hominem

    8″You dont believe in hollows? well then if you don’t its your own family that will suffer if you dont protect them since you’re the only one in this family who can see them”
    (Kuchiki Rukia)
    -Appeal to Fear

    9.”Sure,my rival shinigami says that he will defeat me,but that is just laughable!”
    (Ishida Uryuu)
    -Appeal to Ridicule

    10.”Yeah, I know some people say that cheating on tests is wrong. But we all know that everyone does it, so it’s okay.”
    (Kurosaki Ichigo)
    -Appeal to Common Practice

  6. 1)”just as expected from nobility, such bad chess skills…”
    – hasty generalization;Rivalz Cardemonde of Code Geass – lelouch of the rebellion

    2)”.. i’ll use the death note… to change the world..”
    -false dillema ; Yagami Light of Death Note

    3) Euphemia de Brittania : “.. kill all people calling theirselves Japanese..”
    Brittanian Soldiers: “Yes your highness!!!”
    apeal to authority ; Code Geass – lelouch of the rebellion

    4) Edward and Alphonse Elric reviving their mom just after their mom’s death.
    apeal to emotions ; Full Metal Alchemist

    5) “people must loes something to gain somethin ..” Edward Elric ;full metal alchemist
    apeal to belief

    6) “.. dont trust him, he is an Eleven..”
    Cornelia de Brittania to Kururugi Suzaku. Code Geass
    -lelouch of the rebellion
    poisoning the well

    7)”.. no Eleven can be a Honorary Knight … Brittanians only desereve them ….”
    Cornelia de Brittania to Kururugi Suzaku. Code Geass
    -lelouch of the rebellion
    division

    8)”… take my favorite blue lace with you.. it can serve as a lucky charm..”
    Kaoru to Kenshin ; Samurai X
    post hoc

    9)”.. no Eleven can touch a royal blooded Brittanian..”
    Cornelia de Brittania ; Code Geass
    -lelouch of the rebellion
    apeal to common practice

    10)”… it is against the Holy Briitanian Empire, if somebody knows it….”
    Rivalz Cardemonde of Code Geass – lelouch of the rebellion
    apeal to fear

  7. 1.”You’re either with us, or against us,” (False Dilemma)
    -Gaston tells fellow citizens of his village in Beauty and the Beast.
    2. “All that glitters is not gold. This rock glitters. Therefore, this rock is not gold.” (Amphiboly) -book The Road to Zanzibar (1941).
    3. I wish it were possible for men to get really emotionally involved in this question [abortion]. It is really impossible for the man, for whom it is impossible to be in this situation, to really see it from the woman’s point of view. That is why I am concerned that there are not more women in this House available to speak about this from the woman’s point of view. (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    -House of Commons Debates of Canada, Volume 2, November 30, 1979, p. 1920

    4. Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier. The recognition of that can take most of the sting out of accusations that you’re being “selfish.” Why should you feel guilty for seeking your own happiness when that’s what everyone else is doing, too? (Argumentum ad Populum)
    -Harry Browne, “The Unselfishness Trap”, from How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World (1973).

    5. The only policy that effectively reduces public shootings is right-to-carry laws. Allowing citizens to carry concealed handguns reduces violent crime. In the 31 states that have passed right-to-carry laws since the mid-1980s, the number of multiple-victim public shootings and other violent crimes has dropped dramatically. Murders fell by 7.65%, rapes by 5.2%, aggravated assaults by 7%, and robberies by 3%. (False Cause)
    -“The Media Campaign Against Gun Ownership”, The Phyllis Schlafly Report, Vol. 33, No. 11, June 2000.

    6. Of course your columnist Michele Slatalla was joking when she wrote about needing to talk with her 58-year-old mother about going into a nursing home. While I admire Slatalla’s concern for her parents, and agree that as one approaches 60 it is wise to make some long-term plans, I hardly think that 58 is the right age at which to talk about a retirement home unless there are some serious health concerns. In this era, when people are living to a healthy and ripe old age, Slatalla is jumping the gun. My 85-year-old mother power-walks two miles each day, drives her car (safely), climbs stairs, does crosswords, reads the daily paper and could probably beat Slatalla at almost anything.( Accident)
    -Nancy Edwards, “Letters to the Editor”, Time, 6/26/00.

    7. Barry Schweid of the Associated Press, in his efforts to criticize President Reagan’s space-based defense against Soviet missiles, came up with a report from some Stanford University group that claimed to find little evidence of cheating by the Soviet Union on arms-control treaties.
    Where were they when Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and George Shultz, secretary of state, and several members of our military forces went on TV and described and enumerated the different times and ways that the Soviet Union has cheated on the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty?
    Does Schweid really believe that the group at Stanford is more knowledgeable about U.S. arms-control policy than all our military experts, with Congress thrown in for good measure? If I thought that was true, I wouldn’t sleep much tonight. And I doubt if he would either. (Argumentum ad Verecundiam) -Middleton B. Freeman, Louisville, “Letters From Readers”, The Courier-Journal, April 1, 1987.
    8. WASHINGTON (AP)–The only exterminator in Congress told his colleagues Wednesday that it would be a short-sighted move to ban use of chlordane and related termiticides that cause cancer in laboratory animals.
    Supporters of the bill, however, claimed that the Environmental Protection Agency was “dragging its feet” on a chemical that could cause 300,000 cancers in the American population in 70 years.
    “This bill reminds me of legislation that ought to be introduced to outlaw automobiles” on the grounds that cars kill people, said Rep. Tom DeLay, R-Texas, who owns an exterminating business.
    EPA banned use of the chemicals on crops in 1974, but permitted use against termites because the agency did not believe humans were exposed. Chlordane does not kill termites but rather drives them away. (False Analogy) -Associated Press, June 25th, 1987
    9. Some of you may have seen the 90-minute ABC network television show…entitled “Growing Up in the Age of AIDS”.… I was one of nine guests on that live program.… …[A] single 45-second sound bite cost me a long journey and two hectic days in New York City.
    Why…did I travel to The Big Apple for such an insignificant role? …I felt a responsibility to express the abstinence position on national television.… How sad that adolescents hear only the dangerous “safe sex” message from adults who should know better.
    What follows, then, is what I would have said on television.…
    Why, apart from moral considerations, do you think teenagers should be taught to abstain from sex until marriage?
    …[N]ot one of 800 sexologists at a recent conference raised a hand when asked if they would trust a thin rubber sheath to protect them during intercourse with a known HIV infected person. … And yet they’re perfectly willing to tell our kids that “safe sex” is within reach and that they can sleep around with impunity. (Red Herring) -James C. Dobson, in a fund-raising letter for “Focus on the Family”, February 13, 1992.

  8. 1.“The Ford Taurus is the most popular selling car in its class. Shouldn’t you get a Taurus?”
    (Ad populum)
    -Being the most popular and the best selling car doesn’t guarantee that it is the best from the rest.

    2.“The White House sends for us every week. Shouldn’t you?” (magazine ad)
    (Ad verecundiam)
    -Using the White House for the advertisement doesn’t certify the truth of the conclusion.

    3. “Hot dogs are better than nothing. Nothing is better than steak.”
    Therefore, hot dogs are better than steak. (Dr. Johnstone (Penn State))
    (Equivocation)
    -The oddity of the conclusion should tell us that something has gone seriously awry with the argument – even though both premises are, on first blush, true.

    4. “My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.’
    (Ad verecundiam)
    -Even never being told so, smoking and drinking should be avoided.

    5. “It is wrong to kill innocent human beings. Fetuses are innocent human beings
    Therefore, it is wrong to kill fetuses.”
    (equivocation)
    – It is easy enough to argue that “innocent human beings” means two different things in the premises – and thus the argument equivocates. For example:
    innocent human being in premise 1 = “conscious of moral choice, but not guilty of committing/choosing an immoral act”
    innocent human being in premise 2 = “innocent because the fetus is not capable of moral intentions and choices in the first place”

    6. “We don’t want to break the law by serving alcohol to those in our social organization who are underage. But since the Epsilon Iota Quota’s serve alcohol to their underage members; I guess we can as well.”
    (Ad verecundiam)
    -Because Epsilon Iota Quota, being one of the best bar, that serve alcohol to minors doesn’t mean it is ok to do it so.

    7. Girlfriend: “Honey, does this dress make me look fat?”
    Boyfriend: “Say, babe, your hair is really gorgeous! And those earrings are a knock-out!” (Excerpts from a comic book)
    (Red herring)
    -Her boyfriend’s answer is misleading to her question. Her boyfriend doesn’t really answer the question.

    8. “Howard: You mean you take this Horoscope business seriously?
    Aunt: Yes, of course. Don’t you see how today’s horoscope fit you to a T?
    Howard: Yes, but…
    Aunt: No buts. There must be something to it.”
    (From Howard Kahane, Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric)
    (Converse accident)
    -Howard’s aunt jumps into conclusion when one of the horoscope predictions was true.

    9. “A friend of mine got food poisoning from MacDonald’s last week. I’m never going there again!”
    (converse accident)
    -Because of what happen, he assumed that all McDonalds are prone to food poisoning, which is not right.

    10. Ford is an American-made car. I owned a Ford, and it broke down all the time.
    A car that breaks down all the time is not very good. American-made cars are not very good.
    (converse accident)
    -The car owner concluded that American-made cars are not that great because of his experience, which is not good.

  9. 1.”Mada mada dane” or “not good enough”
    •Ryoma Echizen to Anyone he defeated – Prince Of Tennis
    •Argumentum Ad Hominem(Insulting his enemy)

    2.”Infinite in mystery is the gift of the goddess”
    •Genesis Rhapsodos reading Loveless Act1 Line1 – Final Fantasy 7 Crisis Core
    •Appeal to Ignorance(Gift from a Goddess?)

    3.”Echizen is a good tennis player because Fuji said so…”
    •Murmur of the audience during a tennis game – Prince of Tennis
    •Appeal to Inappropriate Authority(You should see for yourself how Echizen plays before believing)

    4.”When you get killed, you die”
    •Stellar Louisser – Gundam Seed Destiny
    •Begging The Question(basta pa ikot ikot lang yan)

    5.”You can’t prove that i really stepped on the line, so im the winner”
    •Mitsui to Rukawa – Slam Dunk
    •Burden of Proof(1v1 game eh so sila na ang REF)

    6.Prepare for trouble…
    …And make it double

    To protect the world from devastation…
    …to unite all people within our nation.

    To Denounce the evils of truth and love…
    …To extend our reach to the stars above.

    Jessie…
    …James
    Team Rocket blast off at the speed of light…
    …SURRENDER NOW OR PREPARE TO FIGHT.

    MEOWTH THATS RIGHT!
    •Team Rocket INTRO – Pokemon
    •Appeal to Force(their threatening everytime they say SURRENDER NOW OR PREPARE TO FIGHT!)

    7.”Magpractice ka hanggang malumpo ka”
    Akira Sendo to Sakuragi – Slam Dunk
    •Fallacy of Presumption (there is still other ways rather than hanggang malumpo ka)

    8.”People have hope
    because they cannot see death standing behind them”
    •Kuchiki Rukia – Bleach
    •Appeal to Fear(Creating fear for people)

    9.”Please don’t kill me… I still have…argh(dead)”
    •Villager to Luca Blight – Suikoden II
    •Appeal to pity(trying to beg for his life because of something)

    10.”That thing has a sealed mark in it, he is either homunculi or life transmuted thing…”
    •Someone to Alphonse Elric – Full Metal Alchemist
    •Sweeping Generalization0(the sealed mark represents something unique)

    11.”Peace is nothing but a result of war ”
    •Heero Yuy – Gundam Wing
    •Red Herring

    12.Everybody said that Pikachu is a great pokemon, so I want a Pikachu
    •Red to Ash – Pokemon
    •Appel to popular prejudice(popularity not guarantee a quality)

  10. 1. “Old man Brown claims that he saw a flying saucer in his farm, but he never got beyond the fourth grade in school and can hardly read or write. He is completely ignorant of what scientists have written on the subject, so his report cannot possibly be true.”

    One does not to be well educate to see well. Brown’s character is irrelevant to what he claimed to see – -ad hominem. Note that the accusation of being ignorant is a character attack, not a case of ad ignorantiam.

    2. “My client is an integral part of this community. If he is sent to prison not only will this city suffer but also he will be most missed by his family. You surely cannot find it in your hearts to reach any other verdict than “not guilty.”

    Presumably, a client’s guilt or innocence of a crime is not determined by being a part of the community or being missed by his family. Since we are to feel sorry for the client, the fallacy is ad misericordiam.

    3. “You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re not taking your school work seriously.”

    The threat of embarassment is as a reason for Samuel to study more diligently – ad baculum.

    4. “You will back up my story and tell the committee I am reasoning logically; because if you don’t I will do everything in my power to see that you are fired.”

    The use of a threat of force is being used to gain the acceptance of a conclusion — ad baculum.

    5. “I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so”

    The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible –petitio principii.

    6. “Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.”

    Simply from the fact someone is in education, it does not follow that they would be prejudiced. What someone argues should be assessed on independent grounds from who they might be–ad hominem.

    7. “In recent studies researchers have show that women have more accurate intuition than men do. The reason cited is that men’s intuition is more often mistaken.”

    The reson and the conclusion offered are logically the same, so the fallacy is petitio principii.

    8. |I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?”

    The salesman assumes you are going to buy a car and proposes he complex question on this basis.

    9. “John has really worked hard on his term project, and he will really be depressed if he does not make an A. For these reasons, you just have to give him an A on his project.”

    Strictly speaking, John’s grade should be based on the quality of the project, not how he might feel with respect to the how the project is assessed–ad misericordiam.

    10. “What is right is what is morally obligatory. What is morally obligatory is what you should do. Of course, you should do something because it is the right thing to do.”

    The reasoning is in a circle begining and ending with the same statement–petitio principii.

    11. “I can see that the efficiency with which the Tornado Home Vacuum System works and the marvelous way in which it saves on toil and drudgery in the home impresses you. Therefore, shall I charge it to your account or do you want to pay cash?”

    The salesperson assumes that you want to buy and proposes the complex question with this assumption.

    12. “If we wish to determine which of a person’s motives determine his actions, we need only examine which of the alternative courses of action he chooses to perform. Therefore, a person’s motives are determined by the actions he chooses to perform.”

    The argument moves from premisses which have the same meaning as the conclsion does–petitio principii.

    13. “A prosecutor states to the jury: “You cannot let this man go free because our society is not safe with him at large. Who knows who his next victim will be?”

    The prosecutor assumes the man is guilt. He raises the complex question based on the assumption of guilt. Note that this argument is not an ad baculum, per se,since if guilty, the threat might be relevant.

    14. “It should be no surprise to you that if a Democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by Democratic administrations.”

    The reasoning is that since recessions are preceded by Democratic administrations, the Decorats cause them; hence, post hoc ergo propter hoc or false cause.

    15. “As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.”

    The locutor is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances–converse accident.

    16. “How can we save our country from the bureaucratic dictatorship, the corruption, and the creeping socialism of the present administration? Only one way vote Independent.”

    Again, a complex question is given. The assumptions of the question need evidence to support them before considering the question itself.

    17. “I don’t care what your arguments are; you are using Mickey Mouse tactics. The arguments you give are simply tacky.”

    This “name-calling” fits into the fallacy of ad hominem.

    18. “Officer, please excuse my going over the speed limit, but my mother is ill and I’m being audited by the IRS, and I don’t know how I can meet all my bills.”

    Although the individual might deserve pity for his plight, that pity is irrelevant to whether he was speeding or not–ad misericordiam.

    19. “Why haven’t you been studying, as you should? You would feel a lot better if you would take you school work more seriously.

    The complex question assumes without evidence that you haven\t been studying.

    20. “Those who say that extra-sensory perception is not reliable are mistaken. The police, Hollywood stars, and politicians have all relied on it.”

    I think either ad populum or ad verecundiam would be considered appropriate for this passage.

  11. 1. “Old man Brown claims that he saw a flying saucer in his farm, but he never got beyond the fourth grade in school and can hardly read or write. He is completely ignorant of what scientists have written on the subject, so his report cannot possibly be true.”

    One does not to be well educate to see well. Brown’s character is irrelevant to what he claimed to see – -ad hominem. Note that the accusation of being ignorant is a character attack, not a case of ad ignorantiam.

    2. “My client is an integral part of this community. If he is sent to prison not only will this city suffer but also he will be most missed by his family. You surely cannot find it in your hearts to reach any other verdict than “not guilty.”

    Presumably, a client’s guilt or innocence of a crime is not determined by being a part of the community or being missed by his family. Since we are to feel sorry for the client, the fallacy is ad misericordiam.

    3. “You ought to try to study harder in school this year, Samuel, because it will spare your parents the embarrassment of a letter from the instructor telling them you’re not taking your school work seriously.”

    The threat of embarassment is as a reason for Samuel to study more diligently – ad baculum.

    4. “You will back up my story and tell the committee I am reasoning logically; because if you don’t I will do everything in my power to see that you are fired.”

    The use of a threat of force is being used to gain the acceptance of a conclusion — ad baculum.

    5. “I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so”

    The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible –petitio principii.

    6. “Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.”

    Simply from the fact someone is in education, it does not follow that they would be prejudiced. What someone argues should be assessed on independent grounds from who they might be–ad hominem.

    7. “In recent studies researchers have show that women have more accurate intuition than men do. The reason cited is that men’s intuition is more often mistaken.”

    The reson and the conclusion offered are logically the same, so the fallacy is petitio principii.

    8. |I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?”

    The salesman assumes you are going to buy a car and proposes he complex question on this basis.

    9. “John has really worked hard on his term project, and he will really be depressed if he does not make an A. For these reasons, you just have to give him an A on his project.”

    Strictly speaking, John’s grade should be based on the quality of the project, not how he might feel with respect to the how the project is assessed–ad misericordiam.

    10. “What is right is what is morally obligatory. What is morally obligatory is what you should do. Of course, you should do something because it is the right thing to do.”

    The reasoning is in a circle begining and ending with the same statement–petitio principii.

    11. “I can see that the efficiency with which the Tornado Home Vacuum System works and the marvelous way in which it saves on toil and drudgery in the home impresses you. Therefore, shall I charge it to your account or do you want to pay cash?”

    The salesperson assumes that you want to buy and proposes the complex question with this assumption.

    12. “If we wish to determine which of a person’s motives determine his actions, we need only examine which of the alternative courses of action he chooses to perform. Therefore, a person’s motives are determined by the actions he chooses to perform.”

    The argument moves from premisses which have the same meaning as the conclsion does–petitio principii.

    13. “A prosecutor states to the jury: “You cannot let this man go free because our society is not safe with him at large. Who knows who his next victim will be?”

    The prosecutor assumes the man is guilt. He raises the complex question based on the assumption of guilt. Note that this argument is not an ad baculum, per se,since if guilty, the threat might be relevant.

    14. “It should be no surprise to you that if a Democrat is elected in the next presidential election that we will have one of the worst recessions in years. Recessions always seem to be created by Democratic administrations.”

    The reasoning is that since recessions are preceded by Democratic administrations, the Decorats cause them; hence, post hoc ergo propter hoc or false cause.

    15. “As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.”

    The locutor is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances–converse accident.

    16. “How can we save our country from the bureaucratic dictatorship, the corruption, and the creeping socialism of the present administration? Only one way vote Independent.”

    Again, a complex question is given. The assumptions of the question need evidence to support them before considering the question itself.

    17. “I don’t care what your arguments are; you are using Mickey Mouse tactics. The arguments you give are simply tacky.”

    This “name-calling” fits into the fallacy of ad hominem.

    18. “Officer, please excuse my going over the speed limit, but my mother is ill and I’m being audited by the IRS, and I don’t know how I can meet all my bills.”

    Although the individual might deserve pity for his plight, that pity is irrelevant to whether he was speeding or not–ad misericordiam.

    19. “Why haven’t you been studying, as you should? You would feel a lot better if you would take you school work more seriously.

    The complex question assumes without evidence that you haven\t been studying.

    20. “Those who say that extra-sensory perception is not reliable are mistaken. The police, Hollywood stars, and politicians have all relied on it.”

    I think either ad populum or ad verecundiam would be considered appropriate for this passage….

  12. 1. “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance” (Harvard President Derek Bok, 1978)
    • There are ways to get inexpensive education (like scholarships and financial aids). A good education pays off but ignorance can only make you worthless.

    2. “Coke adds Life”
    • During the 80’s. this quote was popularized for advertisement purposes. Obviously, Coke, or any softdrinks at all is not good for the health. It ironically shortens life because it can cause diabetes. (In the ‘80’s, there was no Coke Diet nor Coke Zero yet.)

    3. The recent issue about contraception:
    • The Catholic church says that: “Contraception of any form is like killing”. >DOH says: “Contraception is just a prevention of conception.”
    • The two institutions won’t understand each other because the church believes that even this “prevention” is already a killing since life itself is prevented from developing. DOH insists that as long as there is no life yet (no zygote), there are no killings done yet.

    4. “Everybody Knows That!” (‘Barney Fife’ from The Andy Griffith Show)
    • Not all things are known to everybody.

    5. “Drinking one glass of wine a day is good for your heart.”
    • The implication is that it is good to drink a glass a day. But although moderate drinking is good for your heart, it raises the risk of breast cancer.

    6. Presidential Debate Fallacies
    Obama said: Now, we also have to recognize that [the financial crisis] is a final verdict on eight years of failed economic policies promoted by George Bush, supported by Senator McCain, a theory that basically says that we can shred regulations and consumer protections and give more and more to the most, and somehow prosperity will trickle down.
    After Obama had beaten the stuffing out of that straw man, McCain attacked a straw plan:
    …I want to make sure we’re not handing the health care system over to the federal government which is basically what would ultimately happen with Senator Obama’s health care plan. I want the families to make decisions between themselves and their doctors. Not the federal government.
    According to The Washington Post’s fact checker, Obama’s plan will support the purchase of private health insurance through tax credits and subsidies, as well as mandating insurance for children, which isn’t a federal take-over of the health care system. McCain seems to have forgotten that Obama, not Hillary Clinton, is his opponent.
    Sources:
    • “Transcript of Presidential Debate” CNN, 9/26/2008
    • Michael Dobbs, “Debate Live Fact Check” The Fact Checker, 9/26/2008

    6. “You say I should give up alcohol, but you haven’t been sober for more than a year yourself.” (ad hominem tu quoque)
    • How can anybody try to advise a person when he himself can not be disciplined.

    7. “ I could never agree that smoking is harmful because if I did I would have to stop.”
    • A smoker has to deny the bad consequences of smoking because he doesn’t want to quit smoking.

    8. “Everyone likes beautiful people, so buy Teeth-Brite(tm) toothpaste and become beautiful. Everyone will approve of your choice.”
    • This proposition is held to be true because it is widely held to be true or is held to be true by some (usually superior) sector of the population.

    9. “It is good to return things you have borrowed. Therefore, you should return this automatic rifle from the madman you borrowed it from.” (Adapted from Plato’s Republic, Book I).
    • It is a general rule to return things borrowed but there are circumstances that suggest that an exception to the rule should apply.

    10. “The law says that you should not travel faster than 55 mph, thus even though your passenger was having a heart attack, you should not have travelled faster than 55 mph.”
    • It is a general rule to travel not faster than 55mph but it’s a different story when your passenger is having a heart attack.

    11. “It is impossible for people to communicate with one another.”
    • There is nothing impossible in communication today. People all over the world can communicate with ease using the internet for example.

    12. “If you flunk your classes in high school, then you don’t graduate – and if you don’t graduate, you don’t go to college – and if you don’t go to college, you can’t go to law school – and if you don’t go to law school, you can’t be a lawyer.”
    John is a lawyer.
    He must have passed his high school classes.
    • Self-explanatory.

    13. Kim argues that “[C] El Taquito is the best Mexican restaurant in town. [P] They make their own tortillas, [P] they only use the freshest ingredients, and [P] everything I’ve had there has been delicious.”

    Art replies: “Kim is Japanese, and so we can ignore his opinion on Mexican food.”

    Art’s response, obviously, does not address any of the reasons Kim has offered for his claim that El Taquito is the best Mexican restaurant in town – Art has only attacked Kim as the source of the claim.
    • This is an Ad Hominem (argument that attacks the source of an argument – not anything within the argument itself).

    14. “My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.”
    • This is an example of Appeal to Authority. The trainee followed what his coach told him to do because he believes his coach knows what’s best for him.

    15. “Adding meat to his diet helped make him physically stronger,” says Jeff Twiss, an officer of the Celtics. “The doctors convinced him he needed meat.”
    • Basketball star Bill Walton of the Boston Celtics, now recovering from an ankle injury, says that adding meat to his diet turned his life and game around. The strapping 6ft.11in. hoopster was plagued by health problems as a vegetarian thoughout his career. But last year, he played 80 out of 82 games as a meat-eater – a record for him.
    • This is an example of Post hoc, propter hoc – “after the fact, therefore because of the fact”

    16. “You’re born from nothing. You go back to nothing. What do you lose? Nothing! So always look on the bright side of life”… (Monty Python)
    • This is an example of Equivocation

    17. “God will reward all those who truly believe in him and his son Jesus Christ with blessings beyond number.”
    • What about those people who are not wealthy and who suffer from natural catastrophes such as earthquakes? They must not be true believers.
    • This is an example of Begging the Question

    18. “The governor has rebuilt his state’s economy, so that today his state ranks second among states in job growth and has the second lowest state and local income tax burden. He has established tough new standards for schools, and students in his state now enjoy the top high-school graduate rate in the region.”

    • Just imagine: if we had a governor like him in every state, what a great country this would be!
    • This is an example of Composition

    19. “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”
    • This is an example of Straw Man fallacy wherein a person simply ignores a person’s actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position.

    20. “I was brought up to believe in God, and my parents told me God exists, so He must.”
    • This is a genetic fallacy wherein a person believes what he was told by his parents.

  13. 1•Accept Jesus as your savior or face the rack and branding irons!
    -One of His Apostles
    -Appeal to force

    2•How can you say that ball was out of bounds? It was so close, and I’m down ten games to two.
    -A Crazy Basketball player
    -Appeal to pity

    3•You must believe in God, otherwise life would have no meaning.
    -A priest
    -Appeal to consequences

    4• Not only is paying a higher income tax a patriotic duty, it is also a sacred obligation.
    -A government official
    -Prejudicial language

    5•Everyone likes beautiful people, so buy Colgate toothpaste and become beautiful. Everyone will approve of your choice
    -Advertisement of Colgate
    -Appeal to Popularity

    6• You may argue that God doesn’t exist, but you are just a fat idiot
    -A fat ugly person
    -Attacking the person

    7• Have you stopped beating your wife? (This implicitly asks two questions: did you beat your wife, and did you stop?)
    -A best friend of someone’s wife
    -Complex Question

    8•If I make an exception for you then I have to make an exception for everyone.
    -A mean professor
    -Slippery Slope

    9• Since you cannot prove that ghosts do not exist, therefore they must exist.
    -A ghost believer
    -Argument from ignorance

    10• Either you’re for me or against me.
    -A paranoid boyfriend
    -False Dilemma

    11• It is good to return things you have borrowed. Therefore, you should return this automatic rifle from the madman you borrowed it from.

    -Adapted from Plato’s Republic, Book I.
    -Fallacies with Statistical Syllogisms – Accident

    12• Since you cannot see your brain so it means that you have no brain at all, because for me, To see is to Believe.
    -A good boy
    -Argument from ignorance

  14. 1. Appeal to Ignorance
    “The Deathly Hallows can exist because it wasn’t yet proven that it doesn’t exist at all.”
    -Xenophilius Lovegood, Harry Potter
    Lack of evidences that the Hallows exist or not shows that it is either actually real or not at all. The statement proves nothing.

    2. Appeal to Popular Prejudice
    “…the Church proclaimed them (Illuminati) the single most dangerous anti-Christian force on earth.”
    -Robert Langdon, Angels & Demons
    The Church have their reasons why they should be against the Illuminati, but they should not use their influences in affecting the beliefs of others.

    3. Appeal to Force
    Herney told Pickering that if he ever interfered in the campaign again, he would be indicted.
    -Angels & Demons
    Here, the President is using his power to control Herney’s decision for personal reasons.

    4. Missing the Point
    “You should ground him too! He came home later than I did! Don’t punish me just because I’m a girl!”
    -Kelly Ashe, Sibs
    The curfew in Kelly’s house differs between a girl and a boy. The issue here is that of Kelly’s, not her brother’s, because they follow different set of rules.

    5. Complex Question
    “If you really had a perm that day, how come you’re in the shower when the rule is not to take one within 24 hours after the treatment?”
    -Legally Blonde
    The lawyer here is asking a question that seems to accuse the witness. She’s indirectly pointing out that the witness has something to do with the crime.

    6. Division
    Malfoy is disgusted with Mudbloods and he is a Slytherin. The Slytherin House is known for their obsession with their lineage, therefore, they disgust anyone lesser than pure-blood.
    -Harry Potter
    It doesn’t mean that only because Malfoy hates Muggles, everyone from his house feels the same way too.

    7. Straw Man
    “Exploring space is a dangerous and costly business. We should either do it right or not at all.”
    -Marjorie Tench, Deception Point
    What they’re talking about is if NASA is spending too much in their projects, not trying to abolish it or continue its programs.

    8. Composition
    “I won’t ever trust a single guy again. All my boyfriends only broke the promises they made. Men will always be like that.”
    -Kate McGill, Prom Date
    It doesn’t mean that just because every guy she dated broke her heart, the remaining males are also the same. The reason is she hasn’t dated every single guy in the world, which means there’s a few who’ll prove she’s wrong.

    9. Amphiboly
    Sibyll’s prophecy to the wizard who will destroy Voldemort:
    “…the boy who will be born by the end of July shall bring forth the Dark Lord’s descend.”
    It is unclear here whether the prophecy is referring to Harry Potter or Neville Longbottom, because they were both born on the same day.

    10. Accident
    “Wands only choose witches or wizards. You are not a witch.”
    -Dolores Umbridge, Harry Potter
    Wands doesn’t necessarily choose witches or wizards only, they also choose those who were gifted with magical abilities though not born from a magical family.

    11. Converse Accident
    “Every politician has to lie one way or another, either for the good or for the bad. Therefore, we should never trust politicians.”
    -Rachel Sexton, Deception Point
    This is Rachel’s perception, probably most of us too, but this doesn’t mean that a politician cannot say the truth.

    12. Begging the Question
    Voldemort cannot die because no he cannot be killed.
    -Harry Potter
    ‘Cannot be killed’ is also the same as ‘cannot die.’ These two statements are univocal for they represent the same meaning.

    13. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    “I trust Snape because Dumbledore trusts him.”
    -Remus Lupin, Harry Potter
    Dumbledore has his own reasons why he trusts Snape. Lupin’s trust to Snape shouldn’t be affected with that of Dumbledore’s because they have different views with regards to Snape.

    14. Accent
    “I’m not dating him.”
    -Laurie Collins, Blind Date
    Laurie might have said the statement with a heavy inflection of tone on the last word. We might assume she’s trying to tell that she isn’t just clearing the fact that she’s not dating him, but she might also be hinting that she’s dating someone but not him.

    15. Red Herring
    “Harry Potter is dead because he’s not fighting.”
    -Daily Prophet, Harry Potter
    The Prophet is misleading the readers that Potter is a coward. The real case is whether he’s alive or dead, not whether he’s fighting or hiding.

    16. Appeal to Pity
    “Please don’t kill me. I only did it because the Dark Lord will kill me if I don’t.”
    -Peter Pettigrew, Harry Potter
    Harry is begged here by Pettigrew to have mercy on him because he only chose that decision because he’s life is at stake. However, Harry’s desire to hurt Peter on that occasion has nothing to do with his parent’s death in the past.

    17. Attack on the Person
    “I heard he’s from downtown. Why did you even considered dating him? He’s not your class. You should dump him.”
    -Meg Albert, The Boyfriend
    It is not fair for the guy to be judged by someone who haven’t even met him. He hasn’t yet proven that he’s worthy with the speaker’s friend.

    18. False Cause
    “God, why is it that I always fail an exam everytime I break a nail?”
    -Ashley Woods, Sweet Sixteen
    Breaking a nail hasn’t had anything to do with the results of an exam. It’s either the topics she reviewed didn’t come out or she wasn’t prepared at all.

    19. Equivocation
    “I am nobody; and nobody is perfect; Therefore, I am perfect.”
    -Marlon Manalo, Professor
    ‘Nobody’ in the first statement refers to the perception of the speaker to himself, while in the second one, it tells that every one of us have our own faults. Its conclusion is not valid for it tells of two different things.

    20. False Dilemma
    “War involves casualties. We must sacrifice the few to save many.”
    -William Pickering, Deception Point
    It is stated here that it is either only a few will die or more. The options were narrowed to two choices only. Both will result to terrible outcomes and it seems that the only choice is to choose the one that won’t affect the majority of people.

  15. 1.”There’s no way humans would trust me yet, why am i trying so hard for another human?!”-Naruto Chapter 0
    (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
    -We don’t know if there are people who trust us or not, so it is not right to make conclusions that everyone doesn’t trust us.

    2.”Don’t touch iruka sensei or else i’ll kill you!”-Naruto Chapter 1
    (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    -It is a threat not to do the stated action. Threats will not help us arrive at the truth.

    3.”You sure are weak for someone who’s going to surpass Hokage.”-Naruto Chapter 5
    (Argumentum ad hominem)
    -Kakashi is judging naruto from what he see but he only know naruto for a short period of time. Hokage is a long-term goal but kakashi is insulting and discouraging naruto.

    4.”my dream is to surpass the Hokage and then… have all the people of this village acknowledge my existence.”-Naruto Chapter 4
    (Slippery Slope)
    -Even if naruto became a hokage, we don’t know if people will start to acknowledge him because we don’t know what’s going to happen if he became the leader. If he became a good leader, then people will acknowledge him.

    5.”Sena/Eyeshield 21: Um.. just a little more..
    Hiruma: Like i’ve said, trying until the end or..
    Sena/Eyeshield 21: I may be able to.. i may be able to take him on.. shin-san..little more..just a little more..”-Eyeshield 21 Chapter 17
    (Argumentum Misericordiam)
    -Eyeshield is begging hiruma to play until the end because they might still win the game.

    6.”Are you guys underestimating ninjas? Huh? Why do you think you were divided into teams and are doing this training? Basically…you guys are not understanding the answer to this test.”
    (Ignorantio Elenchi)
    -The main question is if naruto, sasuke and sakura are underestimating ninja, yet kakashi asked a question that can give the three other conclusions.

    7.”We have heard that a half million children have died. I mean, that is more children than died in Hiroshima. And, you know, is the price worth it?”-Leslie Stahl ask Madeleine Albright regarding the effects of sanctions on iraq
    (Complex Question)
    -Two questions are there in a single statement.

    8.”Even if it was Monday I decided to sing “Friday I’m In Love,” because I knew everyone would get up and dance.”-Gorgoro Henson’s blog(http://animalismydad.blogspot.com)
    (False Cause)
    -Monday doesn’t have anything to do with the title of the song because the title of the song is not literally pertaining to the day friday, it is just a title.

    9.”Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree”-de Profundis
    (Petitio Principii)
    -the speaker is like tired to talk about the subject so he is only repeating what he is saying.

    10.”Thou shalt not kill; therefore, you should not try to control termites in your home or fight for your country.”
    (Accident)

    11.”Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”
    (Converse Accident)

    12.”D-Rank and C-Rank missions are the two easiest missions; easiest missions are handled by genins; Therefore, D-Rank and C-Rank missions are for genins”-source: Naruto Chapter 9
    (Equivocation)
    -Easiest mission has two meanings in the statement.

    13.”Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets”
    (Amphiboly)

    14.”Bankers recommend that people have six months’ wages in a savings account.”
    (Argumentum ad verecundiam)

    15.”Christianity is believed in by the greatest number of people in the world, so it must be true.”
    (Argumentum ad populum)
    -the speaker believed what the majority believes.

  16. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
    1. Argumentum as Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    “Truman’s iron curtain of secrecy” and that he proposed forthwith to present 81 cases… Cases of exactly what? “I am only giving the Senate,” he said, “cases in which it is clear there is a definite Communist connection…persons whom I consider to be Communists in the State Department.” … Of Case 40, he said, “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”

    – Joe McCarthy in Richard H. Rovere (Introduction to Logic)

    *There’s no such thing to prove the communist connections that’s why it is proven that there is a communist connection in the state department.

    2. Agrumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    (God asking why the man ate the fruit from the forbidden tree)

    “The woman you put here with me—she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it.”

    -Adam
    (Genesis Chapter3 verse 12)

    *Adam pointing out Eve by telling God that he had done such sin for it was Eve, His creation had done so.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)
    “Rep. Villar from 1992 to 1998 did not divest himself of his interest in, nor did he sever his connections with the companies aforestated. Nor has Speaker Villar up to now, I say UP TO NOW, divested himself of interest in or has he severed his connections with the companies aforestated. Speaker Villar controls Capitol Bank, Mrs. Villar is CEO. Capitol Bank received loans, financial accommodations and guarantees from BSP from 1992 to 1998 while he was a representative. This is constitutionally forbidden.”

    -Senator Ping Lacson
    (Kaban ng Bayan, Bantayan! (Part 2) Privilege Speech, Senate of the Philippines
    September 22, 2008)

    *the attack is directly against to Sen. Villar seeking to defame him.

    4. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to Popular Prejudice)

    “Let’s go and have some sundae, Veronica. They say the canteen’s new sundae is the best new sundae in town!

    -Archie
    (Archie’s Pals n Gals Double Digest)

    *Popularity becomes the basis of Archie

    5. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)

    “Never let a fool kiss you or a kiss fool you!”

    -Mardy Grothe
    (Never let a fool kiss you or a kiss fool you!)

    *Mardy threatens the readers

    6. Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)
    “t will be all useless if you will not attend the party.”

    -Archie
    (Archie’s Pals n Gals Double Digest)

    *Surely, the listener would pity Archie

    7. Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)
    “House Bill 5043 or “An Act Providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health, Responsible Parenthood and Population
    Development,” is not merely aimed at curbing the country’s population by allowing the use of contraceptive methods, but also seeks to alleviate the escalating cases of poverty caused by unplanned pregnancies.”

    -Reproductive Health Advocacy Network (RHAN) secretary-general Elizabeth Angsioco in a press conference

    *the speaker concludes another situation different from the premise

    FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    8. Complex question

    “You don’t mean to say you have forgotten that you promised to make half a dozen calls with me today?”

    -Amy
    (Little Women)

    *Multiple questions arise

    9. False Cause (non causa pro causa)

    “To you, I am nothing more than a fox like a hundred thousand other foxes. But if you tame me, then we shall need each other. To me, you will be unique in all the world. To you, I shall be unique in all the world.”

    -fox
    (Little Prince)

    *being tamed is not really the cause of becoming a unique person

    10. Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    “Women have rights,”… “But women shouldn’t fight bulls because a bullfighter is and should be a man.”

    -Bullfighters Association president.

    *The president is saying basically that women shouldn’t fight bulls because women shouldn’t fight bulls. This reasoning isn’t making any progress toward determining whether women should fight bulls.

    11. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    With age starting to creep up slowly on some of its key players, Ginebra was not able to address one of its needs…young blood. Although the lineup is still loaded with stars, many of them have shown the inability to stay healthy all year (didn’t they almost lose the entire team to injury in the Fiesta Finals?). Big men Eric Menk and Rafi Reavis have been unable to complete a full season without injury for the last number of years. And with Mark Caguioa reportedly still in the US at present, it looks like the run-and-gun Kings might be very slow off the gates once more.

    -Jason Webb
    (article from PBA)

    * Just like the last conference, Gin kings had a slow start with a 0-5 run because of their key players’ injuries that’s why Jason generalizes that Gin kings will again have a slow start for the upcoming conference for their another injuries. This is always not true.

    12. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    “No capes! (as she said to Bob Parr of the Incredibles) Do you remember Thunderhead? Tall. Storm powers. Nice man. Good with kids. November 15, ’58. All was well, another day saved when his cape snagged on a missile fin. Stratogale! April 23, ’57. Cape caught in a jet turbine. Metaman. Express elevator. Dynaguy! Snag on takeoff. Splashdown. Sucked into a vortex. No capes!

    -Edna Mode
    (The Incredibles)

    *This began from a multiple single cases that had been brought to generalizing not to wear capes because of the not-so-good example consequences given of wearing capes by a superhero.

    FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    13. Amphiboly

    Water may also be good for the heart.

    -Little Prince
    (Little Prince)

    *The heart is ambiguous for this statement because it may mean literally anatomically for the heart or may be meant for the feelings or inside.

    14. Accent

    “Pat, just ahead of Lucy, shielded her from the worst of the poking, whipping, barring branches; but still she heard from behind him little gasps of hurt or alarm.”

    -Philippa Pearce
    (Lucky boy)

    *Who heard the gasps? Pat or Lucy?

    15. Composition

    “In one of the stars I shall be living. In one of them I shall be laughing. And so it will be as if all the stars were laughing, when you look at the sky at night…”

    – Little Prince
    (Little Prince)

    *Attribution of being a part of the stars where the little Prince will be laughing to the attribution of the whole stars

    DISTRACTION FALLACIES

    16. Red Herring

    “I don’t think she will die; she’s so good, and we all love her so much, I don’t believe God will take her away yet.”

    -Laurie
    (Little Women)

    *The subject is shifted to another one but related

    17. Slippery Slope

    “Why would you want such thing? The life of a priest or witch is hard. And all sorts of dangers lie in wait for them that other people never encounter. One must be very brave and strong to be a witch.”

    -priest
    (Dita’s story)

    *It jumps into an implausible conclusion

    18. False Analogy

    “…some of the same lawyers who spent years battling tobacco companies on behalf of sick smokers … are arguing that the fast food industry is a similar risk to public health.”

    -Julian Baggini
    CNN.com, August 19 2002

    *Comparing fast food and tobacco though they are in incomparable cases.

    19. Straw man
    “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”

    -Nagoro
    (The Ghost Cat)

    *The attack submarine program making it appear as any other major defense program

    20. False Dilemma

    “I do not want to force you into marrying this man, but there is no other willing to have you. At least when he dies you will have a house and a garden and some beasts. And he has a distant kinsman who brings him meat on occasion. No doubt the kinsman will feel some obligation to you when the old man dies.”

    -Dita’s father
    (Dita’s story)
    * The father wanted to say that there is no alternative way but to marry the man. Though Dita still has more alternatives to choose

  17. 1. Argumentum Verecudiam
    “…..pwede na ngayong mag-asawa ang pari basta ang mapapangasawa nila ay madre”

    -“Ang Paboritong Libro Ni Hudas” Bob Ong

    *The fact is priests cannot be married

    2. Argumentum ad Baculum
    A: you’re familiar with the death race right?,I want you to become frankenstein.
    B: no thanks, he’s dead
    A. the audience wants to see frank again
    B: what makes you think you could force me to risk my life in a race?
    A: You win 5 race then you’re free

    -death race(movie)

    *in this movie A is offering B to race in exchange of his freedom in jail.of course B will have no choice but to accept the offer because he can get out of jail earlier.

    3.Argumentum ad Populum
    “…madami ang bumili ng 16 in 1 na pliers na may cutter na, ruler, screw driver at may free pang ballpen sa halagang 99.50 pesos kaya nakumbinsi ako ng sales lady bumili…”

    -“Ang Paboritong Libro Ni Hudas” Bob Ong

    *the speaker was conviced to buy the gadget because many people bought it at the same time the item was cheap.

    4. Petitio Principii
    “…death race is your life and death option”

    -death race

    *it is literal that the meaning of death race is whether you win the race or you die in the race.

    5. Accent
    “Speed racer is just like his older brother Rex Racer.He will beat the record.”

    -Speed racer

    *in this line it is not clear who “he” is pertaining to therefore it is a fallacy.

    6. Division
    “Speed racer: For may family,racing is everything,theres nothing more perfect than a peg-hecked thunderbird,but when my brother died all that went away, I cant tell you how painful it was, especially for my pops. He did’nt open the shop for over a year. But 1 night,when I was pretty young I couldn’t sleep, I went to the living room and there was pops, watching some old racing recordings, so I sat with him old Ben Burns come along the the last turn. All of a sudden pops started screaming, then I started screaming,as he makes it the finish line, we were cheering, and the second I look at him down we look at each others and we realize racing is in our blood….”

    -speed racer

    *in this line speed was saying that he’s father was a great racer and so was his brother then he is also a great driver.

    7. Converse accent
    A: One must master the highest level of kung-fu and that is clearly impossible if that one is someone like you.”

    -kung fu panda

    *A is claiming that the panda can’t master all the kung fu so he is saying that all pandas can’t master the highest level of kung fu.

    8. Argumentum ad Homien
    “…that sick bastard fu** the sheep.He is the only regular guy that attempts to join our frat.”

    -American pie beta house

    *the speaker in this line is a midget and he is claiming that all regular guy fu** sheep which is not true.

    9. Ignorantio Elenchi
    “senator jone should not be held accountable for cheating on his income tax, after all there are other senators who have done far worse things.”

    *this is to move the accuse to other topic so that he could not be guilty.

    10. False cause
    “napoleon became a great emperor because he was short”

    *if this were a casual inference then all short people would become great emperors.

  18. 1. False Cause (non cuasa pro causa)
    Book: The Ransom by Julie Garwood
    This is what Gillian said after realizing the similarities of her mother’s death, her three-day old brother and her father’s death:
    “Bad things happen during the night.”
    Not because all incidences happen during the night means all sort of bad things will happen during the night.
    2. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    Series: The Legend of Aang
    “Some people believe that the avatar was never reborn and the cycle of avatar’s life was broken because the avatar was nowhere to be found to maintain the balance of the 4 kingdom.”
    The statement is fallacy because they cannot conclude that the avatar was never been reborn just because they cannot see his existence. No one might saw him but it doesn’t mean that he does not exist.
    3. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)
    Series: The Legend of Aang
    “That’s the Zeng Tribe, a bunch of a low life thieves. They’ve been the enemies of my tribe for a hundred of years. Hey Zengs! I’m saving this spot for my tribe, so don’t dare to come and steal it.”
    This is an obvious fallacy since it is not fair to treat people like that for what they are a century ago.
    4. Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)
    Series: The Legend of Aang
    “I’ve done some good things, I mean I could steal your baizing but I set him free. That’s a good thing. I understand why you wouldn’t trust me and I know I made some mistakes in the past. Look, I admit I have done a lot of awful things. I was wrong to try to capture you and I’m sorry I attack the water tribe and I shouldn’t have sent that fire nation assassin after you. I’m going to tell him to stop… (to Aang) Why aren’t you saying anything? You once said we could be friends. You know I have good at me. Please if you won’t accept me as a friend then may be you could take me as your prisoner.”
    The situation here shows that prince Zuko really wants to be part of Aang’s team. He admitted his mistakes as a proof that he had changed. It became a fallacy when he pleads to be accepted as a prisoner if they can’t accept him as a friend.
    5. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)
    Series: The Legend of Aang
    “You will obey me or this fine breath of yours will be your last”
    Fallacy because it shows as if Zuko has no choice but to obey his father or his he will die.
    6. Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    Book: The Wedding (Julie Garwood)
    “Lady MacAlister doesn’t like me because she can’t even look at me.
    Obviously her reason is not valid and it goes in circle. Doesn’t like me and can’t even look at me are equivalent in meaning.
    7. Complex question
    Book: The Ransom (Julie Garwotod)
    “Your sister was the pretty one, wasn’t she? Is that why you pushed her down the stairs?”
    The speaker proceeds to another question from an unproven premise which makes the statement a fallacy.
    8. Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the point)
    Book: The Ransom (Julie Garwood)
    During the time when Gillian is being ask to admit her feeling for Brodick.
    “Why won’t you understand? I can’t ever have Annie Drummond’s house. Not now, not ever. You’re trying to put foolish thoughts into my head, and I want you to stop. It’s cruel to make me long for what I can never have. No. I will not dream. It’s dangerous.”
    Gillian response has a sense but still she did not answer the question. She just leads the topic into another. It is like giving an answer indirectly.
    9. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular predice)
    Book: The Ransom
    “Everyone knows that the Buchannan’s Laird is impatient. Therefore, the MacDonald felt that a young messenger would have a better chance of surviving the laird’s temper.”
    It is fallacy because they based their conclusion to what is known to everyone, which may or may not be true.
    10. Amphiboly
    Manga: Negima
    “I want to invite you to my paradise in the south”
    It is nice to be invited in a paradise; the problem is that we don’t know the real meaning of the word paradise. The word might mean a place for relaxation but it might also mean another thing.
    11. Argument ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Authority)
    Book: The Ransom
    “Most English are pony because my Uncle Ennish told me so”
    It is not proper to conclude one thing from what other people says.
    12. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    Book: The Ransom
    “English men struck a woman. And, I never saw any highlander who struck a woman. Therefore, highlanders do not strike a woman.”
    Well, not because the speaker did not saw any highlander striking a woman doesn’t mean that the highlanders are not capable of striking a woman.
    13. Accent
    Manga: Negima
    “I want to be alone today”
    The statement could be true but if to emphasize the word today may meant different. The statement could mean he wants to be alone for the moment and later he could have some companion or it might mean different at all.
    14. Composition
    Manga: Negima
    “I heard that Evangeline is a powerful mage. Konoka-san is also a mage. I suppose the principal is, too, since he is Konoka’s grandfather. And by judging I could say that an entire organized society of mages exists within our world.”
    It is fallacious since what is true to the part might not be true to the whole. It might be true that some are mages but it doesn’t mean that an organization of mages exists.
    15. Division
    Manga: Negima
    “Nagi is the ‘thousand master’ and he is a great mage. Negi is his son. Therefore, everyone expect him to be great too.”
    Well not because Negi’s father is a great mage doesn’t mean that people should expect him to be great too. It’s not fair to conclude this way.
    16. Accident
    Manga: Negima
    “It is impossible to achieve infinite knowledge and infinite power. Those people who want power will one day reach a limit and when they reach that point, they will begin to see their own weaknesses.”
    The case does not properly govern. Not because the speaker said that it is impossible to achieve both infinite knowledge and power means everyone who seeks power will surely fail.
    17. Red Herring (Missing the point)
    Manga: Negima
    “Not knowing what love is, means not knowing true power”
    Why is the connection of not knowing true power to the not knowing what love is? It doesn’t make sense.
    18. Slippery slope
    Manga: Negima
    After knowing that Negi is a Mage:
    “That’s right! I’ll have the eyes of the world on me with my discovery of a real mage! I will have exclusive interviews, and the newspapers and magazines of the world crawling upon my feet. You, the popular Negi—sensie, will star in TV dramas and novels produced by me. You’ll even get a Hollywood movie as we go worldwide.”
    Well, it does not necessary follows that as soon as the world knows that a real mage exist would make the speaker very famous.
    19. False dilemma
    Story: Helen of troy
    “Greeks are to travel to Troy but the wind was so strong that it is impossible to sail. They must sacrifice a royal maiden, daughter of Agamemnon, or they won’t have a successful travel to Troy at all.”
    It is stated that the Greeks are given only two choices it could either sacrifice a royal maiden or there will be no war against Troy. Both are terrible to accept. They have to accept what is more important to them.
    20. False Analogy
    Book: Lawyer’s joke book (perpetrated by Sid Behrman)
    “Due to the great increase of actions by the animal-rights group against testing cosmetics on rats, our laboratory will immediately begin to use lawyers to test its products. The reasons for this change are: there is no shortage of lawyers, Lab technicians won’t get too attached to them, and there are things you simply can’t get a rat to do.
    The statement presumed that lawyers are better than those rats because of some matters. It is not right to compare a rat to a lawyer since lawyers are humans and rats are animals. Not because lawyers are unlimited doesn’t mean that they are a good replacement for rats.

  19. 1.Argumentum ad Ignorantium
    “Harry Potter must not comeback to Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry this year, there is a plot, a plot who can make terrible things happen… I can feel it…”
    -Dobby to Harry(Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation: This is invalid, because in the first place, a houseelf is not that reliable to any fact. There is no proof that there will be such thing that might happen to Hogwarts because Dobby just felt it.

    2.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “I can’t be a wizard, just can’t be, Uncle Vernon always telling it to me”
    -Harry Potter to Hagrid(Harry Potter and the Sorcere’s Stone)
    Explanation: This is invalid.It doesn’t mean that if Uncle Vernon told Harry that he is not a wizard, then he’s not really a wizard. Uncle Vernon hates anything that is connected to the world of Wizardry that’s why he doesn’t want Harry to be involve on such things.

    3.Argumentum ad Hominem
    “They were seen by near less than seven muggles, they have risked the exposure of our world, in addition to that damage they inflicted to that Whomping willow that were there since before you they born, they have violated numbers of rules, so we must expel them headmaster.”
    -Severus Snape to Ron and Harry(Harry potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation: It is invalid because Snape neglected the valid explanation of Harry and Ron.Though Harry and Ron violated numbers of rules, they must be given consideration first before expelling them, because they did it for a reason, and they explain for this..

    4.Argumentum ad Populum
    “Let me see, red hair, vacant expressions, tatty second hand books, you must be the Weasleys.”
    -Lucius Malfoy to the Weasleys(Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation: Not all of those who have red hair, vacant expressions and second hand books are Weasleys. Lucius Malfoy just wanted to insult the Weasleys.

    5. Equivocation
    “No study is equal to fail, no fail is equal to study, therefore, study is equal to fail.”
    -Bob Ong
    Explanation: We all know that study is not equal to fail. There is no valid explanation for this.

    6. Argumentum Miserecordiam
    “He called me a Mudblood. It means dirty blood. Mudblood’s a really foul name for someone who’s muggle born. Someone with non-magic parents. Someone like me. It’s not a term one usually hears in civilized conversation. But then I really workhard to enter this school.”
    -Hermione Granger(Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation: Hermione can’t stop Draco for calling her a mudblood after depriving herself. But, Harry, Ron, and Hagrid feel sorry for her.

    7. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Now if you two don’t mind, I’m going to bed before either of you can come up with another clever idea to get us all killed – or worse, expelled.”
    -Hermione Granger to Harry and Ron(Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s stone)
    Explanation: The reason to believe on what Hermione said is for them to avoid harm like being killed or being expelled.

    8. Complex Question
    “I’m Moaning Myrtle! I wouldn’t expect you to know me! Who would ever want to talk about ugly, miserable, moping, Moaning Myrtle? AHHHHHHHHHH!”
    -Moaning Myrtle to Harry and Ron(Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation: Myrtle jumped into a conclusion that Harry and Ron will not talk to her because she’s ugly and miserable. In a way, Moaning is asking them who would want to talk to her, and why are they looking for her.

    9. False Cause
    “You’re Slytherins great great grandson! You’re a parselmouth! You can talk to snakes!”
    -Ron weasley to Harry (Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation: Though Harry can talk to snakes, it doesn’t follow that he is related to Slytherin the only person who is a parselmouth in his times.
    10. Petitio Principii
    “You’re a mudblood! Because you are a muggle Born!”
    -Draco Malfoy to Hermione(Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation: A mudblood refers to those muggle borns.

    11. Amphiboly
    “Well congratulations, I guess I’m going to be the understudy in case you can’t make one of the shows, so break a leg!”
    -Sharpay to Gabriella(High School Musical)
    Explanation: For some, it might sound that Sharpay is angry or something, but in theatre, “break a leg” means goodluck.

    12. Accent
    “Wow an Einstinette. So why do you think she is interested in our musical?”
    -Ryan to Sharpay(High School Musical)
    Explanation: Grabiella is interested in academics, the question is ifshe is reaaly interested in musical.

    13. Slippery Slope
    “Look, you’re a hoops dude. Not a musical singer person. Have you ever seen Michael Crawford on a cereal box?”
    -Chad to Troy(High School Musical)
    Explanation: It doesn’t mean that Troy is a basketball player, he can’t be a singer.

    14. False Dilemma
    “We gotta do something. Okay, our callbacks are on Thursday, and the basketball game and scholastic decathelon are on Friday…Too bad all of these events will happening on the same day, at the same time.”
    -Sharpay to Ryan(High School Musical)
    Explanation: The first and the second premise is about Sharpay worrying about the audition, and the third premise is her solution for this.

    15. Ignorantio Elenchi
    “I’m not sure that she is… But we needn’t concern ourselves with amatures. But… there is no harm in making certain that Gabriella is welcome to school activities that are… well, appropriate for her. After all… she loves pi.”
    -Sharpay to Ryan(High School Musical)
    Explanation: It doesn’t mean that Gabriella will not involve herself in school activities because She is an amature, and she loves pi(it represents academic devoir).

    16. Argumentum ad antiquitatem
    “Oh. Were you going to sign up to? My brother and I have starred in all the school productions, and we really welcome new-comers there are a lot of supporting roles in this show. I’m sure we could find something for you.”
    -Sharpay to Gabriella(High School Musical)
    Explanation: Sharpay thinks that because she and his brother have starred in all school productions, she will be chosen to play the lead role and Gabriella can have those supporting roles.

    17. Red Herring
    “Fear of a name only increases fear of the thing itself”
    -Hermione to Lucius(Harry Potter and the Chamber of secrets)
    Explanation: It doesn’t mean that if you are being afraid of something, it only increases you’re fear. Sometimes, it’s not. This has a missing point.

    18. Composition
    “The castle has been searched hundred times, no such monster was found since then, Slytherin only told that to make the other three worried.”
    -Minerva Mcgonagall(Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation:It must be true that the castle has been searched, but it doesn’t mean that there is really no monster at all.

    19. False Dilemma
    “Mom, I don’t want to be that freaky genius girl again, I just wanna be me.”
    -Gabriella to her mom(High School Musical)
    Explanation: Gabriella thinks that she will be that, but there is other thing that might happen.

    20.Converse Accident
    “Muggleborn should not enter this school ,
    the monster is kills muggles, they only put their life at risk.”
    -Professor Snape(Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets)
    Explanation:Muggleborns were always killed by the monster, it already happened.

  20. 1. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    ‘Wag kang maniwala d’yan. ‘Di ka n’ya mahal talaga, Sayang lang ang buhay mo kung mapupunta ka lang sa kanya, Iiwanan ka lang n’yan, mag-ingat ka, Dagdag ka lang sa milyun-milyong babae n’ya
    -Lyrics of Akin Ka na Lang, Itchyworm

    **He is judging the other guy so that he could have the girl.

    2. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)

    “You’re playing football,” “Or you’re not getting your license”, said Uncle Farrell
    -The Extraordinary Adventures of Alfred Kropp, Rick Yancey

    **Uncle Farrell forcing Kropp to join the team for him to have the license.

    3. Argumentum Misericirdiam (Appeal to Pity)
    “I never thought I’d be the one to say, Please don’t, well please don’t leave me. Your not making this easy.”
    -Lyrics of Promise, Matchbook Romance

    **Obviously the guy is begging for the girl to stay.

    4. Complex Question

    “What play was that, Kropp?” Coach Harvey snapped.
    -The Extraordinary Adventures of Alfred Kropp, Rick Yancey

    **Phrasing question. Coach question obviously has another meaning. Insulting Kropp maybe.

    5. False Cause (non causa pro causa)

    “Family farms are not destroying the rain forest… Throughout the Latin American tropics and in many regions of Asia and Africa, fires are deliberately set by agribusiness and the landowning elites to destroy the forest and replace it with pasture. The loss of forest from this cause has been increasing at an explosive rate, and this is the main reason the rain forest is shrinking.”
    -“It Isn’t Farmers Who Kill Rain Forests,” J.H. Blaut

    **Everyone has the responsibility to take care of the mother earth. 😛

    6. Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)

    “I’m awake in disaster I can’t seem to get past, I try and I try but I can’t get away!”
    -Lyrics of Angel to You, Devil to Me, The Click Five

    **Get past and Get away are univocal terms.

    7. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)

    “Every boy’s the same, Since I been in the seventh grade they been trying to get with me, Trying to (Ha, ha-ha, ha, ha-ha), They always got a plan to be my one and only man, want to hold me with their hands…”
    -Lyrics of Beep, The Pussycat Dolls

    **It is a sweeping generalization to apply that every boys are the same because she just had experience it from her past.

    8. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    “Eleven was a lucky number, she said, and anything repeated three times was lucky, so this birthday would be blessed twice.” Evie said.
    -SpyX The Code, Peter Lerangis

    **Not because eleven was a lucky number and any number repeated three times was lucky, their birthday will be luckier.

    9. Accent

    “You had a bad day”
    -Bad day, Daniel Powter

    **The statement could mean that tomorrow you’ll have a good day or at present time your having a good day.

    10. Red Herring (Missing The point)

    “I must argue against the antiabortion amendment proposed by the radical right. I just don’t understand why the pro-life people get so worked up about the lives snuffed out by abortion but don’t have the same feelings about the thousands of lives taken every year by an indiscriminate use of handguns. Is not the issue of the sanctity of human life involved in both cases? Why have you not supported us in our efforts at gun-control legislation?”
    Senator Ted Kennedy

    **People don’t see the similarity of abortion anf indiscriminate use of handguns.

    11. Slippery Slope

    “No! Going out for football team. One, you need some kind of activity. Two, it’s a great way to build confidence and make friends. And three, look at you! For the love of the Blessed Virgin, you’re some kinda force of nature! Any coach would love to have you on his team.”, Uncle Farrell said.
    -The Extraordinary Adventures of Alfred Kropp, Rick Yancey

    **Its not just football can build your confidence or to make some friends. This is a implausible conclusion.

    12. Straw Man

    “There are some misguided and naïve college students who argue that we should not engage in military attacks against terrorism. Rather, we should pursue the peaceful path of diplomatic dialogue. In marked contrast, I refuse to lay down our arms and allow the enemy to walk into Washington without a fight. What a ludicrous position, as if we should relinquish our right to self-defense by unilaterally disarming.”
    -. Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense

    **•This is an example of Straw Man fallacy wherein Rumsfeld make his position appear strong solely by making the student position appear weaker.

    13. False Dilemma

    “”You’re either with us, or against us,” –Gaston
    -Beauty and the beast

    **It is stated that the person has only two choices to be with Gaston group (who will fight the Beast) or against Gaston group (wherein will be consider enemy of the group).

  21. Informal Fallacies

    The Little Prince – Antoine De Saint-Exupery

    1. “That is a hat, Then I would not talk about boa constrictors, or primeval forests, or stars.”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – the man is answers that it’s a hat and nobody mentions about a hat.

    2. “When at last I was able to talk to him. I said to him: But what are you doing here? … If you please draw me a sheep…”
    – Ignoratia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – He is asking if what he is doing in the dessert and the prince replied with a request for a drawing which draws the answer away of the question.

    3. “Grown-ups love figures. When you tell them you have made a new friend, they never say to you, what does his voice sound like? What games does he loves best? Does he collect butterflies? Instead they demand: how many brothers has he? How much does he weigh? How much money does his father make?”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – the boy is telling about his new friend, grown-ups asks much in figures and things that consider as earthly things rather than talking on how the he behaves.

    4. “You would have to say to them: I saw a house that costs $4,000. then they would exclaim: Oh what a pretty house that is!”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – the boy is talking about the cost of the house and the grown-up exclaimed figuratively (just like in no. 3).

    5. “Then it follows that they also eat baobabs? I pointed out to the prince that baobabs were not little bushes, but, on the contrary, trees as big as castles.”
    – Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance)
    – The prince is talking about the sheep eating grass and baobabs, then the man exclaimed that sheep can’t eat baobabs because its enormously big.

    6. “The king made a gesture, which took in his planet, and all the stars. Over all that? Asked the little prince. Over all that. The king answered.”
    – Accent
    – The king restated the question of the little prince with repeating the statement the meaning differs from a question to a statement.

    7. “I am drinking. Replied the tippler, with a lugubrious air.
    Why are you drinking? Demanded the little prince.
    So that I may forget. Replied the tippler.
    Forget what? Inquired the little prince, who already was sorry for him.
    Forget that I am ashamed, the tippler confessed, hanging his head.
    Ashamed of what? Insisted the little price, who wanted to help him.
    Ashamed of drinking.”
    – Slippery Slope
    – A series of cause and effect happens from the start to the end of the conversation.

    8. “Good morning , the little prince said to him. Your cigarette gone out.” Said the little prince. “Three and two make it five, five and seven make twelve. Twelve and three make fifteen. Said the businessman.”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – The businessman answers away of the point of the
    prince have.

    9. “And what good does it do you to own the stars?”
    “It does me the good of making me rich.”
    “And what good does it do you to be rich?”
    “It makes me possible for me to buy more stars, if any are discovered.”
    – Slippery Slope
    – From the question of the prince about owning a star
    they end up from sequence of stars.

    10. “Good morning, sir. Why have you just put up your
    lamp?” said the prince. “Those are the orders” said
    the lamplighter.
    – Argumentum Ad Verecundiam
    – The lamplighter let other reason for the question of the prince.

    11. “Where do you come from?” the old gentleman said to
    him. “What is that bog book?” said the little prince.
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – The business man is asking the prince but he replied
    with another question.

    12. “I have three volcanoes. Two volcanoes are active and
    the other is extinct. But one never knows.” Said the
    prince. “One never knows,” said the geographer.
    – Petitio Principii
    – The conclusion is restated by the geographer.
    13. “What does that mean ‘ephemeral’? ” said the little
    Prince. “whether volcanoes are extinct or alive, it
    comes for the same thing for us.”
    – Ignorantia Elenchi (missing the point)
    – The geographer answers away of the prince’s question.

    14. “Where are the men?” said the little prince. “men?”
    said the flower.
    – Petitio Principii
    – The flower repeat what the prince said.

    15. “But if you tame me, then we shall need each other. To
    me, you will be unique in all the world. To you I shall
    be unique in the world.
    – Slippery Slope
    – The taming leads the effects written just like cause
    And the effect causing a reaction.

    16. “Men have no more time to understand anything, They
    buy things all ready made at the shops.”
    – Accident
    – The fox tells that all man shops ready made which
    Leaves for the prince to do the same.

    17. “On earth one sees all sort of things” said the fox. “But
    this is not on earth” said the little prince.
    – Converse Accident
    – The fox mistaken that the flower can tame human
    (on earth) but the fox didn’t know that it is from other
    planet where flowers also lives.

    18. “You are not all alike” he said. “As yet you are
    nothing. No one tamed you, and you tamed no one…”
    – Argumentum Ad Hominem
    – The prince used Abusive Ad Hominem because he
    directly defame the reose.
    19. “One could not die for you.”
    – Argumentum Ad Hominem
    – The prince defame again the roses.

    20. “they are pursuing nothing at all.” Said the switchman.
    “They are asleep there, or if they are not asleep they
    are yawning. Only the children are flattening their
    noses against the window-panes.”
    – Converse Accident
    – The switchman talk generally which is not true that
    some grown-up is widely awake.

  22. 1. “It starts getting dry, and looking anything but appetizing, and no one’s willing to make a move”.
    -Konata Izumi(Lucky☆star)
    Appeal to Flattery

    2. “Your grades are always so good. Don’t you have any fauits, Miyuki-san?”
    -Konata Izumi(Lucky☆star)
    Complex Question
    She is really curious. She wants an immediate answer(still not sure about this explanation)

    3. “Those aren’t faults, but elements of turning people on”
    -Konata Izumi(Lucky☆star)
    Converse Accident

    4. “I feel bad for Saber, this is no time to do such things, my head is blank, and this is, um, my first time…”
    -Shirō Emiya(Fate/Stay night)
    Argumentum Misericordiam
    trust me, you don’t wanna know why

    5. “………………part 2 coming soon(still watching Lucky☆star and etc.)

  23. 1) Appeal to Ignorance
    -No one has conclusively proven that there is no intelligent life on the moons of Jupiter.Therefore, there is intelligent life on the moons of Jupiter.
    (Garth Kemerling)

    2) Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    – Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan believes that spiders are insects. Therefore, spiders are insects.
    (Garth Kemerling)

    3) Appeal to pity
    – I am a single parent, solely responsible for the financial support of my children.
    If you give me this traffic ticket, I will lose my license and be unable to drive to work.
    If I cannot work, my children and I will become homeless and may starve to death.
    Therefore, you should not give me this traffic ticket.
    (Garth Kemerling)

    4) Appeal to the people
    -“Man could alleviate his misery by marriage. This close companionship enhances the joys of one and mitigated the sorrow of the other, and anyone knew God always provided for married people.”
    (Lee Emily Pearson)

    5) Appeal to force
    – If you do not agree with my political opinions, you will receive a grade of F for this course.
    I believe that Herbert Hoover was the greatest President of the United States.
    Therefore, Herbert Hoover was the greatest President of the United States.
    (Garth Kemerling)

    6) Missing the point
    -There has been an increase in burglary in the area. It must be because there are more people moving into the area.
    The Chief Executive has a Law degree. We’d better make sure we’re all above board.
    You are hot and I am cold. You are wearing a brown coat. So let’s go for a drink.
    (Garth Kemerling)

    7) Attack on the person
    You are not qualified to make such a statement.You would say that, wouldn’t you.And who do you think is going to believe you.Of course you will defend your own department.You mean you have not considered Wikkin’s work? That is a serious omission.
    (Garth kemerling)

    8) Complex question
    -“Have you stopped beating your wife?”
    This is a complex question because it presupposes that you used to beat your wife, a presupposition that either answer to the question appears to endorse.
    (Garth Kemerling)

    9) False Cause
    -It is dark now, which makes it very dangerous. [It is not the dark that causes danger].
    (Garth Kemerling)

    10) Begging the question
    -“If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law.”
    (Garth Kemerling)

    11) Accident
    -Birds normally can fly.Tweety the Penguin is a bird.Therefore, Tweety can fly.
    (S. Morris Engel)

    12) Converse Accident
    -“Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”
    (Nancy Whelan Reese)

    13) False Dilemma
    -“Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.”
    (Nizkor)

    14) Equivocation
    -The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.
    (Helen M. Alvare)

    15) Amphiboly
    -Save soap and waste paper.
    (Copi and Cohen)

    16) Accent
    – Why are you asking me about Mary’s message? I resent her question.
    What is meant by the above passage? In its written form, it could either mean that the writer was upset about the question Mary asked and didn’t want to talk about it, or it could be that the question had been sent out again and the speaker is waiting for a reply. The different meanings depend upon where the (spoken) stress is placed in the word “resent.”
    (Austine Cline)

    17) Composition
    -A tiger eats more food than a human being. Therefore, tigers, as a group, eat more food than do all the humans on the earth.
    (Nizkor)

    18) Slippery Slope
    -“You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they’ll walk all over you.”
    (Nizkor)

    19) Red Herring
    -“We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.”
    (Nizkor)

    20) Straw Man
    -“Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”
    (Nizkor)

  24. 1.Equivocation

    “She thinks I’m a nice guy. Women always think I’m nice. But women don’t want nice.”
    Quote by: George Costanza

    Nice is a term which has different meanings depending on the person interpreting the word.
    To some a person is nice when he is good looking. Others attribute being nice to good deeds.
    Depending on the person, a person may be nice in looks or in his actions but still does not accept or like the nice person.

    2.False Dilemma

    “According to most studies, people’s number one fear is public speaking. Number two is death. Death is number two! Does that sound right? This means to the average person, if you go to a funeral, you’re better off in the casket than doing the eulogy.”
    Quote by: Jerry Seinfeld

    The arguer says that there are people who are often equally afraid of 2 things, One is public speaking because they get nervous infront of people. They feel that they will die while standing and speaking. The other is death because one will lose his life. There people who believes that these 2 situations are equal which is wrong as one can overcome his fear of public speaking if he only develops confidence in oneself.

    3.Composition

    “The IRS! They’re like the Mafia; they can take anything they want!”
    Quote by :Jerry Seinfeld

    The Internal Revenue System is a legitimate government agency in the United States of America. But for those people whom the IRS had investigated, charged and penalized, the IRS is like a Mafia, a syndicate which do not follow legal means in grabbing properties and money of the people.

    4.Division

    I was the best man at the wedding. If I’m the best man, why is she marrying him?
    Quote by: Jerry seinfeld

    Best man is being erroneously interpreted as the best male in a wedding. If a best man interprets that he is better than anybody else in a gathering, he can not accept why there will be others who will be more successful or happier than him.

    5.Argumentum Ad Populum

    Men don’t care what’s on TV. They only care what else is on TV.
    Quote by: Jerry Seinfeld

    This argues that many believe that comparing men and women as TV viewers, men do not care about what are seen on TV. The impact of TV programs to male are not as significant as the female viewers.
    Men are more concern on other things rather than TV. Women are easily affected than men.

    6.Converse Accident

    Chandler still thinks I’m pregnant and he hasn’t asked me how I’m feeling or offered to carry my bags. I feel bad for the woman who ends up with him
    Quote by: Phoebe Buffay

    In this case, there is a hasty and careless conclusion that since Chandler is not concern or did not offer to help a pregnant woman carry her things, he will not become a good husband, partner or boyfriend to anybody. One’s shortcoming must not be used as basis to judge whether a person is good or bad.

    7.Ignorantio Elenchi

    Okay, but you’ll have to give it back when I get a job. Of course, by then, ties will be obsolete and we’ll all be wearing silver jumpsuits.
    Quote by:Chandler Bing

    In this argument, there is not point in the conclusion that someday people who go to the office and work will no longer care what they wear as clothing is dependent on fashion. Wearing informal attires will be acceptable when time comes depending on the people’s preference.

    8.Accent

    Shut UP!
    Quote by: the young lady in scary movie

    Shut up is a phrase which connotes to stop talking when a person does not want to hear what the other person is saying. However, when you spell or write the word UP in big and bold letters, this can give an impression that one is referring to the University of the Phillippines. Other universities and colleges which may be their academic rivals can give this impression of silencing or closing the University of the Philippines.

    9.Argumentum Misericordiam

    You just couldn’t let me go could you? This is what happens when an unstoppable force meets an immovable object. You truly are incorruptible aren’t you? You won’t kill me out of some misplaced sense of self-righteousness, and I won’t kill you, because you’re just too much fun. I think you and I are destined to do this forever.
    Quote by:Joker

    One argues that since he is incorruptible and righteous, he must not be stopped by anybody. They complement each other so they must not do harm to each other. The have to sympathize with each other.

    10.Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Do I really look like a guy with a plan? You know what I am? I’m a dog chasing cars. I wouldn’t know what to do with one if I caught it. You know, I just do things. The mob has plans, the cops have plans, Gordon’s got plans. You know, they’re schemers. Schemers trying to control their worlds. I’m not a schemer. I try to show the schemers how pathetic their attempts to control things really are. So, when I say that you and your girlfriend was nothing personal, you know that I’m telling the truth.
    Quoted by: Joker

    The arguer speaks as if he knows everything and he feels he is an authority even if he is not. He believes that everybody must believe in what he saying, but in reality, he is not an authority to speak on the issues and views being asked or discussed.
    11.Argumentum ad hominem
    “Our society is run by insane people for insane objectives. I think we’re being run by maniacs for maniacal ends and I think I’m liable to be put away as insane for expressing that. That’s what’s insane about it.”
    By: John Lennon

    The above argument is accusing the leaders of the society as insane and maniacs . This is an abusive ad hominem because the attack is directly on the leaders who are accused of not doing the right governance of the society. Also, the leaders are charged of having objectives which are not sane and wants results which will be diabolicall to the people.
    12.Complex question
    “Life’s most persistent and urgent question is, ‘What are you doing for others?’”
    by:Martin Luther King Jr.

    The question presupposes that all people are not concern with other people. It seems that nobody cares for others. This is wrong because we all know that there are people who are willing to help and sacrifice for the goodness and well being of other people. This can be shown in various charitable works done by group of people or individuals.
    13.Petitio Principili
    “The time is always right to do what is right.”
    By:Martin Luther King Jr.

    This points to us that doing the right thing is always done in any time. There is no wrong time when one is doing the right action or decision. Time is always right for anybody who knows the right thing.
    14.Argentum ad baculum
    “A man who won’t die for something is not fit to live.”
    By:Martin Luther King Jr.

    One must be willing to sacrifice himself if he wants to live in the society. A person has to earn his place in the society. If he will not do his part, he must be abandoned and left alone.
    15.Accident
    “Sex is a part of nature. I go along with nature.”
    By:Marilyn Monroe

    There are people who will defend sex as being part of the natural existence, so, they relate it to nature to have a positive impact on the listeners and avoid embarrassment because there might be misinterpreted as sex advocates.
    16.Amphiboly
    “That’s hot!”
    by:Paris Hilton

    This statement has different meanings depending on the interpretation of the listeners. Hot may refer to food for others. Hot may be interpreted as something which is on trend or something which is clamored by many people. It may also refer to an action which is different but can be considered as unique and extra ordinary by other people.
    17.Ignorantio Elenchi
    One murder makes a villain, millions a hero”
    By:Beilby Porteus

    This gives the impression that only one wrong doing will make a person a bad person or a criminal but to be a hero you have to do many good things or deeds. One wrong action as against many good actions. This is something which is difficult to support. Even if a person has done many good deeds, if he commits one wrong action, he is condemned. Before one can be considered a hero or a somebody, he has to do many good things to many people .
    18.Red herring
    “If at first you don’t succeed, give up.”
    By:homer simpson

    This is a very depressing . Instead of encouraging persons who fails in their undertaking, you tell them to give up. Instead of emphasizing that a person must try his best and not to lose hope, we tell them to stop and not to achieve their goals.
    19.False Analogy
    “If something’s hard to do, then it’s not worth doing.”
    By:homer simpson

    This is something which has a defective comparison. Something hard is not worth doing by anybody. This is wrong as this curtails a person’s chance to succeed or be noticed. It tells a person not to do anything if it would be difficult as he will not benefit from it.
    20.Argementum ad ignorantiam
    “There’s no such thing as a soul. It’s just something they made up to scare kids, like the boogeyman or Michael Jackson.”
    By:Bart Simpson

    This is a proposition that argues that there is no soul because it has not been proven if there is a soul or not. The arguer is just saying that the soul is fictitious and was just invented to scare kids if elders want them to behave or do what they asked them to do.

  25. Source: “Joey” Situational Comedy Season 1

    I. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

    1. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force or Fear)

    Joey: No. Watch this. (Walks over to Seth and his lawyer) Well, I’ll tell you what I do remember. Michael and Seth were stuck on something, so they got up to take a walk. I looked over at Seth’s computer, hoping to find a video game. Instead, I started opening files and found something much more naughty.

    Seth: You touched my computer? What did you find?

    Joey: Something erotic. Some might say, deviant. Should I just tell everyone, or should I write it down so we can enter it in the permanent record.

    Seth: Okay, fine. You win!

    EXPLANATION: Joey persuades Seth to tell “the truth” with the use of threatening information.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    Alex: Look, I know what I am. I’m not a hot girl. I’m cute.

    Michael: You’re a hot girl that doesn’t know she’s hot. Joey was telling me about those.

    EXPLANATION: Michael claims that Alex is a “hot girl” based on what Joey (his “authority”) told him about “hot girls.”

    3. Argumentum ad Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)

    Gina: Look, I know Roger’s not the brightest, or the funniest, or the most ambitious..

    Joey: But?

    Gina: Well it’s not like I have a lot of choices. Most guys my age are looking to date twenty year olds, not go out with someone with a twenty year old. It’s the best I can do. I’m not a great catch.

    EXPLANATION: Gina justifies that she dates Roger because she is not anymore capable of getting a better date because she is already old.

    4. Abusive ad Hominem

    Alex: All right! Let’s just start the mediation. First of all, I would like you each to state your claim to the material in question.

    Seth: Why don’t I go first, and then Michael can just steal what I say?

    EXPLANATION: Seth attacks Michael’s character to give his claim more truth value.

    5. Circumstantial ad Hominem

    Mariska: …I’m going to tell them you said my name on purpose because you want to sleep with me.

    EXPLANATION: Mariska claims that Joey’s action was only because of Joey’s vested interest on sleeping with her.

    6. Tu Quoque
    Joey: Gina come on, she’s a big girl. She can make her own decisions.
    Gina: No, she can’t right now. That’s why I didn’t want you to mess with her.
    Joey: I’m not messing with her. I really care about her.
    Gina: Oh, like you cared about 10 of my friends in one-month time?

    EXPLANATION: Gina claims that Joey’s claim that she’s not messing with her friend [Donna] is false, because he used to mess with her friends.

    7. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to Popularity)

    Alex: Anyway, he totally fixed my computer, and the best part is, he didn’t even charge me.

    Michael: Well yeah, that figures.

    Alex: What do you mean?

    Michael: Well, you’re a hot girl. Hot girls get stuff for free.

    EXPLANATION: Gina claims that Alex is hot girl because she was not charged for the computer repair based on the popular notion that “Hot girls get stuff for free.”

    8. Genetic Fallacy

    Seth: By the way, what law school?

    Alex: Pepperdine.

    Seth: Which we will have if we have a real lawyer.

    EXPLANATION: Seth claims that Alex is not a “real” lawyer because she came from Pepperdine.

    II. FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    9. Complex Question

    Joey: Hey Michael. Are you studying again? Do you realize how depressing that is to come home to?

    EXPLANATION: Joey assumes that it is true that Michael is studying again in making a comment about coming home and seeing him studying.

    10. False Cause

    Joey: I can’t believe this. He was the perfect assistant; a few days with you and he’s broken. This isn’t gonna work.

    EXPLANATION: Joey claims that the cause of his assistants being “broken” is the assistant’s relationship with Gina (the “you”).

    11. Sweeping Generalization

    Joey: I mean, in New York if you see a pretty girl, you just walk right up to her, you know? But here, they’re all in cars. They go whippin’ past me at like a million miles an hour. Like today, I saw this pretty girl driving toward me, so I make a U-turn and get a ticket for 800 bucks.

    EXPLANATION: Joey claims that “pretty” girls in New York are generally easily approachable by foot, and “pretty” girls in Los Angeles are generally in cars.

    12. Hasty Generalization

    Joey: Bring her a slice and some porn.

    Gina: Joey, that’s disgusting.

    Joey: Worked on all of your friends!

    EXPLANATION: Joey claims that “a slice and some porn” will work because it worked on Gina’s friends.

    13. Special Pleading

    Michael: I just don’t see why you had to choose.

    Gina: Maybe you’re right, but you gotta understand, when I made that decision – I was just a kid. I mean, when you were 5, I was twenty. That’s how old you are now.

    EXPLANATION: Gina persuades Michael by pleading that he should be able to understand her if he was in her position .

    III. FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    14. Amphiboly

    Mary Teresa: He got down on one knee. You see Gina, ordinarily when a man proposes, Dad isn’t holding the back of his neck saying, “Do it.”

    EXPLANATION: The second statement has more than one plausible meaning. Dad .

    15. Accent

    Joey: Hey Gina, look, you’ve been here a couple days now without a break. Why don’t you let me take over? Ya know, go have a little “Gina Time.”

    Gina: I don’t have “Gina Time” anymore. I’m a mother. I don’t go out. I don’t go on dates. I don’t have fun. I don’t do anything for myself anymore.

    EXPLANATION: Gina’s statements sound ambiguous because stress and intended voice are uncertain and unclear. She may sound as somebody appealing for pity, somebody proudly but stubbornly justifying that she has to stay [with sick Michael] because she is doing the responsibility of a mother to her child.

    IV. DISTRACTION FALLACIES

    16. Red Herring

    Alex: And I really don’t appreciate you critiquing me when I’m singing in the shower.

    Eric: As a musician, it bothers me when you sing off key. As a musician, it also bothers me that you never shave your legs.

    Alex: Well, as a lawyer, it bothers me that your family sucks!

    EXPLANATION: Both Alex and Gina brings up issues not really connected to the ones brought up by each other.

    17. Slippery Slope

    Joey: So, so, ask her out.

    Michael: No, the book club has a strict no dating rule, and I’m the president. She’s my vice president. The scandal would tear our administration apart.

    EXPLANATION: Michael claims that he cannot ask her vice-president [Jane] out because it may lead to a scandal which may lead to “tearing apart” of his administration [in his book club].

    18. False analogy

    Lauren: So, you and Katie. What’s going on there?

    Joey: Oh, well, I’m a gentleman, so let’s just say I’m still circling the airport but I have been given permission to land, huh?

    EXPLANATION: Joey claims of being a gentleman by likening his actions to that of an aircraft “circling the airport.”

    19. Attacking a Straw Man

    Gina: I went to cosmetology school with that girl and she was terrible. She burned way more hair than I did, and I burned some hair. Now I have to read about her living the glamorous life and rubbing elbows with celebrities. That should be me.

    EXPLANATION: Gina strengthens her claim of being a good hairdresser by citing a former hairdressing schoolmate who “burned more hair” than Gina did, but is now a famous hairdresser.

    20. False Dilemma

    Gina: Hunny, I’m sorry, but you were good at a lot of things. I had to make a choice. You could be the jock or the smart kid, and I figured being the smart kid would lead you more places.

    EXPLANATION: Gina claims that she only had two choices: turn Michael into either a jock or a smart kid.

  26. 1.argumentum ad ignorantiam
    “No one has ever proven that dinosaurs exist. Therefore, they don’t exist.”
    (Something can exist despite the absence of confirmation. Lack of proof is justification for caution or even scepticism, but not dogmatic assertions.)

    2.argumentum ad hominem
    “You can’t trust Jones’ theory of electromagnetic particles because he’s a communist.”
    (The theory is good or bad because it comports (or doesn’t comport) with certain facts and evidence, not because the man propounding it holds a political affiliation.)

    3.ignoratio elenchi (“ignoring of the disproof”)
    “You cannot convict my client of murder. We have proven that one of the arresting officers made prejudicial remarks, remarks scornful of my client. Look at the videotape, the audiotape, the man’s own testimony. He is a full-blown racist; you must not trust anything he says.” (Undermining an allegation of murder is something different than proving that one member of the plaintiff’s team is bigoted; hence, the i.e. fallacy here.)

    4.False Cause
    “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”
    (If this were a causal inference, then all short people would become emperors.)

    5.Converse Accident
    “I loved the hit song, therefore I’ll love the album it’s on”
    (The first example is an argument from the premise that a particular song on an album has the quality of being loved by the writer to the conclusion that the album as a whole has the quality of being loved by the writer. When one argues that since a part of something has a property, therefore the whole must have that property as well, the fallacy of composition occurs.)

    6.Amphiboly
    “One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got into my pajamas I’ll never know.”
    (In the set-up of this joke, it’s ambiguous whether the modifying phrase “in my pajamas” modifies “I” or “an elephant”, though common sense suggests the former. Then, the amphiboly is exploited for humor in the punch line.)

    7.Accent
    “What about Mary’s letter? I resent it.”
    (there is an ambiguity in the word “resent” (which would be eliminated if spoken correctly)

    8.Composition
    “Every player on our team is a superstar and a great player, so the team is a great team.”
    (This is fallacious since the superstars might not be able to play together very well and hence they could be a lousy team.)

    9.Slippery Slope
    “If we legalize marijuana, the next thing you know we’ll legalize heroin, LSD, and crack cocaine.”
    (This slippery slope is a form of non sequitur, because no reason has been provided for why legalization of one thing leads to legalization of another. Tobacco and alcohol are currently legal, and yet other drugs have somehow remained illegal.)

    10. Straw Man
    “Mr. Cullen thinks that capitalism is good because everybody earns whatever wealth they have, but this is clearly false because many people just inherit their fortunes.”
    (when in fact Mr. Cullen had not made the “earnings” argument and had instead argued, say, that capitalism gives most people an incentive to work and save. The fact that some arguments made for a policy are wrong does not imply that the policy itself is wrong.)

    11. False Analogy
    “The universe is like an intricate watch.
    A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker.
    Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.”
    (While the universe may be like a watch in that it is intricate, this does not in itself justify the assumption that watches and the universe have similar origins.)

    12. False Dilemma
    “Either the nobles of this country appear wealthy, in which case they can be taxed for good; or they appear poor, in which case they are living frugally and must have immense savings, which can be taxed for good.”
    (his is a false dilemma, because some members of the nobility may in fact lack liquid assets.)

    13. Red Herring
    “Baseball player Mark McGwire just retired. He’s such a nice guy, and he gives a lot of money to all sorts of charities. Clearly, he will end up in the Hall of Fame.”(The conclusion is ignoratio elenchi, since friendliness and charity are not the main qualifications for induction into the Hall of Fame.)

    14. Equivocation
    All trees have bark.
    All dogs bark.
    Therefore, all dogs are trees.
    (Consider that two wrongs never make a right, but that three lefts do.)

    15. Complex Question
    “Does the Chancellor plan two more years of ruinous privatization?”
    (Another form of this fallacy is to ask for an explanation of something which is untrue or not yet established.)
    1
    6. Accent
    “Edward is not sad today.”
    (The premise may be true if read without inflection. But if it is with heavy stress on the last word seems to imply the truth of the conclusion.)

    17. Petitio Principii
    “What a brain!  And you know how to prove things, like the big shots?
    (Generally, such an argument would not be misleading and would only be given in unusual circumstances.

    18.Argumentum ad populum
    “All of my friends are doing it”
    (involve a confusion between the justification of a belief.)

    19.Argumentum ad Baculum
    “All those opposed to my arguments for the opening of a new department, signify by saying, ‘I resign.’”
    (arguments involve emotional responses)

    20.Argumentum ad verecundiam
    “Astrology is not reliable are mistaken. The wisest men of history have all been interested in astrology, and kings and queens of all ages have guided the affairs of nations by it.”
    (he authority cited is a group with status.)

  27. 1.) R1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Biology professor to skittish students in lab: There is no evidence that frogs actually feel pain; it is true they exhibit pain behavior, but as they have no consciousness, they feel no pain.
    -TIME Magazine
    Explanation:
    The frogs really do fell the pain but their not only consnsious about it.

    2.) R2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    The United States policy toward mainland China was surely mistaken because Shirley McLaine, the well known actress, said, at the time, she had grave misgivings about it.
    -Newsweek Magazine
    Explanation:
    There will never be one who will know what happened if Shirley McLaine said so. She have the reason for endorsing her opinion.

    3.) R3. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Prof. Smith says to Prof. White, “You are much too hard on your students,” and Prof. White replies, “But certainly you are not the one to say so. Just last week I heard several of your students complaining.”
    -New York Times
    Explanation:
    This example is directed to the ones assumption. Prof. White letting Prof. Smith down is the focus of the drama.

    4.) R4. Argumentum ad Populum
    “Man could alleviate his misery by marriage. This close companionship enhances the joys of one and mitigated the sorrow of the other, and anyone knew God always provided for married people.”
    -Lee Emily Pearson,Elizabethans at Home
    Explanation:
    This example doesn’t state questions whether right reasons might exist so the idea may be popular.

    5.) R5. Argumentum ad Baculum
    The Department of Transportation needs to reconsider the speed limit proposals on interstate highways for the simple reason that if they do not, their departmental budget for DOT will be cut by 25%.
    -Manila Bulletin
    Explanation:
    The reason to believe or follow the recommendations for the argument is to prevent conflicts and to have possible solutions.

    6.) R6. Argumentum Misericordiam
    Richard P. Feynman, the Nobel Prize winning physicist, has been misunderstood almost all of his life. Since World War II, he came close twice to having a mental breakdown first with the death of his wife and second with the explosion of the atomic bomb. I think that the Journal of Science should publish some of his later theoretical work out of our kind regard for his memory and from the interest of human concern for his difficult life.
    -TIME Magazine
    Explanation:
    In this case, reasons are irrelevant to what had happened. These reasons doesn’t collocate the situation.

    7.) R7. Ignorantio Elenchi
    “The 52 former hostages are seen as national heroes. I consider them survivors. A hero is one who is admired for his achievements and qualities. Therefore, the true heroes are those servicemen who volunteered for the failed rescue mission.”
    -Irene Coyne, “Letters” Time magazine
    Explanation:
    May be we’ll get confuse of this issue because it covers the hostage scene but it also tackles another issue about heroes in that crime.

    8.) P1. Complex Question
    If a choice must be made, I’ll adopt God’s nonexistence as a working assumption. If I am mistaken, I hope He is not offended by my demand for evidence.
    -Kent Bach, Exit-Existentialism
    Explanation:
    Many believers seem to think that God is offended by atheists. Is he overly proud or merely insecure?

    9.) P2. False Cause
    “We hear that a writer has just filed a two million dollar lawsuit against the Coors beer company for pickling his brain. It seems that he had been consuming large quantities of Coors’ 3.2 beer, containing only 3.2 percent alcohol and so supposedly non-intoxicating, at his local tavern. But, the suit contends, the stuff was insidiously marinating his mind; and as a result he has been unable to finish writing his second novel. The author may have a point. But we have to wonder whether the damage was caused by the beer, or by the current fad of product liability suits.”
    -Wall Street Journal
    Explanation:
    The situation raises much confusion. This kind of reasoning is too fallacious for many possible things suit the situation.

    10.) P3. Petitio Principili

    “The elemental composition of Jupiter is known to be similar to the sun… The core would be composed mainly of iron and silicates, the materials that make up most of the earth’s bulk. Such a core is expected for cosmogonic reasons: If Jupiter’s composition is similar to the sun’s, the the planet should contain a small portion of those elements.”
    -J. Wolfe, “Jupiter,” Scientific American
    Explanation:
    This example obviously arguing in circle, that may not end.

    11.) P4. Accident
    “People are defined as rational animals. Therefore, you should spend more time reasoning and thinking rather than enjoying yourself with what you do.”
    -Bato Balani Magazine
    Explanation:
    Obviously we man are rational beings, and rational beings do have the capacity of reasoning. This fallacy occurs when a general rule is applied to a case it was not meant to cover.

    12.) P5. Converse Accident
    “The induction problem forever haunts us. How many instances of a class must be observed before one can be really sure? Having experience two uncoordinated woman-drivers, am I justified in making a generalization about woman-drivers? For too many man, a sampling of two seems to justify such a generalization. Women, of course, never make this sort of error.
    -James L. Christian, Philosophy (HBJ College, 1998).
    Explanation:
    For too many man, a sampling of two seems to justify such a generalization. Women, of course, never make this sort of error.

    13.) A1. Equivocation
    “Everything will be okay in the end. If it is not okay then it’s not the end.”
    -Patrick the Starfish of Spongebob Squarepants
    Explanation:
    Obviously, the statement is redundant, the statement is elaborated but the explanation and the statement is alike.

    14.) A4. Composition
    “Everything in the universe has a cause. So the universe as a whole must have a cause.”
    -a quote from a astrologer from TIME Magazine
    Explanation:
    Not all of the arguments from part to whole are that fallacious, for there are properties that the parts and whole share to each other. This lies in assuming that what’s correct of the parts is true by parts is true of the whole.

    15.) A5. Division
    “The atoms comprising this barrel of bricks are practically weightless. So this barrel of bricks is practically weightless.”
    -a quote from a alchemist from TIME Magazine
    Explanation:
    To argue this way is to deny the real difference of the whole or by means of part.

    16.) D1. Red Herring
    “I think there is great merit in making the requirements stricter for the graduate students. I recommend that you support it, too. After all, we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affected.”
    – a quote of a proctor from TIME Magazine
    Explanation:
    This fallacy provides things on how to apply to the practice in searching where the herring is. It acts as a function in a argument when it attempts to distract moving far in the topic being tackled relevant on how to reason.

    17.) D2. Slippery Slope
    “Laws prohibiting the possession of handguns are the first step toward robbing us of all our civil liberties!”
    – a quote from a lawyer from TIME Magazine
    Explanation:
    It puts the fallacy in the center surrounded by the claim . This will let the readers to decide in their actions.

    18.) D3. False Analogy
    A self-proclaimed expert says: “Education cannot prepare men and women for marriage. Trying to educate them for marriage is like trying to teach them to swim without allowing them to go into the water. It can’t be done.”
    -a quote of a self-proclaimed expert from TIME Magazine
    Explanation:
    The common problem is that it has some features and characteristics alike. The argument from analogy can only de a success when it gradually have dissimilarities between the things observed and compared are in significant.

    19.) D4. Straw Man
    “We should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”
    -Senator Jones
    Explanation:
    The issue is about the attack submarine program, this fallacy is deceptive because Senator Jones adds another argument so he will able to stand for what he is fighting.

    20.) D5. False Dilemma
    “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.”
    -Star Studio Magazine
    Explanation:
    This fallacy is the distraction from the so called “truth lies” in the words use in tis argument. This gives two alternative action on what to do.

    THANK YOU AND GOD BLESS!!! c”,)

  28. Example of Fallcies:

    1. Fallacy of Ad Hominem
    • “She asserts that we need more military spending, but that is false, since she is only saying it because she is a republican.”
    • Harry Browne to his friend Joe (how I found Freedom in an unfree World)
    • Obviously this is an argumentum Ad Hominem, because without even knowing what the speaker means he says it’s false.

    2. Argumentum Ad Verecundiam:
    • “They’re my uncles so I must show them respect, that’s what my mother always says when I was a little Kid.”
    • Graciela said to Carrillo (The Sands of Time)
    • This is an Argumentum Ad Verecundiam, because even though Graciela doesn’t know every man she sees being without her mom, she just respected them because her mother.

    3. Petitio Principii
    • “Women write the best novels because men do not write novels as well.”
    • One of the people’s comment in the book entitled “Boys vs. Girls”
    • This is just a common kind of Petitio Principii, because it’s just transforming the conclusion into a premise using logical and grammatical principles.

    4. Fallacy of accident
    • “It is good to return things you have borrowed. Therefore, you should return things you should return this automatic rifle from the madman you borrowed it from.”
    • Adopted from Plato’s republic, book 1
    • It is a fallacy of accident because it occurs when general rule is applied to a case when it was not meant to cover.

    5. Fallacy of False Cause
    • “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short”
    • Rubio to his Aunt (Kaleidoscope)
    • This is a false cause, because Rubio is just treating it as the cause why Napoleon became a great emperor, but it’s not really its cause. It’s not a causal inference.

    6. Fallacy of converse accident
    • “Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic!”
    • Mrs. Smith to Samantha (Silent Honor)
    • It’s a converse accident, because at first you’ll think that the speaker is admiring someone, but then you’ll realize that the speaker is saying that what he/she saw is wrong.

    7. Argumentum Ad Populum
    • “I still don’t know who and what to believe, but Christianity is believed in by the greatest number of people in the world, so it must be really true!
    • Jaime Mairo to Megan (Sands of Time)
    • Even though Jaime doesn’t know who and what to believe, he chose Christianity, because it was believed by the greatest number of people.

    8. Argumentum Ad Miserecondiam
    • “ Oh officer, there’s no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast, because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed.”
    • Fred to the officer (Silent Honor)
    • Fred is carefully reasoning to convince the officer not to give him traffic ticket; this fallacy is insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.

    9. Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam
    • “No one has objected to objected to Lander’s parking policies during the last month of classes, so I suppose those policies are very good.”
    • Mr. William to his class (The Cry of the Halidon)
    • The fallacy is committed when the proposition is true on the ground, and no one has objected then William proved that it’s a good policies.

    10. Fallacy of Slippery Slope
    • “You can never give anyone a break; if you do they’ll walk over you.”
    • Samantha to Felix (Silent Honor)
    • This is a fallacy of slippery slope, because Samantha here says to her friend that he should not give up on something or it might end up on something wrong.

    11. Argumentum Ad Baculum
    • “Are you going to tell us where Jaime Mairo and his groups were heading or you want me to call my army and kill you?”
    • Colonel Acoca to Sister Theresa (The Sands of Time)
    • This is fallacy because Acoca is forcing Theresa to confess whatever she knows and to follow what Acoca tells her to do.

    12. Fallacy of False Dilemma
    • “Look you are going to make up your mind, either you can decide to afford this stereo or you can decide you are going to do without music for a while?”
    • Samantha to her friend Felix (Silent Honor)
    • Obviously this is a false Dilemma, because Samantha says that the stereo is the only thing that will make music alive for her friend Felix. But the truth is the stereo is not just the only thing that will make music alive for Felix she just wanted to convince Felix to buy the stereo.

    13. Fallacy of Complex Question
    • “Have you stopped beating your wife?”
    • This appears to be a simple yes/no answers assume that the person questioned is in fact, a wife beater. That’s why the form of the question does not allow that he has never beaten his wife.

    14. Fallacy of Accent:
    •“Why are you asking me about Lucia’s message? I recent her question.”
    •Theresa to Roberto (The Sands of Time)
    •In its written form, it could either mean that the speaker was upset about the question Lucia asked her.

    15. Fallacy of Division:
    • “Men receive more higher education than women. Therefore Dr. Jane Smart has less higher education than Mr. Bill Buffoon. ”
    – said Mr. Muller
    • This is a fallacy of Division because a person infers that what is true of a whole must also be true of its constituents and justification for that inference is not provided.

    16. Fallacy of Straw Man:
    • “People who opposed the Charlottetown Accord probably just wanted Quebec to separate. But we want Quebec to stay in Canada.”
    • A comment from Time Magazine
    • This is a fallacy of straw man because the opposition’s argument has been misrepresented by showing that the opposition has a stronger argument. Describe the stronger argument.

    17. Fallacy of Eqiuvocation:
    • “Do women need to worry about man-eating sharks?”
    • Felix said in Silent Honor
    • This is an equivocation because with the word “man”, which can mean both “member of species Homo sapiens” and “male member of species Homo sapiens”. A well-known equivocation is where “man-eating” is taken as “devouring only male human beings”.

    18. Fallacy of Amphiboly
    • “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger…”
    • Robert E. Rodes, Jr. & Howard Pospesel, Premises and Conclusions: Symbolic Logic for Legal Analysis
    • It is not clear whether the expression “when in actual service in time of war or public danger” attaches just to “in the militia” or to all of “in the land or naval forces, or in the militia”. This makes a big difference, especially to someone “in the land or naval forces” who has been accused of committing a crime during peacetime.

    19. Fallacy of composition:
    • “Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?”
    • Aristotle, (Nicomachean Ethics)
    • This is a fallacy of Composition where the Arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of the whole and resons mistakenly from the attributes of an individual.

  29. 20. fallacy of false analogy
    – “Government is like business, so just as business must be sensitive primarily to the bottom line, so also must government”
    – this is a fallacy of false analogy because An analogy fails when the two objects, A and B, are different in a way which affects whether they both have property P.

  30. A. Fallacies of Relevance
    R1. Appeal to ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
    • Example: …announced that he had penetrated “Truman’s iron curtain of secrecy” and that he proposed forthwith to present 81 cases… Cases of exactly what? “I am only giving the Senate,” he said, “cases in which it is clear there is a definite Communist connection…persons whom I consider to be Communists in the State Department.” … Of Case 40, he said, “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”
    • Source: Richard H. Rovere’s, “Senator Joe McCarthy”
    • Explanation: There is a lack of evidence; there is a positive evidence for the conclusion but then a lack of evidence to the evidence is no evidence.

    R2. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority (Argumentun ad Verecundiam)
    • Example: Ogata: “The play should work! If it came from the coach, I am certain it will work!”
    • Source: Cross Over
    • Explanation: means the authority becomes illegitimate when the authority is irrelevant, unreliable and dogmatic.

    R3. Attack on the person (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    • Example: Judge: you have just been convicted or petty larceny.
    Prisoner: Your honor, I just looked up you salary; you get $200000 a year. If I’m a thief, you’re a bigger one.
    • Source: Pride and Prejudice
    • Explanation: consist of accusing.

    R4. Appeal to the people (Argumentum ad Populum)
    • Example: Capital punishment can’t be wrong; 75% of the people support it.
    • Source: New York Times May 1997
    • Explanation: fallacy of believing or doing something only because it is popular.

    R5. Appeal to pity (Argumentum Misericordiam)
    • Example: Luffy: “So you are willing to be my pirate eh? What can offer me as a pirate?
    Kuma: “I have nowhere to stay. Our fridge is empty and i have no clothes to spare.”
    • Source: One Piece
    • Explanation: not answering a question directly, attacking sympathy and because of that, there is no argument.

    R6. Appeal to force (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    • Example: Of course there’s a real Santa clause, but he doesn’t bring presents to children who don’t believe in him.
    • Source: Polar Express
    • Explanation: it is fallacious because it gives us no reason for believing that Santa exists.

    R7. Missing the point (Ignorantio Elenchi)
    • Example: Ms. Yokomizo: “I should not go to jail for not having a sufficient alibi. There are two more people that are present in the crime scene and the investigators must also consider them suspects, not harass an innocent civilian like me for if you’re investigation about me is wrong, I will file a case against all of you”
    • Source: Detective Conan
    • Explanation: irrelevant conclusion. Ms. Yokomizo missed the point that she is investigated thoroughly and have enough proof for her to be in jail.

    B. Fallacies of Presumption
    A1. Complex question
    • Example: Do you think we should keep having these useless conversation or not?
    • Source: National Treasure: Book of Secrets
    • Explanation: a question with hidden assumption.

    A2. Begging the Question (Petitio Principii)
    • Example: Moliere’s doctor asked. “ Why does opium make one sleepy,” answered, “Because it possesses dormative[sleep-inducing] virtue [power].
    • Source:
    • Explanation: assuming what you set out to prove, smuggling the conclusion back into premises.

    A3. Sweeping Generalization (Accident)
    • Example: “I am from Ateneo. I am rich”
    • Source:
    • Explanation: it cannot be all true that if you are from ateneo you are rich.

    A4. Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident)
    • Example: ‘Haruka: “If Sado and Minami kiss, If Lilim and Kitsuro kiss, then it’s ok for us to kiss right? We’re both humans right?”
    • Source: Hug!
    • Explanation: an inference made from some specific.

    C. Fallacies of Ambiguity
    A1. Equivocation
    • Example: All laws require law givers and the laws of nature are laws, therefore the laws of nature require law giver.
    • Source: Simple Justice
    • Explanation: the fallacy is committed when we use one term for two concepts.
    A2. Amphiboly
    • Example: Drive this 4×4 fully loaded.
    • Source: Speed Racer
    • Explanation: A statement is amphibolous when its meaning is indeterminate because of the loose or awkward way, in which its words are combined,

    A3. Accent
    • Example: I do not choose to run this time. ( but perhaps he will)
    I do not choose to run this time. (I choose not to run)
    I do not choose to run this time. (But I can be forced)
    • Source: Little miss sunshine
    • Explanation: when a premise relies for its apparent meaning on one possible emphasis but a conclusion is drawn from it that relies on the meaning of the same words accented differently, the fallacy of accent is committed.

    A4. Composition
    • Example: “Melamine is a poisonous ingredient of milks in China. Therefore, all milks from China are poisonous.”
    • Source: Sec. Francisco Duque III (Department of Health)
    • Explanation: it implies that Melamine is a poisonous product for all of its use.

    A5. Division
    • Example: Mr. Kogoru Mouri: “We all know how intelligent Shinichi Kudo is. And since he is a great detective like me, I must be intelligent too!”
    • Source: Detective Conan
    • Explanation: Mr. Kogoru Mouri assumed that he is intelligent because Shinichi Kudo is also intelligent.

    D. Fallacies of Distraction
    D1. Red Herring
    • Example: Ichitaka: “Iori was a vegetarian. Iori was pure evil. So, we can safely say that vegetarians have evil ideals.”
    • Source: I”S
    • Explanation: Inductive formal fallacy which asserts that character of one thing is naturally character of another, merely by an irrelevant association.

    D2. False Analogy
    • Example: Sora: “Why do we always need to write and write? At the middle ages, warriors are engaged in fight! That’s what
    I want to have action!”
    • Source: Kingdom Hearts
    • Explanation: Making an analogy between two different situations.

    D3. Straw Man
    • Example: A black cat walks in front of you…
    • Source: Feng Shui
    • Explanation: it is true but not all the times.

    D4. False Dilemma
    • Example: Jumanji: Every month at the quarter moon, there will be a monsoon in your lagoon.
    • Source: Jumanji
    • Explanation: it is like there are only two alternatives.

  31. 1. Nothing would be better than a high score on this test, but a poor grade would be better than nothing, so conclude that a bad grade would be better than a high score.
    – ”Nothing” is being used in two different
    senses. (equivocation)

    2. According to the law, a man is innocent until proved guilty. So Mr. Ratskeller must be innocent of the charge of bribery, since he has not yet been proved guilty. Therefore, since Mr. Ratskeller is innocent, it would be wrong to convict him.
    – Two distinct senses of ”innocent” are being
    used. (equivocation)

    3. As a result of a poll of 28 adults interviewed on Main Street in Greenwood, S.C. on Friday night, we can conclude that all people in Greenwood prefer going downtown to watching TV.
    – Insufficient evidence is used in the
    generalization. (converse accident)

    4. Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.
    – The argument moves from part to whole,
    committing the fallacy of composition.

    5. Water extinguishes fire. Oxygen is part of water. Therefore, oxygen will extinguish fire.
    – Again, the argument moves from whole to
    part. (fallacy of division)

    6. Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.
    – Because of the loose and awkward sentence
    construction the fallacy of amphiboly occurs.

    7. Richard Nixon: “Mr. Sparkman and Mr. Stevenson should come before the American people, as I have and make a complete financial statement as to their financial history, and if they don’t, it will be an admission that they have something to hide.
    – Mr. Nixon committed the fallacy of Ad
    Ignorantiam. From the lack of evidence, he draws
    a conclusion when none can be logically drawn.

    8. The real reason you favor the draft is that you’re too old to be drafted.
    – Again the person’s circumstances should be
    regarded as being logically independent of his
    arguments. (ad hominem)

    9. The present U.S. administration has not yet developed an energy policy. Nonetheless, almost every other developed nation in the world has an energy policy, except us. Therefore, the United States should have a unified energy policy.
    – Simply because many other countries have an
    energy policy, it does not necessarily follow
    that we should have one. (ad populum)

    10. But Mom I don’t see why I have to wear socks; Einstein never did wear socks.
    – This rather strange argument might be called
    ignoratio elenchi, but it is more likely Einstein
    is not an authority of the wearing of sock. (ad
    verecundiam)

    11. No mathematician has ever been able to demonstrate the truth of the variants of the Goldberg conjecture, so they cannot all be true.
    – From the fact that something has not been
    proved, no conclusion can be drawn. (ad
    ignorantiam)

    12. Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.
    – The general rule is being used in an instance
    not meant to be covered by the rule; hence, the
    fallacy of accident occurs.

    13. Killing is bad: therefore, it was wrong for us to go to war against the Nazi’s.
    – Applying a general rule to a case it was not designed to cover. (accident)

    14. Those who support gun control are wrong; they believe that no one should has the right to defend themselves in any situation.
    – Attacking an oversimplified version of an opponent’s actual position. (strawman)

    15. During the Gulf war many Americans made immense profits. That is an indisputable fact. Therefore, there can be no doubt that American business interests instigated the war.
    – Simply because some persons made profits, it
    does not logically follow these persons caused
    the war. (false cause)

    16. The death penalty is the only way to punish criminals. Why? Because the justice system in this country has gone straight to hell — what with murderers, rapists and robbers getting off scot-free! It has got change!
    – Two closely related fallacies, which involves diverting the listener’s attention by changing the subject or drawing a slightly different conclusion than the one that should be drawn. (red herring)

    17. “90% of those surveyed think we should not convict Clinton, so you should too”.
    – Attempting to convince by appealing to the natural desire we all have to be included, or liked, or recognized. (argumentum ad populum – appeal to belief)

    18. Martin Sheen is against the war and he plays the President on TV so I’m with him.
    – Accepting an idea because someone you like accepts it, whether or not that person has the authority to know. (appeal to force authority)

    19. We went after Saddam because of 9/11.
    – Accepting an idea because everyone else believes it or assumes it. (appeal to common practice or common belief – “bandwagon”)

    20. “You know that God is a just and loving God because God is God and cannot be unjust or unloving.”
    – Transformation of the conclusion into a premiss using logical or grammatical principles. (petitio principii)

  32. INFORMAL FALLACIES

    – High School Musical

    1. R1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Chad: “Sharpay is like a mouth of lion!”
    Explanation:
    This is an Argument ad Ignorantiam, because it is not proven that the person who is pointed that like a mouth of lion is really look like a mouth of lion. Therefore we can consider this as an Argumentum ad Ignorantiam.

    2. R2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    Gabriella: “So you’re the basketball guy because everybody in the whole campus said so.”
    Explanation:
    It is an Argumentum ad Verecundiam, because it shows that Gabriella said that thing because she heard it from the students in the whole campus. This means she’s not sure yet if that person is really a basketball guy, considering that the whole campus said it already.

    3. R5. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Ms. Darbus: “We don’t dot the pianist.”
    Kelsie: “No! Pianist here Ms. Darbus.”
    Sharpay: “You don’t really want to do this!”
    Explanation:
    Three persons argued in the scene. Then with what sharpay said, its considered as an Argumentum ad Baculum. The person was trying to say that don’t do it anymore. Its like kelsie was blocked mail by sharpay.

    4. P1. Complex Question
    Sharpay: “I see you a lot with troy. There’s something special going on with the two of you, isn’t?”
    Explanation:
    It is considered as a Complex Question because Sharpay asked a question which she means Troy and Gabriella is having a relationship in a present.

    5. P4. Accident
    Chad: “East High basketball players can’t sing.”
    Explanation:
    Not all of the basketball player in east high cannot sing. That’s why it can consider it as an Accident.

    6. A3. Accent
    Gabriella: “But how about your dad, troy, even the chad.”
    Troy: “It is not anymore my problem it is his problem.”
    Explanation:
    It is an Accent because, with what troy said, it looks like he is talking about with one person only. But Gabriella mentioned two persons.

    7. D3. False Analogy
    Chad: “If you will be a singer then you will end at my mom’s refrigerator. But if you will be a basketball player like Michael Jordan then you will end in the cereal box. That is why you better be a basketball player, than being a singer.”
    Explanation:
    This is an idea which is not true. Bad information, that’s why it is an False Analogy.

    8. D5. False Dilemma
    Jason: “We didn’t actually heard you sing.”
    Chad: “We must cheer you up not cheering you down.”
    Explanation:
    They don’t have choice but to accept that their friend can sing not only to play basketball. So it’s a False Dilemma.

    9. A4. Composition
    Ms. Darbus: “rules are rules.”
    Explanation:
    Even it was said that rules are rules, still they give chance and consider things. It is also a Composition.

    10. A1. Equivocation
    Ryan: “Everybody loves a good jazz. But not all love jazz as others love it.”
    Explanation:
    Mentioned same words but it has different meaning in the sentence. It is a Equivocation.

    – Slamdunk

    11. R4. Argumentum ad Populum
    Sakuragi: “haruko said I’m very tall and have such strong muscle and I must be an athlete. I like it lot. Beacause I’m an athlete!”
    Explanation:
    It is considered as a Argument ad Populum because, sakuragi said he was an athlete even he is not, because he don’t know how to play basketball. But he said this because he likes haruko.

    12. R6. Argumentum Misericordiam
    Sakuragi: “I must practice harder to show them I deserve to play in the basketball game. I need to plat in the game so that haruko will be proud of me. But how can it happen if I will not practice harder.”
    Explanation:
    It is a Argumentum Misericordiam because sakuragi is trying to change his mind with what he have to do.
    13. P2. False Cause
    Sakuragi: “We won! We won! We won because I was very good in playing the game awhile ago. I am the reason why we won the game.”
    Explanation:
    It is a False Cause because, sakuragi is claiming that he is the reason why they won the basketball game. But the truth is he is not the reason why they won.

    14. P3. Petitio Principii
    Sakuragi: “Wait me in the roof which I’ll be there at the top.”
    Explanation:
    It is a Petitio Principii because roof and top has the same meaning. They are just different in words but they have the same meaning.

    15. P5. Converse Accident
    Gori: “I didn’t see sakuragi doing a freethrow yet. I think he can’t shoot the ball.”
    Explanation:
    It is a Converse Accident because Gori jumped to a conclusion.

    16. A2. Amphiboly
    Sakuragi: “I want to kill this guy!”
    Explanation:
    With it there’s no other information why he want to kill the boy. With the three boys walking in the hallway does with this three he wanted to kill.

    17. A5. Division
    Student: Ryonan is a great team. They are known as one of the best team in basketball. I belong to this team. I bet I’m also great like them.
    Explanation:
    It is considered as s Division because the student take it as a whole.

    18. D2. Slippery Slope
    Sakuragi’s friend: “What?! You will join the basketball team? Do you know what you are saying. You don’t know how to play basketball. You can’t be a basketball player. You will just sit in the bench and cannot play inside the court.”
    Explanation:
    Again it jumped again to another situation which didn’t happen yet. That is why it can consider as a Slippery Slope.

    19. D4. Straw Man
    Haruko: “A man who is tall and have strong muscle must be an athlete.”
    Explanation:
    Not all man who is tall and have a strong muscle is an athlete. It can consider as a Straw Man.

    20. R7. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Coach Ansai: “We should not get things fast sakuragi. There is still 1 more quarter. And you will be in the game. You just have to wait for your turn.”
    Explanation:
    It is an Ignorantio Elenchi because even sakuragi wants to play inside the court, he can’t play because the coach said so and he can’t do anything but to wait for his turn to play.

  33. 1.) “The Earth is flat, since many philosophers in the Middle Ages believed that it was flat.”
    Science Magazine – Comics
    (Appeal to Authority)
    Explanation: Since many philosophers believed that earth was flat, pati tayo naniniwala na rin na bilog nga ang mundo ng walang ebidensiya. We believe to them because they are older than us.

    2.) “You should stop eating hamburgers, or else you’ll get Mad Cow Disease.”
    Science Magazine – Comics
    (Appeal to Force)
    Explanation: This is a threat na kapag ginawa natin ang isang bagay may corresponding na consequence.

    3.) “Psychic phenomena don’t exist, since no-one has proved that they are real.”
    (Appeal to Ignorance)
    Explanation: Maaaring totoo pero hindi pa na pro-prove na totoo nga iyon.

    4.) “If we legalize marijuana, then we would have to legalize heroin and crack and we’ll have a nation full of drug addicts on welfare. Therefore we cannot afford to legalize marijuana”.
    (Slippery Slope)
    Explanation: Sinasabi dito na kapag nilegalize ‘yung marijuana kailangan ding illegalize ‘yung iba. So, lumalabas na nakadepende ‘yung conclusion sa premises.

    5.) “You can’t fail me in this course! I NEED this course to transfer to University, and my parents will kill me if I don’t transfer this semester.”
    (Appeal to Pity)
    Explanation: In this statement, parang nananakot pa ‘yung nagsasabi.

    6.) “As a general rule, men make more money in the marketplace than women do. Therefore, since I’m a man, I make more money than women.”
    (Accident – Sweeping Generalization)
    Explanation: This statement tells about men make more money. It doesn’t mean that men can be the only who can make more money. Women also can make money.

    7.) “Oprah Winfrey is a woman and she is paid more money than any male talk-show host. Therefore, female talk-show hosts, as a rule, are paid more money than male talk-show hosts.”
    (Converse Accident – Hasty Generalizations)
    Explanation: This statement tells about woman as a talk show hosts paid more than man. It doesn’t necessarily mean that if you are not a female hindi ka babayaran ng maganda. It still depends on the speaker, babae man o lalaki.

    8.) “I’m thinking of buying a new Macintosh e-book computer and I found out that the onboard speakers are real cheap. Therefore the laptop itself must be real cheap.”
    (Composition)
    Explanation: This statement tells about the Macintosh e-book computer. Nalaman lang na cheap ‘yung speakers. Cheap na rin ‘yung buong laptop. It still depends pa rin sa kakayahan ‘nung computer.

    9.) “Smith College is a very wealthy college. I’m dating a girl from Smith, so she must be very wealthy.”
    (Division)
    Explanation: It doesn’t follow na nag-aaral ang isang tao sa isang magandang iskwelahan, ibig sabihin ay mayaman na siya. Maybe he/ she is a scholar.

    10.) “We can never stop war, since even in families there are sometimes wars.”
    Book – English
    (Equivocation)
    Explanation: It is just a repetition of the word, minsan sa pag rerepeat ng word, ‘ung conclusion nagkakamali.

    11.) “Our philosophy professor is against the war, but what can you expect? She’s a Deadhead and wears a backpack to class.”
    Short Story – Midnight Tales
    (Attack on a Person)
    Explanation: Sinisiraan ang isang tao ng patalikod. In otherwords, Backfighter.

    12.) Francis: “Emo ka pa din ba?” (Complex Question)
    Chat
    Explanation: It doesn’t answer the question of the person. Puedeng sabihin ‘nung taong tinatanong na “oo noon pero hindi na ngayon”.

    13.) “If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law.”
    Old News
    (Begging the Question)
    Explanation: Premise and Conclusion falls down in the same meaning. Kumbaga parehas lang ‘yung meaning nung premise at Conclusion.

    14.) “You should support the new housing bill. We can’t continue to see people living in the streets; we must have cheaper housing.”
    Old News
    (Missing the Point)
    Explanation: We may agree that housing is important — even though we disagree with the housing bill.

  34. 1. Argumentatum ad Baculum (appeal to force)

    (RATATOUILLE)
    Colette: [Linguini is making a mess at the kitchen] What is this? Keep… your… station clear! If meal orders come in, what will happen? Messy stations slow things down, food doesn’t go, orders pile up, disaster! I will make this easier to remember: keep your station clean… or I WILL KILL YOU!

    -It insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of the conclusion.

    2. Argumentatum ad Hominem (attack to the person)

    (THE NOTEBOOK)
    Anne: She is out foolin’ around with that boy until two o’clock in the morning and it has got to stop! I didn’t spend seventeen years of my life raising a daughter and giving her everything, so she could throw it away on a summer romance!
    Young Allie: Daddy!
    Anne: She will wind up with her heart broken or pregnant! Now he’s a nice boy, but he’s…
    Young Allie: He’s what!? He is what? Tell me!
    Anne: He is trash! Trash! Trash! Not for you!

    -It is seeking to defame or discredit the person being talked about.

    3. Argumentatum Misericordiam (appeal to pity)

    (“Poison Ivy” from the TV series: GOSSIP GIRL)
    Jenny Humphrey: We’re Humphreys’ Dad. Not exactly royalty uptown.
    Rufus Humphrey: You okay with that?
    Jenny Humphrey: No, but I’m used to it…

    -Jenny is somewhat blaming her lastname for their lack of money and popularity.

    4. Ignorantio Elenchi (missing the point)

    (HIGH SCHOOL MUSICAL)
    Sharpay: Look, that Gabriella girl just dumped her lunch on me on purpose. It’s all a part of their plan to ruin our musical. And Troy and his basketball robots are obviously behind it. Why do you think he auditioned? After all the hard work you put into this show, it just doesn’t seem right!

    -The arguer draws conclusion different from that supported by the premises.

    5. Complex Question

    (A CINDERELLA STORY)
    Sam: So… Who’d you guys pay to make your cars so dirty?
    Brianna: Excuse me? Like, what are you, the Dirt Police?
    Gabriella: [laughs] Yeah! The Dirt Police! Like, excuse me miss, do you know how fast your dirt was going?
    Brianna: You should’ve stopped at the Dirt Police.

    -The question was asked in such a way that it was presupposing the truth.

    6. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)

    (HITCH)
    Hitch: I’m a guy. Since when do we get anything right the first time?

    -He applied a generalization to an individual case that it does not properly govern.

    7. Converse Accident

    (LEGALLY BLONDE)
    Elle Woods: Exercise makes endorphins. Endorphins make you happy. Happy people just don’t kill their husbands. They just don’t.

    -Elle moved too quickly from a single case to an indefensibly broad generalization.

    8. False Cause (non causa pro causa)

    (JUST MY LUCK)
    Ashley Albright: Hey, Do you believe in Karma? Jake Hardin: No. Why? Ashley Albright: Nothing, It’s just.. last week I helped an old lady cross the street and then the next day, I found ten bucks lying on the floor! Can you believe that? Jake Hardin: That was not Karma, that’s luck. Ashley Albright: I don’t think that was luck, that’s karma, karma, karma!

    -Ashley assumed that the cause of her fortune was her act of kindness.

    9. Argumentatum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)

    (ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: AI)
    David: My mommy doesn’t hate me! Because I’m special! And unique! Because there’s never been anyone like me before, ever! Mommy loves Martin because he is real, and when I am real Mommy’s going to read to me and tuck me in my bed and sing to me and listen to what I say and she will cuddle with me and tell me every day a hundred times a day that she loves me!

    -It is argued that a proposition is true on the ground that it has not yet proven false.

    10. Argumentatum ad populum (appeal to popular prejudice)

    (SUPERMAN RETURNS)
    Richard White: Were you in love with him?
    Lois Lane: He’s Superman. Everyone was in love with him.
    Richard White: But were you?
    Lois Lane: ….

    -Lois appeals to popularly held beliefs as premise to a conclusion.

    11. Slippery Slope

    (SPIDERMAN 3)
    Aunt May: Uncle Ben meant the world to us. But he wouldn’t want us living one second with revenge in our hearts. It’s like a poison. It can– It can take you over. Before you know it, turn us into something ugly.

    -The conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction.

    12.Equivocation Man: A feather is light. What is light cannot be dark. Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.

    -The word “light” is first used as the opposite of “heavy”, but then used as a synonym of “bright”.

    13. False Dilemma

    (X-MEN: THE LAST STAND)
    Eric Lensherr: It’s only that you realize, while you were talking about organizing and committees, the extermination has already begun. Make no mistake, my brothers. They will draw first blood. They will force their cure upon us. The only question is, will my brotherhood and fight, or wait for the inevitable genocide? Who will you stand with– the humans…or us?

    -This fallacy is committed when one claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable.

    14. Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    (WHITE CHICKS)
    Marcus Copeland: Baby, listen to what you just say. MapQuest said it takes 6 minutes to get here. I got here at 8:00. Which means there’s 2 minutes unaccounted for. If I was cheating on you, don’t you think I’d need more than 2 minutes?

    -The premises of the argument appeal to the judgment of some party having no legitimate claim to authority in the matter at hand.

  35. Informal Fallacies Examples

    1. From “Wall-E” (Movie) <=Straw Man
    a. “Computer: Message dates back to the year 2100
    Captain: That’s like seven hundred years ago! Things have changed! Out there is our home – Home, Auto! – And it’s in trouble. I can’t just sit here and do nothing. That’s all I’ve ever done! That’s all anyone has ever done on this blasted ship – nothing!”
    2. From “CSI: Miami” <=Non Sequitur
    a. Horatio: When there is blood, there is murder. When there is murder there is crime. When there is crime, there are evidences. When there are evidences, there’s a killer.
    3. From “Kung-Fu Panda” (Movie)<=Equivocation
    a. Mr. Ping (Po’s father): To make something special, you just have to believe it’s special.
    4. From “The Avatar: The Last Airbender” <=Sweeping Generalization
    a. Sokka: You were a firebender? No wonder I didn’t trust you when we first met!
    5. Quoted from “Current Quezon City Science Principal for Student Affairs” <=Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    a. Mrs. Zenaida Sadsad: I am the principal and that’s what I want.
    6. From “21” <=Division
    a. Cole Willians: Oh… you go to MIT. So you understand all this. You’re a smart boy eh?
    7. From “Starship Troopers” (Movie) <=False Cause (Non Causa pro Causa)
    a. Isabelle Flores: I’m a jinx, plain and simple. Bad stuff always happen to the people I’m in love with.
    8. From “The Rolling Bomber Special (Youtube)” <=Begging The Question
    a. Blue Fresh: Do you wish for world peace?
    Katori: …
    Yellow Fresh: You don’t, do you?
    Katori: Uhmmm…
    Blue Fresh: See? You clearly intent on destroying the Earth!
    9. From “Blade Trinity” (Movie) <=Complex Question
    a. Ray Cumberland: Say, how many people have you killed, Blade? Thirty? Forty? Fifty?
    10. From “OUST GLORIA Pilipinas at Friendster.com”<= False Dilemma
    a. Account author: If we will let the Arroyo administration reign, many poor people will be poorer as they get richer and richer
    11. From “OUST GLORIA Pilipinas at Friendster.com” <=Ignotantio Elenchi
    a. Account Author: We want to unite all Filipinos for the common goal of ousting Gloria as to alleviate the nation from poverty.

    12. From “Cassanova’s Big Nights” (Movie) <=Appeal to Pity
    a. Pippo Popolino: Oh, please spare my miserable life! I’ll work off the debt! I’ll make more wine for you. I’ve got big feet! What grapes I can’t trample on, I’ll sit on!
    13. From: “Desperate Housewives” (Series)<= False Analogy
    a. Tom: I love you because you did the right thing.
    14. From “Bones” (Movie) <=Appeal to Popular Prejudice
    a. Dr. Temperance Brennan: No. He told me to go. Angela did too. Everyone thinks it’s a great idea.
    15. From “Deuce Bigalow: European Gigolo” (Movie) <=Amphiboly
    a. T.J.: Here in Amsterdam, If you want to get high, you go to a coffee shop.
    16. From “Resident Evil” (Movie) <=Slippery Slope
    a. Just shoot her in the head. She was bitten; she’s infected with the virus. After an hour or two, she will become one of those. If you won’t kill her, she will kill us.
    17. From “24” (Series) <=Appeal to Force
    a. Jack Bauer: Give me the bomb or your head blows off.
    18. From “Toy Story 2” (Movie) <=Attack to the Person
    a. Sid: She’s lying! Whatever she says, it’s not true!
    19. From hubpages.com (Website) <=Hasty Generalization
    a. “That guy always wears pink. Pink is a woman’s colour. He must be gay.”
    20. From squidoo.com Forums <=Composition
    a. “Knowledge is power. Therefore, it is knowledge that separates the poor from the rich.”

  36. 15.) “We have to spend less on hospitals, otherwise we won’t be able to afford education improvements.”
    (False Dilemma)
    Explanation: By focusing on the choice, the decision to be made, the other person is distracted from the fact that there may be other alternatives.

    16.) “A school is not so different from a business. It needs a clear competitive strategy that will lead to profitable growth. ”
    (False Analogy)
    Explanation: Magkaibang bagay na pinagpapareho. Para siyang False Metaphor.

    17.) “The prince cannot but be praised.”
    (Accent)
    Explanation: Dito hindi mo alam kung ano ‘yung ‘cannot’.

    18.) “Trinitarianism holds that three equals one. Three does not equal one. Threfore, Trinitarianism is false.
    (Straw Man)
    Explanation: First premise misrepresents trinitarianism, its second premise attacks this misrepresentation of trinitarianism, and its conclusion states that trinitarianism is false.

    19.) “Three out of four doctors recommend this type of pain relief!”
    (Amphiboly)
    Explanation: The implied assertion here is that three out of four means seventy-five percent of all doctors and that this type of pain relief means this particular pain reliever.

    20.) “I know your car isn’t working right. But, if you had gone to the store one day earlier, you’d not be having problems. ”
    (Red herring)
    Explanation: Hindi connected ‘ung first premise sa second premise.

  37. 1.Code Geass
    “You’re going to die with me! Do you really want that?
    -Zero(Lelouch Vi Britannia)

    He wants Suzaku to have pity on himself to change the outcome.

    2.Code Geass
    “There is one way you might atone.
    Make the choice that the people of Japan were denied the opportunity to make.
    Walk the path which they strayed seven years ago.
    Rise up against Britannia!
    That is one path you can take.
    Or would you rather continue to impose your will on the greater populace unto eternity?”
    -Zero(Lelouch Vi Britannia)

    There are more alternatives.

    3.Shakugan no Shana
    “Will you swear to keep your hands off Corpse Retriever Rammie or will you suffer?”
    -Shana

    She is threatening her enemy to bring about an acceptance of some conclusion.

    4.Shakugan no Shana
    “It’s impossible because it’s impossible”
    -Shana

    The conclusion is used as a premise to prove the same conclusion.

  38. 1. Nothing would be better than a high score on this test, but a poor grade would be better than nothing, so conclude that a bad grade would be better than a high score.

    Equivocation–Two different senses of “nothing” are being used in the argument.

    2.A description of a candidate who is woefully inept: “I most enthusiastically recommend this candidate with no qualifications whatsoever.

    Amphiboly–Is the candidate qualified or not?

    3.I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.

    Equivocation–The word “right” is being used in two different senses.

    4.According to the law, a man is innocent until proved guilty. So Mr. Ratskeller must be innocent of the charge of bribery, since he has not yet been proved guilty. Therefore, since Mr. Mafia is innocent, it would be wrong to convict him.

    Equivocation–Two different senses are being used: legal and actual innocence.

    5.Richard Nixon: “Mr. Sparkman and Mr. Stevenson should come before the American people, as I have and make a complete financial statement as to their financial history, and if they don’t, it will be an admission that they have something to hide.

    Ad ignorantiam–No conclusion can be drawn from the lack of evidence.

    6.Stanford produces the best graduates in the United States. Therefore, any every Ph.D. from Stanford is better than any other Ph.D. in the country.

    Division–The quality of the whole does not necessarily extend to the parts.

    7.General Jed M. Lamgetter believes that it is absolutely essential to our future security that we immediately upgrading our computing systems to Linux from Microsoft NT. But his arguments are hardly deserving of careful consideration, for in a couple of weeks General Lamgetter will retire from the Army and become CEO and be given large stock options in Red Hat, one of the main Linux producers.

    Ad hominem–General Lamgetter’s circumstances should not be logically relevant to the truth or falsity of his assertions.

    8.It was his fault, Officer. You can tell by the kind of car I’m driving and by my clothes that I am a good citizen and would not lie. Look at the rattletrap he is driving, and look at how he is dressed. You can’t believe anything that a dirty, longhaired hippie like that might tell you. Search his car; he probably has pot in it.

    Ad hominem–The attack on the character is not relevant to the truth or falsity of the charges

    9.The welfare program is totally unnecessary. Why, I know a guy who runs a very lucrative illegal gambling operation and drives his new Cadillac down every week to collect his welfare check.

    Converse accident–One case is insufficient to establish a generalization

    10.The present U.S. administration has not yet developed an energy policy. Nonetheless, almost every other developed nation in the world has an energy policy, except us. Therefore, the United States should have a unified energy policy.

    Ad populum–The popularity of a practice or a belief is insufficient to establish its truth.

    11.A great many charges of graft and corruption have been brought against Senator Anderson over the past several years, and he has had numerous opportunities to refute them, but he has never done so. Therefore, I think, the evidence indicates he is not to be trusted.

    Ad ignorantiam–From the fact that there is no proof, no conclusion can be drawn.

    12. I once knew a philosophy student who went crazy and another one who was not that well balanced. You can see what the study of philosophy did to them.

    False cause–No causal mechanism is being proposed for the connection of these events.

    13.But Mom I don’t see why I have to wear socks; Einstein never did wear socks.

    Ad verecundiam–Einstein’s field of expertise does not extend to the wearing of socks.

    14.Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.

    Accident–The reasoning goes from a general principle to an atypical application of the rule not meant to be subsumed under the rule.

    15.Everyone believes that men write the best novels; therefore, there is little doubt that they do so.

    Ad populum–Even if one were to assume the truth of the premiss, popular opinion is not what determines the quality of novels.

    16.The best students make the best grades. Therefore, getting high grades will undoubtedly cause you to be a better student.

    False cause–Notice why this fallacy is not petitio principii. The awarding of high grades quite possibly would make one a worse student.

    17.Unless you back up my story and tell the committee I am reasoning logically, I’ll do everything in my power to see that you are fired.

    Ad baculum–The threat of force here is irrelevant to the truth of the story.

    18. Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be.

    Ad populum–Common belief could be mistaken. Even so, it is arguable that popular opinion is the proper way to determine the degree of difficulty of a course. The better answer would be “No Fallacy.

    19.No mathematician has ever been able to demonstrate the truth of the variants of the Goldberg conjecture, so they cannot all be true.

    Ad ignorantiam–From the fact that there is no proof, no conclusion can be drawn.

    20. During the Gulf war many Americans made immense profits. That is an indisputable fact. Therefore, there can be no doubt that American business interests instigated the war.

    False cause–Simply because two events occur, one cannot assume that one caused the other without further evidence.

  39. Project in Philosophy

    IA21

    JOSEPH MANUEL P. HERNANDEZ

    KEVIN CANTORIA

    GIAN PADUA

    1. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    Gabriel: You will become pregnant and give birth to a son.
    Miryam: But how can this happen? I am virgin.
    Gabriel: Because it was said by God and nothing is impossible with God. God will do it for you.

    2. False Cause
    Gabriel: You must name Miryam’s son “Yeshuah.”
    Josef: Why?
    Gabriel: Because he will save the people.

    3. Red Herring
    Josef: Miryam. It’s a boy. We will name him Yeshuah because it was told by Gabriel.
    *It is a red herring. It uses irrelevant reasons to distract attention from the issue.

    4. Straw Man
    Satan: It’s a long way down from this highest point of the temple. After all if you are God’s son, you could just jump. The Lord will command his angels to protect you.
    Yeshuah: It is not right. It was said that you should not test the Lord your God.

    5. Equivocation
    Josef: The world needs Yeshuah in order to save the people. I will give the name “Yeshuah” to our first born baby.
    *It’s equivocation. It uses the term “Yeshuah” in more than one way. First, it means “salvation”, then as a “representation of a person (name).”

    6. Appeal to Ignorance
    Yeshuah: Destroy this temple and I will save it up again in three days.
    People: What? You’ll raise this temple again in three days. It’s taken 46 years to build this temple. It’s impossible. Nobody has been able to do it in just three days.

    7. Amphiboly
    Herod had John arrested because Herod had married his brother’s wife and John said Herod had broken the law.
    *The statement is unclear who is the person arrested and why. If we arrange in this form “Herod had arrested John because John said that Herod had broken the law by marrying his brother’s wife”, the meaning becomes clear.
    8. Attack on the person
    Nathanael: We are going to Galilee. But the problem is the way we are going there. Why do we have to go through Samaria? I don’t want to deal with Samaritans… Yuck!!!
    *There is an error in this statement. He argues that the way they are going is not good because they are going to deal with Samaritans. He does not argue on what are the situations in the way (If there are many rocks or there is a calamity or disaster.)

    9. Complex Question
    Pharisee: By what authority did you drive out the temple merchants?

    10. Appeal to People
    Old man: You should come to me to predict your fortune, future, or perhaps soul mate. Because I’ve been a fortune teller for 79 years and I’m very popular.

    11. False Dilemma
    Minami: We only have two options: release our captured person or shoot down the hijacked plane. Otherwise, the hijackers will crash the plane somewhere in Tokyo with all the passengers still on board, if we don’t decide on the two options.

    12. Appeal to Force
    Man: Don’t speak or you gonna be hurt.

    13. Begging the Question
    Hikari: Do you know her name?
    Muko: It’s Miyamoto.
    Hikari: It wasn’t Miyakura?
    Muko: It’s Miyamoto.

    14. Complex Question
    Man: Why was she in your room?

    15. Appeal to Force
    B3: This is a one on one fight. If you try to help, I’ll kill you.

    16. False Cause
    1: Prince! Don’t go that way!
    2: Why?
    1: Because it’s a boy’s love corner and for me it is like toxic.

    17. Hasty Generalization
    Mika: You have to use this cue stick.
    Asahina: Why?
    Mika: Because every time you use it, you won billiard championship.

    18. False Analogy
    Speaker: There’s a person with a brilliant mind who can make all kinds of weapons, but there’s question he can’t answer on a quiz.
    *In this statement, the speaker compares a genius and one who can make all kinds of weapons.

    19. Equivocation
    Peter: Here, this food is for you, please eat something.
    Yeshuah: No, thanks, I have food to eat that you know nothing about.
    *In this dialog, Peter defines “food” literally as what we eat, while Yeshuah defines “food” as his mission to do what the Lord sent him to do.

    20. Red Herring
    King Herod: I know that the Messiah is a baby. If no one can tell who and where is that Messiah, I will order to kill all the babies.
    *He argues with very irrelevant reasons.

    21. Appeal to Ignorance
    Andrew: Simon, you may not believe this but I’ve sees the Messiah.
    Simon: You have a fever, don’t you? There is no Messiah.

    22. Straw Man
    Pharisee: Oh, Yeshuah! We’d like to ask you something, too… Is it right for us to pay taxes to Caesar, the Emperor?! Ah Ha! You can’t answer that question, can you?! Say “Yes” and you proclaim Caesar as King of Israel and deny your God! But say “No” and … Ah, well that’s treason… and you get yourself arrested! So… go ahead Yeshuah… answer the question.
    Yeshuah: You phonies! Why are you trying to trap me? Show me a coin used for the tax!
    Whose picture is on this coin? Whose name?
    Pharisee: Um… Caesar’s…
    Yeshuah: Then give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar… And give to God what belongs to God!

    23. Sweeping Generalization
    All children at the age of 1 or 2 years must bring to the Passover feast at the temple in Jerusalem.
    *Some does not follow this like the Samaritans.

    24. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    Peter: Our boat can’t survive a storm like this!
    Yeshuah: Peter, where is your faith. If you believe in God, nothing wrong can happen.

    25. Sweeping Generalization
    Yeshuah: Do not divorce.
    *This general rule has not been exercised by many especially Americans.

    Sources: Manga Messiah, Medaka Box, Oni Dere, Bloody Monday Season, Dogs: Bullets and Carnage, Takkoku, Detective Conan, Beelzebub, Fudanshism, and Gamble Fishzo

  40. Guys, I used your answers regarding the fallacies. I just badly need ’em for my homework. Thank you so much!

  41. Excellent goods from you, man. I’ve have in mind your stuff prior to and you are just extremely wonderful. I actually like what you have bought here, certainly like what you are saying and the best way in which you assert it. You’re making it entertaining and you continue to take care of to stay it sensible. I can’t wait to read far more from you. This is really a great site.

  42. […] article from The Varsitarian which consisted a lot of logical fallacies, I will post this from a previous college assignment just to review a few mentioned by the critics to the anonymous author of the […]

  43. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you
    penning this article and the rest of the site is extremely good.

  44. This is my first time visit at here and i am genuinely happy to read everthing
    at alone place.

  45. Excellent blog here! Also your web site loads
    up fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
    I wish my website loaded up as quickly as yours
    lol

  46. These are genuinely enormous ideas in regarding blogging.

    You have touched some nice factors here. Any way keep
    up wrinting.

  47. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this
    website. I’m hoping to check out the same high-grade content by you in the future as
    well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to
    get my very own website now 😉

  48. Thanks for finally writing about >2. Informal Fallacies | Does It Follow?
    <Loved it!

  49. Great site you have here.. It’s hard to find quality writing like yours these
    days. I truly appreciate people like you! Take care!!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: