2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—”

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–”

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

Advertisements

46 Responses

  1. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Ex.:
    “May the Force be with you” – Star wars

    If you say such world in the real life it would not be right. In science fiction stories you can come up with anything but it doesn’t mean it is true in real life. In real life, science did approve that there is such thing as force but it did not prove that there are the same kind of force just like the one in the movies.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    Ex.:
    “My mother told me all government people are controlled by the rich people.” – U.S. Marshal

    This sentence was said by a teenager while he was caught by the police on a certain case. This is something like they learn a not totally right knowledge from his/ her parent. He/she should prove that all government people are really being controlled by money. But there are still people in the government that search and do the righteous justice.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem
    Ex.:
    “Mutants are not a human being! It is a freak!” – X-man

    From the sentence we can see that the people can’t accept the mutants are human being with mutant genes in their bodies which turns out in the end they said out words that hurts the mutants.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum
    Ex.:
    “Harry Potter can talk to snakes! He his evil! He is using it to hurt people.”

    Because the public education in their wizard world taught them that the people who can speak in snake language are evil but Harry Potter is not evil at all. But the public was taught/brain washed that Harry Potter is evil because he speaks snakes. But Harry is not evil at all.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum
    Ex.:
    “Give me the car I requested or I will kill this girl!” – Hancock

    This is a hostage situation that the thief got a girl with a gun pointing at the girl’s head since he surrounded by the police, he hostage the girl for his safety. At this point the police and Hancock are threat by the thief is either they get him a car or the girl dies.

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam
    Ex.:
    “I will get myself killed if I told you anything.” – Righteous kill

    The situation of the person is that he knows the things that the police need to know but if he told the police all the things he know the bad guys will do anything to kill him. It is what they call the insinuated threats that bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi
    Ex.:
    A guy was caught speeding. The police walked to the window of the driver asking for his license.
    “Hey Officer, don’t you give me a ticket. I pay my taxes you know?” – MIB

    The guy got caught and there will be given a ticket for sure but he said he pay his taxes. At this situation there is no relation at all about the taxes and the ticket that he will be getting.

    P1 Complex question
    Ex.:
    “I can see you come here a lot, so, are you the bounty hunter?” – Star Wars

    The first question from one of the Jedi knight is investing something about a case assigned to him. And he found a suspect which appears in the bar almost al the time. Then the Jedi went to the person for an open topic then sudden cut into another topic which is the real question that the Jedi wanted to ask.

    P2 False Cause
    Ex.:
    “He was killed because he opened the box that is cursed.” – The Mummy

    Is there really such thing as curse? The person died because is his time to die not because he was cursed. In science there is no such thing as curse.

    P3 Petitio Principii
    Ex.:
    “Great power comes with great responsibility.” – Spider man

    It is said that the conclusion is because of the great power he got so he had the great responsibility. The first premise (power) and the second (responsibility), comes with the conclusion he had to protect the city.

    P4 Accident
    Ex.:
    “The people from planet Pluto are either a killer or a warrior.” – MIB

    In the story, because their information about the alien from Pluto they are either killers or warriors. Instead of checking from other possibility, they judge them in between the two only.

    P5 Converse Accident
    Ex.:
    “You can speak good Chinese because you’re from china.” – Rush Hour

    This is the way people usually do. People judge one another by the limited knowledge that they know. Even though the conclusion is true but it is not totally true.

    A1 Equivocation
    Ex.:
    “Anger is to hate, hate is to suffering.” – Star Wars

    The sentence tell that anger equals to hate and hate equals to suffering so therefore anger is equal to suffering.

    A2 Amphiboly
    Ex.:
    “Only the ‘little cricket’ can destroy it.” – MIB

    In this example the ‘little cricket is actual a weapon that have a strong attack power they call it the little cricket only because it look small.

    A3 Accent
    Ex.:
    “Skywalker is the one who will bring the balance to the force.” – Star Wars

    The sentence look normal here but If you put a different tone in the word it will become that there is a deeper meaning about the sentence. It sounds like good news that he will bring the force into balance but which side will he balance to? The dark side? Or the good side?

    A4 Composition
    Ex.:
    “The Jedi are holding me back. The power of the dark side can increase my power.” – Star Wars

    In the example we can see that skywalker is blinded by the power, the Jedi is just helping him to let him learn how to control the power. But because of his blindness he saw himself is being hold back.

    A5 Division
    Ex.:
    “Everyone knows Chinese know Kong-fu. You’re a Chinese so you must know Kong-fu.” – The Forbidden Kingdom

    The first sentence is a normal knowledge that is not really applicable for everyone which there are Chinese that don’t know Kong-fu.

    D1 Red Herring
    Ex.:
    “You’ve been to gay bar so you must be gay” – Hot Chicks

    This is the kind of sentence similar to the converse accident who judges people with simple situation they are in. Like the example, who said all people who went to gay bars are all gay? There are possibility straight gays go there just for drinking cause it just happens to be that the gay bar is the only bar near his place.

    D5 False Dilemma
    Ex.:
    “If Skywalker joins the dark side the force will be balanced.” – Star Wars

    In the story it actually means if Skywalker becomes a Jedi then the force will be balanced not join the dark side then the force will be balanced

  2. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Ex:
    “From East Middle School, Suzumiya Haruhi. I have no interest in ordinary humans. If there are any aliens, time travelers, sliders, or espers here…come join me. That is all!” – Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya

    Well obviously our scientific knowledge today does not prove of any aliens or whatever that exist, there were rumors but only rumors and that does not prove that aliens or whatever really exist. This statement tells something that is not proved; yet a conclusion is drawn.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Ex:
    “Humans exist to chase for happiness” – Code Geass

    Do you really exist to chase for happiness? Or do you exist because of something else? This statement is an example of the fallacy that lets other people reason on our behalf. Because you would not know why you exist and so, you must find the answer by continuing to exist. As to why we exist is a thing that only God knows.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    Ex:
    “You foolish impostor who tried to take Nunnally’s place, I will use you until you dry up then throw you away like a ragged cloth!” – Code Geass

    This statement can obviously discredit a person; therefore it can be considered a direct attack against the person being referred to. And of course it will hurt the feelings of that person.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Ex:
    “ I’m a marine, and I’m doing what a marine’s supposed to do… capture pirates!” – One Piece

    As a marine, he’s duty is to protect the people and capture pirates. In this statement, it is clear that the person talking is a popularly held belief that because he is a marine, his will abide by his duties and responsibilities.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Ex:
    “We have decided to drop you 3 ranks. You have 2 choices. You can either start over as a beginner pilot, or go work on an orange plantation.” – Code Geass

    In this statement, it is obvious that a careful reasoning is replaced with a threat to have an accepted conclusion in which the person talking will let the person he is talking to choose one of the premises to result with his desirable conclusion.

    R6 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Ex:
    “You’re life and the lives of those connected to you will be in danger if you continue to be involved with me” – Detective Conan

    The statement implies that the reasoning is replaced with insuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion. This gives an impression of pity that the person talking is in great danger and that he needs more help.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    Ex:
    “Science is the answer to everything. If I were you, I’d drop the scriptures and pick up an Alchemy book. We’re the closest things to gods there are.”

    If science is the answer to everything, why can’t science answer the existence of God? Where he came from? And what are his plans? The point is that even if you say that science answers everything it denies the existence of God’s control over us, which in science may be called natural phenomena. Moreover, we’re not even a mile close to God.

    P1 Complex Question

    Ex:
    “Are you a priest?” – Trigun

    This one single question conceals multiple questions. In this statement, the speaker jumped to a conclusion as to what of person he is talking to.

    P2 False Cause

    Ex:
    “Mouri-kun… why does murder occur whenever you’re around? You know, it would be nicer if you could prevent them rather than solve them.” – Detective Conan

    This statement is an example of a false cause because the speaker treats the person he is speaking to as the cause of murders although he is not the reason why murders occur. It’s just by coincidence that he is there when the murdering happened.

    P3 Petitio Principii

    Ex:
    “People Die when they are killed” –Fate Stay Night

    It is given that if you kill a person, he will obviously die. So this statement is only restating the conclusion as the premise.

    P4 Accident

    Ex:
    “ He is either a pervert or a moron…. why? Because he’s a high school boy” – Shuffle

    Being a boy does not mean that I can only be distinguished between those two.

    P5 Converse Accident

    Ex:
    “ They say ‘idiots don’t catch cold’, then you must be an idiot” – GTO

    The statement above shows how the speaker jumped to a broad generalization and presumed that he did not catch a cold because he is an idiot.

    A1 Equivocation

    Ex:
    “Kisame is a shark, and sharks are fish. Therefore Kisame is a fish… did you understand Itachi?” – Naruto Shippuuden Doujinshi

    This statement used same words with multiple meaning thus, creating a fallacy of equivocation. The first statement used to describe Kisame as a shark. But then in the second one sharks were described as fish, thus it concluded that Kisame is a fish.

    A2 Amphiboly

    Ex:
    “WHAT DOES THE FATE OF THE EARTH HAVE TO DO WITH THE FATE OF MY BALLS?!!.” – Elfen Lied

    The word balls can refer to other meanings except on that meaning that is stuck on your mind when your first read it. It is a conclusion that is not supported because of the wrong interpretation of the syntactical ambiguous statement.

    A3 Accent

    Ex:
    “I am disgusting” – Neon Genesis Evangelion

    The statement could mean that he is disgusting because he did something bad or he is disgusting because he is dirty and needs to clean himself up. There is a shift in meaning to this statement.

    D1 Slippery Slope

    Ex:
    “ If you kill someone in war, his friends and family will hate you. Then they will find a way to take revenge and kill you. And if you were killed, your friends and family will avenge your death. Thus, the cycle of hatred will never stop as long as there is war. Same is true in acquiring justice. There is a non-ending chain reaction and cycle. ” – Full Metal Alchemist

    This statement shows that if you kill someone you will be killed. But it does not really follow because accepting death differs from one person to another so the chain reaction in killing someone may have different conclusions.

    D3 Red Herring

    Ex:
    “ Do you know why the snow is white? … Because I forgot what color it was.” – Code Geass

    This statement shows how the conclusion missed the answer to why the snow is white. Is the snow white because we forgot what color it was?

    D5 False Dilemma

    Ex:
    “ Look, my hand’s a hook. I can only be a pirate or a coat-hanger now.” – Gintama

    This statement claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable, so we should choose the other. But in reality, there are more alternatives than what the two stated.

    A5 Division

    Ex:
    “Humans are weak beings, they start war just to show their power that’s what being weak is like. Therefore, you’re one of those weak beings because you’re human.” – Gundam 00

    The statement reasoned mistakenly from attributes of a whole to the person being spoken to. Its said that humans are weak and his conclusion I that he is weak because he is a human. But in truth, even if he is a human being, it doesn’t mean that he is weak.

    A4 Composition

    Ex:
    “All Shinsengumi members must be also good with swords” – Gintama

    The statement mistakenly attributed a part to a whole. Even if it is not clearly stated, the statement only refers to an individual to be good with swords but the person talking concluded that if he is good with a sword then all of his friends from Shinsengumi are also good at handling swords.

  3. Informal Fallacies

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack on the person)
    This fallacy tells that the argument attacks the source of an argument – not anything within the argument itself.

    Example:
    “The Democrats are literally bewitched by feminists, whose agenda is simple: teach women to hate their husbands, kill their children, and become lesbians. A vote for the Democrats is a vote against family and for immorality.”

    This example is abusive. The arguer abuses or attacks the other arguer (the speaker attacks the Democrats). It is called “name calling” because the person attacks the character of the other person.

    Argumentum ad Populum
    (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    It is an argument that concludes a preposition to be true because many or all people believe it (If many believe so, it is so).

    Example:
    “The Ford Taurus is the most popular selling car in its class. Shouldn’t you get a Taurus?”

    This example is telling us to buy that kind of car because it is telling us that it is the most popular. But in reality, it is not the most popular. The words “most popular” is not supported by another premise so it makes the argument false.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    It bases on the truth value of an assertion on the authority, knowledge, expertise, or position of the person asserting it.

    Example:
    “We don’t want to break the law by serving alcohol to those in our social organization who are underage. But since the Epsilon Iota Quota’s serve alcohol to their underage members; I guess we can as well.”

    This example is a fallacy because the speaker is using an authority to save himself. Epsilon serves alcohol to underage members because he/she has a valid reason. And using his name is not valid because that group he/she belongs to is his/her and the speaker’s group is not Epsilon’s.

    Argumentum ad Baculum
    (Appeal to Force)
    It is an argument where force or threat is used as a justification for the conclusion.

    Example:
    “I don’t remember owing you any money. If I do not pay this supposed debt, you will beat me up and hurt my family. Therefore I do owe you some money.”

    In this statement, the speaker is being force and threatened to pay a debt he does not owe. This statement is a fallacy because the second premise doesn’t really supports the first premise. The speaker is forced not to say the real conclusion because he is scared that he and his family might got hurt.

    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    (Appeal to Ignorance)
    Is a fallacy which it is claimed that a premise is true only because it has not been proven false or is only false because it has not been proven true.

    Example:
    “The health department could not prove that the committee was responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival. Therefore, the committee is not responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.”

    The conclusion of this example is false because the first sentence states that it is not yet proven that the committee was responsible of the outbreak of salmonella. There are more specialists that can prove that the committee is not or is responsible for the outbreak.

    Argumentum Misericordiam
    (Appeal to pity)
    It is a logical fallacy in which someone tries to win support for their argument or idea by exploiting her or his opponent’s feelings of pity or guilt.

    Example:
    “You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so unhappy!”

    This statement is logically wrong because the speaker is trying to convince that his mistake is a mistake and is fooling the one he is speaking to. So what if he/she studied very hard if most of all of his answers is wrong.

    Complex Question
    It is committed when someone asks a question that presupposes something that has not been proven or accepted by all the people involved. This fallacy is often used rhetorically, so that the question limits direct replies to those that serve the questioner’s agenda.

    Example:
    “I notice that you surf the Net a lot. Do you enjoy all the pornography you find there?”

    This statement is abusive because whether the answer is yes or no, the person whom is asked will admit that he/she fined pornographies on the net. Thus, these facts are presupposed by the question, and this case is an entrapment, because it narrows the respondent to a single answer, and the fallacy of many questions has been committed.

    False Cause
    (non causa pro causa)
    The fallacy of false cause infers the presence of a causal connection simply because events appear to occur in correlation.

    Example:
    “The moon was full on Thursday evening. On Friday morning I overslept. Therefore, the full moon caused me to oversleep.”

    The statements conclusion is wrong because the second premise does not support the first premise and there is no middle term. And there is no proof that the full moon caused you the oversleeping.

    Petitio Principii
    (Begging the question)
    Is a fallacy in which the proposition to be proved is assumed implicitly or explicitly in one of the premises.

    Example:
    “A: My friends, God loves you. God does not want you to suffer. God will reward all those who truly believe in him and his son Jesus Christ with blessings beyond number. Indeed, our wealth in this nation is a direct sign of our faith in God and his love for us.
    B: What about those people and nations who are not wealthy and who suffer from natural catastrophes such as earthquakes?
    A: They must not be true believers. “
    The conclusion is wrong because indeed they are not wealthy but it is not true that they don’t believe on God. True believers will wait for the fortune that will be given by God.

    Accident
    (Sweeping Generalization)
    It is a deductive fallacy occurring in statistical syllogisms when an exception to the generalization is ignored.

    Example:
    “Cutting people with a knife is a crime. Surgeons cut people with knives. Surgeons are criminals.”

    The conclusion here is also wrong because it is indeed that cutting people is a crime but surgeons cut people with knife to cure them. So surgeons are not really criminals.

    Converse Accident
    (Hasty generalization)
    It is a deductive fallacy that can occur in a statistical syllogism when an exception to a generalization is wrongly called for.

    Example:
    “Every swan I have seen is white, so it must be true that all swans are white.”

    This example is wrong because it not true that all swans are white. The statements does not proof that all swans are white. Even all swans that you saw are white, it is not true that all swans are white.

    False Dilemma
    It involves a situation in which only two alternatives are considered, when in fact there are other options. Closely related are failing to consider a range of options and the tendency to think in extremes, called black-and-white thinking.

    Example:
    “Are you getting up – or are you going to stay in bed all day like a lazy bum?”

    This example is a false dilemma because the recipient will not accept that he is a lazy bum so he will choose the first one.

    Equivocation
    It is the misleading use of a term with more than one meaning.

    Example:
    “Hot dogs are better than nothing. Nothing is better than steak. Therefore, hot dogs are better than steak.”

    What has gone wrong “nothing” is used in 2 different senses in the premises. In the 1st premise, it means something like nothing to eat at all, while in the 2nd premise, nothing means something like no possible food choice on the planet. It is the slippage from the one sense to the second that allows for the peculiar conclusion.

    Amphiboly
    It is an ambiguous grammatical structure on a sentence.

    Example:
    “Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets.”

    This example is a fallacy of amphiboly because this could be taken to mean the teenagers will be in danger, or that they will cause the danger.

    Accent
    The fallacy of accent arises from an ambiguity produced by a shift of spoken or written emphasis.

    Example:
    “Jorge turned in his assignment on time today.”

    This is a fallacy of accent because it might mean that Jorge pass his assignment on time or he usually pass his assignment late.

    Composition
    It involves an inference from the attribution of some feature to every individual member of a class (or part of a greater whole) to the possession of the same feature by the entire class (or whole).

    Example:
    “Every course I took in college was well-organized. Therefore, my college education was well-organized.”

    It is false because it may be true that every component of his course is well-organized but it may be also true that the whole part is a mess.

    Division
    It is like the reverse of the fallacy of composition. It involves an inference from the attribution of some feature to an entire class (or whole) to the possession of the same feature by each of its individual members (or parts).

    Example:
    “We all know how great Drury is. And, since I’m a student at Drury, I must be great, too!”

    It is true that Drury is a great person but it can be false that a student of him is not as great as him. So this is a division fallacy.

    Slippery Slope
    It suggests that an action will initiate a chain of events culminating in an undesirable event later without establishing or quantifying the relevant contingencies.

    Example:
    “If we don’t stop the Communists in South Vietnam, they’ll take over the whole country. If they take over Vietnam, next they’ll conquer Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Once they have Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand – they’ll overrun Indonesia and the rest of the Pacific Rim. Once they conquer the Pacific Rim, they’ll take Japan – and the next thing you know, they’ll be off the coast of California.”

    It is not necessarily that communists will conquer the coast of California after Japan. But it must be necessary that we must stop the communists. So it is a fallacy of slippery slope.

    False Analogy
    It is often mistakenly considered to be a formal fallacy, but it is not, because a false analogy consists of an error in the substance of an argument

    Example:
    “The universe is like an intricate watch. A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker. Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.”

    This is a fallacy of false analogy because the universe may be like a watch in that it is intricate, this does not in itself justify the assumption that watches and the universe has similar origins; so the universe is not designed by someone.

    Straw Man
    It occurs when an opponent takes the original argument of his/her adversary and then offers a close imitation.

    Example:
    “Person A: Nude bathing is healthy and nude beaches should be permitted here.
    Person B: No. That kind of free sex threatens the morality of society.”

    This example is a straw man fallacy because person B has misrepresented person A’s position as a call for sexual promiscuity. And that causes the error.

    Examples are based from a Philosophy book by Garth Kemerling and from a Philosophy book by Dr. Charles Ess.

  4. Fallacies

    1. R1 – There are no accidents.
    -Oogway, Kung fu Panda
    2. R2 – I’m not a bad person, I just have bad luck.
    – Flint Marko, Spiderman 3
    3. A1 – Mamma said stupid is as stupid does!
    -Forrest Gump, Forrest Gump
    4. R2 – “Today, I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of the earth.”
    -Gary Cooper, the Pride of the Yankees, 1942
    5. R1 – “I’m king of the world!”
    – Leonardo DiCaprio, Titanic
    6. P1 – Nazis. I hate these guys.
    -Henry “Indiana” Jones Jr., Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
    7. P3 – First rule of leadership: everything is your fault.
    -Hopper, A bug’s life
    8. P5 – The only sensible way to live in this world is without rules. And tonight, you’re gonna break your one rule.
    -Joker, The Dark Knight
    9. R7 – What’s that saying? “If God’s with us, who the hell’s on their side”?
    -Pvt. Reiben, Saving Private Ryan
    10. P2 – To have memories of those you have loved and lost is perhaps harder than to have no memories at all.
    -Van Helsing, Van Helsing
    11. R3 – We men are wretched things
    -Achilles, Troy
    12. P2 – Tonight, I will fight the seven strongest men in town, maybe the world. And I will win because our heavenly father will be in the ring with me. And he and I will win 10,000 pesos.
    -Nacho, Nacho Libre
    13. A4 – Happy endings are just stories that haven’t finished yet.
    -Jane, Mr. and Mrs. Smith
    14. P4 – We don’t become geisha to pursue our own destinies. We become geisha because we have no choice.
    -Mameha, Memoirs of a Geisha
    15. D2 – If we do not burn these bodies, we will all be dead of disease in three days. God will understand, my lord. And if he doesn’t, then he is not God and we need not worry.
    -Balian of Ibelin, Kingdom Of Heaven
    16. R5 – I’m going to make him an offer he can’t refuse.
    -Don Vito Corleone, The Godfather
    17. A2 – Well, that’s an easy choice for us, Arcadian. Spartans never retreat! Spartans never surrender!
    -King Leonidas, 300
    18. P1 – You can’t handle the truth!
    Col. Nathan Jessup, A Few Good Men
    19. A5 – We ride together, we die together. Bad boys for life.
    Det. Mike Lowrey, Bad Boys 2
    20. R2 – I never had a birthday.
    -David, A.I.

    Explanation:

    1. It is a fallacy because there are accidents, that’s why the word accident is created because we do not know where we are going or what will happen in the future we do not know
    2. It is a fallacy because we know luck is just a motivation force that drives us where it is good, he may not create a bad life, but mistakes, so he must correct it.
    3. This is a fallacy because you’ll never understand the word stupid; this makes the argument not to be understood by your audience.
    4. This is a fallacy, because you declare yourself as the luckiest man on earth which is not true. Because there are too many people who are lucky than you.
    5. A fallacy because you declare yourself as king, which is not true, even the King of Britain or any other monarchy has limits, but God is the king of the world.
    6. A fallacy because how can you hate Nazis, without reasons, so this statement is incorrect, he doesn’t give the explanation why he hate Nazis makes the audience mistaken.
    7. This account makes no sense because there is no point where you must get the faults of others. But some mistakes of your people must your fault because they don’t know or you don’t even know.
    8. What is that rule that he will break, a world without rule makes you kill yourself because every matter or governing bodies in the world has rules to follow so to people breaking a rule is hard.
    9. Who’s on the other side will be also God, God is everywhere he is just watching our moves. So who even wins the battle or lose the battle the souls are the more favorable to God to save.
    10. A fallacy because you will never know what will happen if you don’t have memories either to have lost love because you can be insane in either situation or something else that you don’t want.
    11. Men are the most valuable living things in life, its like saying God’s greatest creation was disgust it’s just that he must only point a man which makes he wretched.
    12. Fighting the strongest man in the world doesn’t make sense because there are some men strong in an area like boxing or kung fu. Also bringing God to the make which will sounds to God will always be with you and win is blasphemous because God is a guardian watching over you.
    13. Happy endings are just meant that from the day of the story ends until you die is full of joy is considered happy life but happy endings are just a term to tell that the story is full of excitement and sorrow.
    14. We always have the option but failure isn’t option. We always choose our destiny; we just need to strive further to gain our future.
    15. A blasphemous act because he is trying to oppose God in a manner he is testing him to limits, but if God is true he is unlimited. God loves us he will make good things that will make us happy in the end.
    16. What offer is that, the speaker doesn’t go to the point which makes his statement unreasonable maybe the offer can be refuse or rejected.
    17. How can he say that Spartans never surrender or retreats maybe some Spartans retreat to a battle or someone break this rule just as a Spartan?
    18. Handling the truth is hard but can be handled by simply motivation or any sort of good sense will make this situation be handled.
    19. You just ride together but didn’t do anything why you became bad boys or just die together in which makes it unacceptable to be bad boys in the road.
    20. Birthday means it’s the start of your life in the world. Even companies or any other objects has birthday, it is just called anniversary.

  5. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam: (appeal to ignorance) the fallacy that a proposition is true simply on the basis that it has not been proved false or that it is false simply because it has not been proved true. This error in reasoning is often expressed with influential rhetoric.
    Ex.

    Johnson: It is impractical to send more men to the moon because the money spent for that project could be spent on helping the poor..
    Hanson: It is not impractical.
    Johnson: Why?
    Hanson: Just try to prove that I wrong. (Hanson is defending his claim by an ad ignorantiam, i.e., his claim is true, if Johnson cannot refute him.)

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam: (authority) the fallacy of appealing to the testimony of an authority outside his special field. Anyone can give opinions or advice; the fallacy only occurs when the reason for assenting to the conclusion is based on following the improper authority.
    Ex.
    The brilliant William Jenkins, the recent Nobel Prize winner in physics, states uncategorically that the flu virus will be controlled in essentially all of its forms by the year 2,050. The opinion of such a great man cannot be disregarded.

    Argumentum ad Hominem (abusive and circumstantial): the fallacy of attacking the character or circumstances of an individual who is advancing a statement or an argument instead of trying to disprove the truth of the statement or the soundness of the argument. Often the argument is characterized simply as a personal attack.
    Ex.
    Francis Bacon’s philosophy should be dismissed since Bacon was removed from his chancellorship for dishonesty.

    Argumentum ad Populum (popular appeal or appeal to the majority): The fallacy of attempting to win popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the feeling and enthusiasms of the multitude. There are several variations of this fallacy, but we will emphasize two forms.
    Ex.
    “Man could alleviate his misery by marriage. This close companionship enhances the joys of one and mitigated the sorrow of the other, and anyone knew God always provided for married people.” Lee Emily Pearson, Elizabethans at Home, (Stanford Univ. Pr.), 289.

    Argumentum ad Misericordiam (argument from pity or misery) the fallacy committed when pity or a related emotion such as sympathy or compassion is appealed to for the sake of getting a conclusion accepted.
    Ex.
    Georgia Banker Bert Lance should be excused from conflict of interest divestiture problems, former President Jimmy Carter asserted, because Lance’s promise to sell his stock so that he can serve his government has depressed its market value.

    Argumentum ad Baculum (fear of force): the fallacy committed when one appeals to force or the threat of force to bring about the acceptance of a conclusion.
    Ex.
    The Department of Transportation needs to reconsider the speed limit proposals on interstate highways for the simple reason that if they do not, their departmental budget for DOT will be cut by 25%.

    Ignoratio Elenchi (irrelevant conclusion): the fallacy of proving a conclusion not pertinent and quite different from that which was intended or required.
    Ex.
    “The 52 former hostages are seen as national heroes. I consider them survivors. A hero is one who is admired for his achievements and qualities. Therefore, the true heroes are those servicemen who volunteered for the failed rescue mission.”
    Irene Coyne, “Letters” Time (Vol 117, No. 7), 4.

    Complex Question: the fallacy of phrasing a question that, by the way it is worded, assumes something not contextually granted, assumes something not true, or assumes a false dichotomy. To be a fallacy, and not just a rhetorical technique, the conclusion (usually the answer to the question) must be present either implicitly or explicitly.
    Ex.
    “If a choice must be made, I’ll adopt God’s nonexistence as a working assumption. If I am mistaken, I hope He is not offended by my demand for evidence. (Many believers seem to think that God is offended by atheists. Is he overly proud or merely insecure?)
    Kent Bach, Exit-Existentialism, 14.

    False Cause: the fallacy committed when an argument mistakenly attempt to establish a causal connection. There are two basic interrelated kinds.
    Ex.
    “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”
    (If this were a causal inference, then all short people would become emperors.)

    Petitio Principii: (circular reasoning, circular argument, begging the question) in general, the fallacy of assuming as a premiss a statement which has the same meaning as the conclusion.
    Ex.
    “The elemental composition of Jupiter is known to be similar to the sun… The core would be composed mainly of iron and silicates, the materials that make up most of the earth’s bulk. Such a core is expected for cosmogonic reasons: If Jupiter’s composition is similar to the sun’s, the the planet should contain a small portion of those elements.” J. Wolfe, “Jupiter,” Scientific American (Vol. 230 No. 1), 119.

    Accident: the fallacy of applying a general rule to a particular case whose special circumstances render the rule inapplicable.
    Ex.
    “Thou shalt not kill; therefore, you should not try to control termites in your home or fight for your country.”

    Converse Accident: (hasty generalization) the fallacy of considering certain exceptional cases and generalizing to a rule that fits them alone. Note that the fallacy of converse accident is the opposite of accident.
    Ex.
    “The induction problem forever haunts us. How many instances of a class must be observed before one can be really sure? Having experience two uncoordinated woman-drivers, am I justified in making a generalization about woman-drivers? (For too many man, a sampling of two seems to justify such a generalization. Women, of course, never make this sort of error.)” James L. Christian, Philosophy (HBJ College, 1998).
    Equivocation
    An equivocation trades upon the use of an ambiguous word or phrase in one of its meanings in one of the propositions of an argument but also in another of its meanings in a second proposition.
    • Really exciting novels are rare.
    • But rare books are expensive.
    • Therefore, Really exciting novels are expensive.
    Here, the word “rare” is used in different ways in the two premises of the argument, so the link they seem to establish between the terms of the conclusion is spurious. In its more subtle occurrences, this fallacy can undermine the reliability of otherwise valid deductive arguments.
    Amphiboly
    An amphiboly can occur even when every term in an argument is univocal, if the grammatical construction of a sentence creates its own ambiguity.
    • A reckless motorist Thursday struck and injured a student who was jogging through the campus in his pickup truck.
    • Therefore, it is unsafe to jog in your pickup truck.
    In this example, the premise (actually heard on a radio broadcast) could be interpreted in different ways, creating the possibility of a fallacious inference to the conclusion.
    Accent
    The fallacy of accent arises from an ambiguity produced by a shift of spoken or written emphasis. Thus, for example:
    • Jorge turned in his assignment on time today.
    • Therefore, Jorge usually turns in his assignments late.
    Here the premise may be true if read without inflection, but if it is read with heavy stress on the last word seems to imply the truth of the conclusion.
    Composition
    The fallacy of composition involves an inference from the attribution of some feature to every individual member of a class (or part of a greater whole) to the possession of the same feature by the entire class (or whole).
    • Every course I took in college was well-organized.
    • Therefore, my college education was well-organized.
    Even if the premise is true of each and every component of my curriculum, the whole could have been a chaotic mess, so this reasoning is defective.
    Notice that this is distinct from the fallacy of converse accident, which improperly generalizes from an unusual specific case (as in “My philosophy course was well-organized; therefore, college courses are well-organized.”). For the fallacy of composition, the crucial fact is that even when something can be truly said of each and every individual part, it does not follow that the same can be truly said of the whole class.
    Division
    Similarly, the fallacy of division involves an inference from the attribution of some feature to an entire class (or whole) to the possession of the same feature by each of its individual members (or parts).
    • Ocelots are now dying out.
    • Sparky is an ocelot.
    • Therefore, Sparky is now dying out.
    Although the premise is true of the species as a whole, this unfortunate fact does not reflect poorly upon the health of any of its individual members.
    Again, be sure to distinguish this from the fallacy of accident, which mistakenly applies a general rule to an atypical specific case (as in “Ocelots have many health problems, and Sparky is an ocelot; therefore, Sparky is in poor health”). The essential point in the fallacy of division is that even when something can be truly said of a whole class, it does not follow that the same can be truly said of each of its individual parts.
    Red Herring:
    We are talking about X. Y is mentioned. The conversation changes to Y.
    It can be completely off the current track or something related, but not really relevant.
    Ex.
    What about Christmas? Well, my aunt is coming next week.
    This is expensive. Mind you, I heard that we might get a raise soon.
    Yes, it is expensive, sir. Is that a scratch? No, it’s reflection in the fine paintwork.
    Straw man:
    You have a several arguments for your case. I disprove one of those arguments, therefore the whole case is false.
    Rather than attack the strongest argument, go for a weak one that is easier to attack.
    Seek to change their real position to that where you can attack it.
    Ex.
    Astrology may be unproven, but neither has it been proved to be false.
    You said the common man is important, so show me this ‘common man’.
    You want to spend less on education. Do you really want to cripple this country’s future?

    False Dilemma:
    Either A or B is true. If A is true, B is therefore false. C is not an option.
    The other person is offered a choice where rejecting one item acts as a selection of the other.
    Ex.
    Either you are with me or against me.
    We have to spend less on hospitals, otherwise we won’t be able to afford education improvements.
    This is based on the assumption that the choices offered are the only choices. By focusing on the choice, the decision to be made, the other person is distracted from the fact that there may be other alternatives.
    This is usually presented as two choices, although more may sometimes be used.
    Refferences (Book):
    James A. Gould, editor, Classic Philosophic Questions, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998.
    I. M. Copi and Carl Cohen, Introduction to Logic, New York: Macmillan, 1998 (10th edition).
    I. M. Copi and Keith Burgess-Jackson, Informal Logic, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.
    Kathleen Dean Moore, Inductive Arguments: Developing Critical Thinking Skills, Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1995).
    John Hospers, Human Conduct: Problems of Ethics , New York: Harcourt Brace, 1995.
    Hermann Hesse. Siddhartha. San Francisco: New Directions, 1951.
    John M. Koller. Oriental Philosophies. New York: Scribners’, 1992.
    Walter Kaufmann, Existentialism From Dostoevsky to Sartre, New American Library, Meridian, 1975.
    William Barrett, Irrational Man: A Study in Existential Philosophy, Doubleday Anchor, 1962.

  6. » A1 – Equivocation

    “Let him eat it. After all, Kenta is a bear… and bears eat meat. Therefore, Kenta eats meat! That’s quite simple you know.”
    – Amy (Ani Yoko)

    This is considered as an informal fallacy of equivocation for it uses the same words with multiple meanings. In the first statement, Kenta is described as a bear.. then the bear as a carnivore (eats meat). It then concluded Kenta as a carnivore (creatures that eat meat).

    » A2 – Amphiboly

    “We can’t let him do this.. or else he’ll destroy the town for good.”
    – Ben (Ben 10)

    In this statement, we are unsure of whose or what town is going to get destroyed. It can be someone else’s or the speaker’s. This therefore falls under the fallacy of Amphiboly.

    » A3 – Accent

    “Ranpha told Mireille that she wouldn’t be attending our meeting today.”
    – Normad (Galaxy Angel)

    In this statement, we have no idea who is the ‘she’ that is being referred in the sentence. Is it Ranpha or Mireille? Thus, this creates a fallacy of accent, where the shift of the meaning arises.

    » P2 – False Cause

    “With this good luck charm, I’ll finally win over Syaoran’s heart.”
    – Meiling (Cardcaptor Sakura)

    This is considered as a fallacy of False Cause for the speaker, Meiling, treats the good luck charm as the primary cause in winning over Syaoran’s heart.

    » P3 – Petitio Principii

    “Ash is late for he didn’t came at the arranged time.”
    – Misty (Pokemon)

    The premise, “Ash is late” is almost similar to the second premise, “didn’t came at the arranged time”. This therefore creates redundancy, which is a fallacy under Petitio Principii.

    » R5 – Argumentum Misericordiam

    “If you don’t surrender now, my boss is gonna kill me”
    – (Escaflowne)

    Observing the statement above, we will notice that instead of threatening others, the speaker chose to reason for himself in order to be sympathized. This fallacy falls under Argumentum Misericordiam.

    » R6 – Argumentum ad Baculum

    “Oppose me and you shall meet your doom”
    – (Pokémon movie 4)

    Sort of an opposite of Argumentum Misericordiam, this fallacy involves statements where the speaker prefers to threat the person he is talking to, with matching consequence.

    » R2 – Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    “I have to follow Ojou-sama’s orders because my master said so.”
    – Sebastian (Ultra Maniac)

    This is an example of a fallacy where you let others reason on your behalf. In this case, the speaker just do what he is told, not knowing the positive and negative things following Ojou-sama’s orders might bring.

    » P1 – Complex Question

    “I heard that you’re good in breeding Pokémon. Where is your breeding center located?”
    – (Pokémon)

    This is an example of fallacy where Complex Question takes place. This occurs when the speaker quickly jumps into a conclusion, in this case, owning a breeding center. Not because a person is good at something (e.g. breeding), doesn’t mean he already owns a breeding center.

    » D2 – Slippery Slope

    “It won’t be long before Vilgax strikes again. Once we lost against him, he’ll surely conquer the entire universe, gain more power & control everything and worst.. wipe each and everyone’s existence.”
    – Grandpa Max (Ben 10)

    This is an example of fallacy under Slippery Slope. The arguer says that we shouldn’t lose against Vilgax for it will lead to the conclusion that he will conquer the universe, then gain more power and control, which will lead again in wiping each and everyone’s existence and so forth.

    » P4 – Accident

    “Ryuu studied at Tokyo University. He must be really intelligent and versatile.”
    – Kazuma (Tantei Gakuen Q)

    In the statement above, Kazuma concludes Ryuu as an intelligent and versatile student for he studies in a very prestigious school, which is Tokyo University. Tokyo University is known to be the school of intelligent students in Japan. It doesn’t mean that it applies to all students, though.

    » P3 – Argumentum ad Hominem

    “People in ZAFT want nothing more than power. They’re a bunch of bastards who’s willing to do everything just to reach their goal.”
    – (Gundam Seed)

    This sentence above is abusive. The arguer attacks the ZAFT directly and verbally by calling it ‘bastards’ and ‘those who aim for power’. This is an example of Argumentum ad Hominem for it commits direct (or in some cases, indirect) attack on the other arguer.

    » A5 – Division

    “Sensei is very skillful in martial arts. Since I’m his student, I could be as great as him, too, in the future.”
    – (Rurouni Kenshin)

    This is a fallacy under Division for the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to its parts. In this case, the arguer says that his mentor is skillful in martial arts. He then concludes that he could be as great as his mentor, too, for he is the mentor’s student. In reality, this doesn’t apply at all times.

    R1 – Argumentum ad Ignorantium

    “The Kuchiki family is one of the four noble families. We are the role models for all shinigami. If we do not obey the rules, who will?”
    – Kuchiki Byakuya (Bleach)

    So far there is no scientific proof of shinigami’s (soul reapers) existence. It then falls under the fallacy of Argumentum ad Ignorantium for it has not been proven true or false.

    P5 – Converse Accident

    “Because you let Nobuta wear her civilian clothes, you should also allow the entire class to wear civilian clothes.”
    – Bando (Nobuta wo Produce)

    This is considered as a fallacy of Converse Accident for the arguer moves too quickly from a single case to a broad generalization. In the statements above, the arguer would like to say that, if they let Nobuta wear her civilian clothes, then so do the entire class.

    » R7 – Ignorantio Elenchi

    “I don’t think I should be the one to blame. It’s the entire class’ responsibility, too. Why do I have to do all the cleaning?”
    – (Gakkou no kaidan)

    In this case, the premise misses the point and therefore commits the informal fallacy of Ignorantio Elenchi. Doing all the cleaning is certainly a different issue from being blamed at.

    » R4 – Argumentum Populum

    “I just bought this manga written by a newbie. They say that it’s really good so I bought it.”
    – (School Rumble)

    The proposition above is held to be true because it is widely held to be true or is held to be true by most sector of the population. In this case, the manga is said to be really good and is very appealing to many people. This popularity led the arguer to buy it.

    » A4 – Composition

    “Reading books about Sherlock Holmes is Furuhata’s hobby. Therefore, intelligent kids like Furuhata read books about Sherlock Holmes.”
    – (Furuhata Chugakusei)

    Above is an example of the fallacy of Composition. This is committed when the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of the part to the attributes of the whole. Instead of taking them separately, the arguer takes the phrases or group of words as a unit.

    » D5 – False Dilemma

    “In life, there are two reasons why we should fight: it’s either to protect one’s life or to protect one’s pride.”
    – Bleach

    This example is fallacious for only a limited number of options (in this case, two) are given, while in reality, there are more.

    » D1 – Red Herring

    “Since you wear a black nagajuban, you must be a shinigami.”
    – (Bleach)

    This case is faulty because it diverts the issue of wearing a black nagajuban from being a shinigami. Wearing a black nagajuban doesn’t necessarily mean that you are a shinigami.

  7. *Fallacies of Relevance*

    Argomentum ad Verecundiam

    Jenny : ” But I’m not her slave. I’m her handmaiden.”
    Vanessa : ” Handmaiden is Jane Austen for slave Jenny.”
    –Taylor Momsen as Jenny Humphrey (Gossip Girl)

    This is an example of intellectual laziness. We let other people reason our behalf. We cite an authority and not necessarily warrant the truth of a conclusion. In this example, not because for Jane Austen handmaidens are slaves it doesn’t mean that people who are handmaidens are slaves.

    Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    You call yourself a friend? Hey! Friends don’t sleep with each other’s girlfriends. Oh, wait, but I guess you have a habit of doing that don’t you?
    –John Hensley as Matt McNamara (Niptuck)

    This is an example of “circumstancal ad hominem”. It attacks indirectly against persons, suggesting that they hold their views chiefly because of their special circumstances or interests. In this example, Matt McNamara don’t want to call the one he’s talking as friend because that guy slept with his girlfriend and for Matt it is not a thing that a friend should do. Not because that guy slept with his Matt’s girlfriend he is couldn’t be called a friend.

    Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular prejudice)

    John and I belong together. He’s the varsity captain, and after all, I AM the head cheerleader.
    — Ashanti as Heather (John Tucker Must Die)

    This is an example is direct, when arguer arouses “mob mentality”. In this example, Heather is a cheerleader and in popular belief popular boys are for popular girls. She thinks that John Tucker, the varsity captain, is for him because she’s the cheerleader and they’re both popular.

    Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)

    Well you can go on tour but if you do we’re over.
    –James Lafferty as Nathan Scott (One Tree Hill)

    This is an example of “appeal to force” or “appeal to fear”. In this example, Nathan is letting Haley to go on tour but in the following statement he’s threatening her that if she goes they’re over. It’s fallacious because it gives no concrete reason why they should be over.

    Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)

    Mom, the kids I go to school with shop at Saks and Bendel’s. I can’t go walking around in someone’s old shoes.
    –Taylor Momsen as Jenny Humphrey

    This is an example of “Appeal to Pity” because here the careful reasoning is the quote “Mom, the kids I go to school with shop at Saks and Bendel’s” it brings the threat that she should not buy in bargain shops.

    Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)

    Lucas: And Hansel said to Gretel, ‘Let us drop these breadcrumbs…so that together we find our way home. Because losing our way would be the most cruel of things.’ This year, I lost my way.”
    Nathan: “And losing your way on a journey is unfortunate. But losing your reason for the journey is a fate more cruel.”
    Peyton: The journey lasted 8 months. Sometimes I traveled alone, sometimes, there were others who took the wheel–and took my heart. But when the destination was reached, it wasn’t more who arrived…it wasn’t me at all.”
    Brooke: And once you lose yourself, you have two choices: find the person you used to be…or lose that person completely.
    Mouth: Because, sometimes, you have to step outside of the person you’ve been. And remember the person you were meant to be. The person you wanted to be. The person you are.”
    –Chad Michael Murray as Lucas Scott
    –James Lafferty as Nathan Scott
    –Hilarie Burton as Peyton Sawyer
    –Sophia Bush as Brooke Davis
    –Lee Norris as Mouth McFadden (One Tree Hill)

    In this example, Lucas first talked about losing his way and then Nathan, Peyton, Brooke and Mouth gave their own statements which do not support the statement given by Lucas.

    *Fallacies of Presumption*

    Complex Question
    Why won’t you talk to me about your cancer?
    –Hilarie Burton as Peyton Sawyer (One Tree Hill)

    In this example, Peyton is like jumping into conclusion without warrant. This is fallacious because it presupposes a definite answer to a previous, unstated question. For example, if she was to ask the one she’s talking to “Why won’t you talk to me about your cancer?” the implication is that she has cancer. It is not a simple question but consists of several questions rolled into one.

    False Cause

    When money talks, everybody listens.
    –Ed Westwick as Chuck Bass (Gossip Girl)

    In this statement, Chuck thinks that when there is money involved people listen. This is fallacious because from the fact that money talks and everybody listens are constantly conjoined. It doesn’t follow that they are casually related. It doesn’t mean that when money is involved in a conversation the people you’re talking to are listening because of it.

    Petitio Principii

    Whatever! The point is at the end of the day, all your bluster and BS don’t mean anything to math because math doesn’t care. And neither do I.
    –Bethany Galeotti as Haley James Scott (One Tree Hill)

    In this example, the premise is “All your bluster and BS don’t mean anything to math” and the conclusion is “math doesn’t care.” The premise “All your bluster and BS don’t mean anything to math” is exactly the same thing as the conclusion “math doesn’t care”. The statement “don’t mean anything to math” is the equivalent of the statement “math doesn’t care”.

    Accident

    “If slaughterhouses had glass walls, everyone would be vegetarian.”
    –Paul and Linda McCartney, 1996

    In this example, it applies a generalization that when slaughterhouses had glass walls it applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover.

    Converse Accident

    The following argument is raised to oppose the view that boys have greater inherent mathematical ability. “When I was four, my father taught me the beauty of numbers, and I have excelled in mathematics ever since. My conclusion? The males who grew up with a high aptitude for math are not spending enough time with their daughters.”

    –Nancy Whelan Reese, “Letters,” Time, (Vol. 117, No. 1), 6.
    This statement is fallacious because it moves carelessly from a single case that when you are taught by your father you will be good in math.

    *Fallacies of Ambiguity*

    Equivocation

    The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.
    –Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24.

    This statement is fallacious because it contains words which have the same meaning spelling but different meaning.

    Amphiboly

    Last night I shot a burglar in my pajamas.
    –I. M. Copi and Carl Cohen, Introduction to Logic, New York: Macmillan, 1998 (10th edition).

    The statement above is fallacious because it has more than one plausible meaning. The phrase “in my pajamas” brought an uncertain meaning of the statement. We aren’t sure if the he was in pajamas when he shot the burglar or the burglar is in his pajamas.

    Composition

    So maybe the elite girls just aren’t for me, but one of these days I’m gonna meet a girl who really loves me. And maybe she won’t be what you call elite, but I’ll think she’s beautiful, and I’ll tell her so.
    –Lee Norris as Mouth McFadden

    This example is fallacious because maybe the elite girls that he’d met are just not for meant for him but there are still other elite girls and maybe one of those girls are will love him.

    Accent

    This house is about connections.
    –Keanu Reeves as Alex (The Lake House)

    The fallacy of accent arises from an ambiguity produced by shift of spoken or written emphasis. There can be different meanings of connections the connection can be within the people living in that house or the connections of people of that house and other people.

    Division

    I’m a girl. I should be a princess.
    –Heidi Montag (The Hills)

    This statement is fallacious because not all girls could be a princess of a kingdom.

    *Distraction Fallacy*

    Red Herring (Missing the Point)

    It takes two to tango, and girls like these don’t go down without a fight.
    –Kristen Bell as Gossip Girl (Gossip Girl)

    This statement is flawed because it redirects the issue from dancing tango to a different thing such as the girls fighting.

    False Analogy

    “Freedom’s just another word for nothing left to lose”
    –Kris Kristofferson

    This statement is not so true, though restrained: One relevant issue is individual rights — freedom yes; lack of it and the rights disappear

    Straw Man

    We should have conscription. People don’t want to enter the military because they find it an inconvenience. But they should realize that there are more important things than convenience.
    –Cedarblom and Paulsen: 138

    This statement is fallacious because it shows that the opposition’s argument has been misrepresented by showing that the opposition has a stronger argument. Describe the stronger argument.

    False dilemma

    Hey Upper East Siders we hear that World War III just broke out and it’s wearing knee socks. Choose your side or run and hide. We have a feeling this one is to the death.
    –Kristen Bell as Gossip Girl

    This statement is an example of False Dilemma because it claims that there are only two choices which are “choose your side” or “ride and hide”. In reality, there is more alternatives that the two stated such as helping for them reconcile.

    .

  8. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    EX:”They’re replacements for the human that got their power of existance eaen by Guze no Tomogar”- Shakugan no Shana

    The light of existence is life but it will not be replace by a fake

    light,because once you lost your life it can not be replace.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    EX:” The captain used to tell us–before forming the
    Sekiho army–he was ordered to commit acts of arson and burglary.”-Rurouni Kenshin(Manga)

    Their captain let other order him with his life.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem
    “So you will be a milliary dog.”-Full Metal Alchemist

    Because a millitary dog is just like a loyal dog that he or she will do what he or she was told to do.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum
    EX:”Our friends makes fun of us because we study the style the slayer known for the murderer.My mother insisted that I leave the school that sides with murderers.”-Rurouni Kenshin(series)

    Because in that time the muderer used the style that she teach and the murderer uses that style that is why no one study her swordstyle technique.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum
    EX:With your hands who will you kill?That way you’ll save the remaining one’s life.”-Solty Rei

    In this scene his daugther and his adopted daugther was caught and the farther should chose who to kill or else both his daughter will be killed.

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam
    EX:”Alhemist?Ha!One is a armor freak and you’re just a shrimp!”
    “Shrimp…”
    “Armor freak…”-Full Metal Alchemist

    In this scene after the kid told them that Alfons became sad and Edward became angry with the kid.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi
    EX:”Hello is there anyone home?”
    “who is it?”
    “I’m a friend of your brother.”
    “But your not our friend.”-Major

    In this scene he can not tell his business because the kids are toying him.

    P1 Complex question
    EX:”What were you doing?”
    “Are you Alright?”-Rurouni Kenshin(series)

    In this scene Kaoru is asking why is Kenshin late and did not answer the given question and asked Yahiko is he alright.

    P2 False Cause
    EX:”After I’m with you,Himawari-chan…It only happens occasionally but…”
    “Bad things happens to you?”-XXX Holic

    In this scene Watanuki is bothered about what happened to him and told Himawari about it.

    P3 Petitio Principii
    EX:”Yukidarumon didn’t turn into digitama!Disappeared didn’t leave anything!”-Digimon savers

    This means that ‘Yukidarumon didn’t turn into digitama’ and said it again by “disappeared didn’t leave anythin!”

    P5 Converse Accident
    EX:”Human destroy digital world’s peace!I not forgive humans!”-Digimon Savers

    Ikuto’s experience affected how he thinks and that is why he consider every human being evil and yet he is human.

    A1 Equivocation
    EX:”We can not change nature.”
    “Nature is change.”-Ratatouille

    This can mean that we can not change nature but for some it can mean that Nature is change.

    A2 Amphiboly
    EX:”He wasn’t exaggerating;they’d seen big on old-fashion morals during World War I.”-Breaking dawn

    Here are they dress old fashion or they are like stuck that day.

    A3 Accent
    EX:”Welome to hell.”-Ratatouille

    This can mean a full of torments or because of the heat in the kitchen.

    A4 Composition
    EX:”whoever he names as Kira will be punished.Even if he doesn’t have any real evidencr,my life would be still be over.”-Death Note

    Even if he has real evidence he’s life will be still over.

    A5 Division
    EX:”You are not a proper master.Even so you are my master.”-Fate Stay Night

    Here he is a chosen one to be a master even,he doesn’t know a thing about it

    D1 Red Herring
    EX:”You’ll be living be living with me.That means six meatball each.”-Fate Stay Night
    He quickly change the topic after saying that.

    D2 Slippery Slope
    EX:”I don’t hate food, I love it, if I don’t love the food I don’t eat it.”-Ratatouille

    If he don’t like it he won’t eat it but if he likes it he will eat it because it is his job to love food.

    D3 False Analogy
    EX:Light:”Then he will bring up the Kira case
    and try to make me say things only Kira would know.”
    L:”But you would ask o be shown information from the investigation before you’ll trust me.
    Light:But if we’re going to talk the Kira case,it’s obvious that I’d would want some proof that he really is the one in charge of theinvestigation.
    L:”Therefore,what you are going to ask me to do now…”
    Light:”Is to meet with a reliable third party who can confirm that you’re L.”
    L:”Meaning…”
    Both:”To go to the task force headquarters together.”-Death Note

    They both already have an conclusion and what to check if it is true or not.

    D5 False Dilemma
    EX:”You’re not helping them you’re just killing them.”-Blackjack:the two doctors of darkness

    Here Blackjack is saying is he is worsting the condition of the family.

  9. * Fallacy of Relevance*

    R1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    “There is no scientific evidence that would lead us to believe there
    has been visitations to Earth by aliens.”
    -Wildman Jackson

    Explanation:
    We could not just simply say that there are no alien visitations on earth because of the instance that maybe the advancement of our technology is not enough to support our conclusions. Scientists and astronomers believe that there is a very good chance of life forming elsewhere in the Universe. Whether that life is some
    form of bacteria or a so-called “alien” is beyond our knowledge.

    R2. Argumentum ad Baculum

    “Congress might force the United States reduce its financial contributions to the United Nations if Nationalist China is expelled.”
    William P. Rogers-

    Explanation:
    As a logical argument, Rogers caution is fallacious; as a political maneuver no argument is being adduced. It replaces reason with threats which may cause an appeal to force.

    R3. Argumentum Ad Hominem

    “To what lengths of disrespect for the law and embarrassing grandstanding can we allow politicians like Barbers to go so that they can play hero, arresting officer, mediator/negotiator, and protector of Ruben and Rep. Glenda Ecleo- all with an eye to keeping the cult members’ votes when election time rolls around?”
    Anna Marie Santos (Philippine Daily Inquirer)-

    Explanation:
    The writer accuses a politician name Barbers. This is one of the attributes of this kind of fallacy which is the citation of name or the “name calling”. The arguer attacks the personality of the person.

    R4. Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    “Pornography must be harmless because a Federal Task Force said it is.”
    -Robert Harris
    Explanation:
    A variety of the appeal to prestige is the appeal to misplaced authority. This fallacy uses the reputation of respected authorities as a means of supporting their opinions on matters outside their area of expertise. With this quote of Harris, he mentioned an authority to support his part.

    R5. Argumentum ad Populum

    “These are the ten most recognizable film quotes according to a survey of a group of film critics and experts who were asked by Guinness to draw up a list of the “ten most famous movie quotes ever.”

    -Tim Dirks (Guinness Book Of Records)

    Explanation:
    This is fallacious because the speaker reasoned out that because of a group of film critics and experts, we could say that the film quotes are recognizable. Popularity is not a guarantee of work.

    R6. Argumentum Misericordiam

    “Poverty apparently drove a jobless woman in Laguna to kill her three young children and herself by getting them to drink toilet cleaner before she also took some.”

    Ferdinand F. Castro (Tempo news writer)-

    Explanation:
    The writer intended to say that because of poverty, the woman did the crime. This is fallacious because it involves appeal to pity that bring about to the acceptance of conclusion.

    R7. Ignorantio Elenchi

    “I’m personally against abortion, but I don’t object to a woman who wants to have one if she believes it is the right thing to do.”

    -New York Governor Mario Cuomo

    Explanation:
    The governor missed the point beyond the issues of abortion by because of what the woman thinks about it. Abortion is against the law so that must be the point of all. This is fallacious because the arguer draws a conclusion different from that supported by the premises.

    *Fallacies of Presumption*

    P1. Complex questions

    “Look very closely. You will see that no person and no circumstance can prevent you from becoming a self-understanding man or woman. Who is stopping you at this very moment? No one.”

    Vernon Howard, The Mystic Path of Cosmic Power –
    Explanation:
    This is fallacious because the arguer asked a question which buried another question from it. The arguer jumped into a conclusion which is not yet proven when he accused others of becoming self-understanding. No one knows what is the truth behind so it only makes us think another question.

    P2. False cause

    “I dress in this order, left sock and then right sock and left boot and the right boot, I only tie my boot laces in the field not a the dressing room. to protect my self from injury I put a cent in my right boot.”

    Malombo, soccer player

    Explanation:
    The fallacy is committed because the arguer treats that the cause of his luck is by because of what he thinks it is though in reality is not the true reason. Putting a cent in his boot is another kind of superstitious belief.

    P3. Petitio Principii

    “Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree.”
    -Oscar Wilde, De Profundis.

    Explanation:
    This is fallacious because the arguer only restated the premise which is exactly what it is to draw out a conclusion.

    P4. Accident

    “It is good to return things you have borrowed. Therefore, you should return this automatic rifle from the madman you borrowed it from.”

    – Adapted from Plato’s Republic, Book I

    Explanation:
    It is fallacious because Plato applied a specific case it was not intended to cover. It does not necessarily mean that by because we should have to return things we have borrowed; we should also have to return that rifle though we know it could bring things uncaringly.

    P5. Converse accident

    “When I was four, my father taught me the beauty of numbers, and I have excelled in mathematics ever since. My conclusion? The males who grew up with a high aptitude for math are not spending enough time with their daughters.”

    -Nancy Whelan Reese, “Letters,” Time, (Vol. 117, No. 1), 6.

    Explanation:
    This is fallacious because the arguer draws a conclusion by presuming that by because his father possesses that kind of attribute; all of the fathers are also the same. We all know that no two persons are the same; therefore, we can conclude that what the arguer believes in is wrong.

    *Fallacies Of Ambiguity*

    A1. Equivocation

    “Death is a subject of utmost gravity. Gravity is what keeps us from falling off the Earth. Thus, death is primarily what keeps us from falling off the Earth.”

    -Vos savant

    Explanation:
    This is fallacious because the arguer uses different things with different meanings and draws out from it a conclusion and makes it irrelevant. The word “gravity” in the first sentence possesses different meaning or intention than on the second.

    A2. Amphiboly

    “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger…”

    -Robert E. Rodes, Jr. & Howard Pospesel

    Explanation:
    It is not clear whether the expression “when in actual service in time of war or public danger” attaches just to “in the militia” or to all of “in the land or naval forces, or in the militia”. This unclarity makes a big difference, especially to someone “in the land or naval forces” who has been accused of committing a crime during peacetime. This makes it fallacious, the syntactically ambiguous statement.

    A3. Composition

    “Conventional bombs did more damage in W.W. II than nuclear bombs. Thus, a conventional bomb is more dangerous than a nuclear bomb.

    -Copi, p. 118

    Explanation:
    this is fallacious because it shows that the arguer mistakenly reasons out the properties in question are the properties of the whole, and not of each part or member or the whole. It does not necessarily mean that the conventional bombs are dangerous just because it did more damage than the nuclear bomb.

    *Distraction Fallacy*

    D1. Red Herring

    “Critics who suspect me of taking bribes also want to take away my family’s dog”.

    -Richard Nixon

    Explanation:
    Richard Nixon employs a red herring in his famous “Checkers speech”. This is fallacious because, the arguer diverted the issue from the bribes to a different one which is about taking away their dog.

    D2. Slippery slope

    “If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Once begin upon this downward path, you never know where you are to stop. Many a man has dated his ruin from some murder or other that perhaps he thought little of at the time.”

    – Thomas De Quincey, “Second Paper on Murder”
    Explanation:
    It is fallacious because the arguer only depends on the chain of reaction which is based on his personal knowledge. Of course it does not necessarily follow that when a man committed a murder would think of robbing, drinking and Sabbath-breaking.

    D3. False Analogy

    “Government is like business, so just as business must be sensitive primarily to the bottom line, so also must government.”

    -Barker: 192, Cedarblom and Paulsen: 257, Davis: 84

    Explanation:
    The objectives of government and business are completely different, so probably they will have to meet different criteria. The two objects or events being compared and the property which both are said to possess this what makes it fallacious. Show that the two objects are different in a way which will affect whether they both have that property.

    D4. Straw Man

    “We want to build a bridge to the future. Bob Dole talks about building a bridge to the past.”

    – Bill Clinton

    Explanation:
    Bob Dole did talk about restoring the values of an earlier America, but Clinton created a false image by suggesting that he was looking forward while Dole was only looking backward. This is fallacious because the arguer makes a position appear strong by making the opposition appear weaker.

    D5. False Dilemma

    “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance”

    -Harvard President Derek Bok, 1978

    Explanation:
    While it is true that some education is better than none, the education we get needn’t cost as much as it does at Harvard- or it needn’t be as formal as an Ivy League Education. So, this is fallacious because the arguer claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable so we should choose the other.

  10. Apple And Sony Team Up For Video Goggles Posted as a New Invention on 2008-08-19

    Viewing goggles from the likes of myvu and Vuzix have yet to become commonplace, mostly due to the fact that you would look entirely out of place whilst wearing them on the train to work. There is a rumour that Apple are developing a set of video goggles, which will allow you to view video files through them, which can be taken from an iPod or any other Portable Media Player. It is also though that Sony will be partnering with Apple to create the ideal technology for the screen which resides inside the goggles. I for one am excited about this, as Apple and Sony joint venturing will no doubt result in a fantastic end product. If the goggles receive as much attention as the iPod…

    Viewing goggles from the likes of myvu and Vuzix have yet to become commonplace, mostly due to the fact that you would look entirely out of place whilst wearing them on the train to work. There is a rumour that Apple are developing a set of video goggles, which will allow you to view video files through them, which can be taken from an iPod or any other Portable Media Player. It is also though that Sony will be partnering with Apple to create the ideal technology for the screen which resides inside the goggles. I for one am excited about this, as Apple and Sony joint venturing will no doubt result in a fantastic end product.

    If the goggles receive as much attention as the iPod managed five years ago, it will be a massive product and one which could follow in the footsteps of the iPod, albeit a far more ambitious creation. We will need to wait and see if this speculation comes to fruition, and hopefully one day portable video viewing will be possible via a trendy set of goggles, not something similar to Cyclops from X-Me

    What On Earth An Electromagnetic Globe Posted as a New Invention on 2008-06-24

    What on earth! This space structure has been implemented by astronauts in an attempt to cool the polar caps of the earth, and to reduce global warning. OK, well that is fiction — but this little global ornament with an electromagnetic mechanism inbuilt looks pretty damn cool! Especially with the blue LED’s which illuminate the Earth during times of darkness! Not a ground breaking invention, but something we think looks cool and would sit well on anyone’s desk.

    Members

    Ian Tayao – vocals
    8 Toleran – guitars
    Enzo Ruidera – guitars
    Robert dela Cruz – drums
    2ts calinawan – bass
    Biboy Garcia – turnatables
    CJ Olaguera – conggas
    Interesting Facts
    # The band used to be called Cheese
    # They changed their name to Queso due to issues with their old record label
    # The band was formed in 1994
    # They recorded a two-song EP in 1998 which included the songs Fine and The Way
    # Ian Tayao won vocalist of the year in the 2002 NU 107 Rock Awards
    # The band won the Listener’s Choice Award for their album Pilipinas in the 2002 NU 107 Rock Awards
    # Queso is QC based (*)
    # Pioneering members, 2ts Calinawan, Enzo Ruidera and former drummer Pow Rosal and all three went to the same high school
    # Pow Rosal was just 13 when he started playing drums for Cheese and it was his first time to play drums/be in a band
    # While still a trio, competed and regularly won or placed in local “battle of the bands” competitions in QC, 2ts took on vocal duties then
    # 8 toleran used to play guitars for the rock n’roll-blues outfit Piranha before he joined Queso in 97 after seeing them perform at ClubDredd
    # 2000, Biboy Garcia replaced RT de Ano as the group’s turntablist/DJ — who had also been a member of ChicoSci and Greyhoundz before joining Queso
    # 2ts, Enzo and Ian are the group’s primary song writers
    # 8 Toleran stands as the groups producer. Although all of them actively participate on the entire process of making a studio album, post and pre, 8 toleran took it up during college. All three albums have been co-produced by the band
    # They all have “Queso” tatooed somewhere on their body
    # Along with Greyhoundz, Slapshock and the now defunct Zooooom — Queso (then Cheese) were the last “regular” bands to play at Club Dredd KM19 before it closed
    # 2003, Robert dela Cruz (skychurch) took on drum duties replacing Pow Rosal
    # They call their music “Tropical island Grunge”
    # Pow Rosal now plays drums for Kapatid
    # 2006, won the local championships of The World Battle of the Bands and went on to play HK for the world finals
    # Queso is managed by Backbeat(Richard Tan) who also manages Kamikazee, Parokya ni Edgar and TheYouth to name a few
    # Queso is part of BrgyTibay. Other members — Greyhoundz, Sinosikat, Cosmiclove and Kapatid to name a few with gigs on the first wednesday of every month at Cafe SaGuijo in Makati. More info on http://www.myspace.com/brgytibay(**)
    # Facts * to ** submitted by Tuts Calinawan via email (Salamat Pare!)
    Discography

    Untitled 2-song EP (1998, Only 500 “cassettes”)
    Cheese (1998, Warner)
    Pilipinas (2001, Warner)
    Buhay Queso (2004, A dvd home video documentary, limmited copies were sold by the band but it was never released commercially)
    Queso (2006, Distributed by EMI)

  11. 1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Example: “Hope is essential to your life as important as water. You cannot survive and live without hope!”

    Explanation: You can always live with water but I think you can live without hope.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecondiam

    Example: “In Boxing, strength what really mean”, said Miyata to Ippo when Ippo 1st time to failed or lose his game.

    Explanation: Ippo let Miyata to reason out for his behalf. But Miyata have a point there because in saying that boxing is a test of strength have a good point there, because Miyata have his more skills in boxing so he already knows what he is trying to say.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem

    Example: “I will be the next hokage”, said Naruto
    “Look at yourself Naruto, you’re still a genin”, Sakura replied – quote from Naruto

    Explanation: What Sakura said is circumstantial. She directed it to Naruto’s circumstances.

    4. Argumentum Ad Populum

    Example: “Everyone thinks that the fight between Sendo and Ippo was so great and tough so everyone get their tickets and it is being sold out earlier.

    Explanation: It is said to be R4 because the popularity of the arguer so the tickets get sold out earlier, it means tat the popularity of the arguer results to the more number of people who perswey to buy their tickets.

    5. Argumentum Misericordiam

    Example: Ippo is training hardly because he must maintain his title however unlike the boxer whose don’t care about their title. If Ippo will not allowed to continue his training he will lose his title, and that is a great lose not only for himself but also for his family and especially to his friends who support him in every step he make, whether up’s down.

    Explanation: In this situation Ippo describes is certainly unlucky one if he didn’t continue his boxing career. However ippo should not expect a change in order to maintain all what he has in the present.

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum

    Example: “She like it or not, angelo had trapped her” (angel of darkness)

    Explanation: In this quote Angelo used force to get what he wants he threatens Cara to stay there with him.

    7. Ignorantio Elenchi

    Example: “You’re interested in meeting new people, and yet you’re so choosy that its very rare for you to actually add someone even to the outermost realms of your circle” (philstar)

    Explanation: It is said that he wants to have new friends but when he is meeting someone he goes to another activity so that he will not be required to handle the situation.

    8. False Cause

    Example: Every month at the quarter moon, there will be a monsoon in your lagoon.(Jumanji)

    Explanation: Because it treats the cause of a thing what is not really its cause.

    9. Petitio Principii

    Example: “He was thorough, he was an expert. She tried to hang onto that thought, the thought that he was expert because he’d done it millions of times with millions of women” (seducing Spencer)

    Explanation: In this quote she always thinks that Spencer is non changeable womanizer even though Spencer says that he’s not that type of womanizer she didn’t believe even she argues with him in circles.

    10. Accident

    Example: Although, so far there’s no known treatment for death’s crippling effects, still everyone can acquaint himself with the three early warning signs of death: one, rigor mortis; two, a rotting smell; three, occasional drowsiness.
    (the Kentucky fried movie)

    Explanation: Because it applies a generalization to an individual but it does not properly govern.

    11. Converse Accident

    Example: “Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago said, “the Chinese invented corruption for all human civilization,” during a public hearing at the Senate on the allegedly overpriced $329-million national broadband network (NBN) project between the government and ZTE Corp. of China.” (Philippine Star September 29, 2007)

    Explanation: During the ZTE senate hearing, Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago accusses all Chinese as corrupt because ZTE is a company from China. Her statement was generalized and did not exempt any single Chinese citizen.

    12. False Dilemma

    Example: Ziddler said to Satine ” Hurt Christian in order to Save Him”

    Explanation: There can be other way, maybe they she can save him by not hurting him.

    13. Equivocation

    Example: “Practice makes perfect, Nobody is perfect so why practice?”( Bob Ong Jokes)

    14. Amphiboly

    Example: “Come to the Boxing Ring for Peace”

    Explanation: it sounds harmless. “Peace” means for having a new or brand new day with no accidents or whatever, and which only means for declaration of the winner.

    15. Accent

    Example: “Lolo Zordica whips his grandson when he’s bored” (hunter x hunter)

    Explanation: We don’t know who the one who is bored is.

    16. Red Herring

    Example: “killua didn’t get the license of being hunter because he wants to be friends with gon.” (hunter x hunter)

    Explanation: The discussion is diverted to another topic. Killua didn’t get the license because he killed the other participants not because he wants to be friends with gon but it is also a part of the conclusion because of illumy his brother’s words that he will kill gon if he will not say that he is defeated.

    17. Slippery Slope

    Example: Please, sir, if you don’t get back on line . . .
    Then what?! I’ll be arrested?! Put in airport jail?! (Honeymoon in vegas)

    18. False Analogy

    Example: “Women are like the police. They can have all the evidence in the world, but they still want the confession.” –Chris Rock

    19. Straw Man

    Example: “Drinking alcohol is bad. Many parents forget their family because of drinking alcohol therefore many parents is bad.” (v.c. Andrews star)

    Explanation: In the quotation the fallacy is committed when the arguer makes a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than it really is. That is when one puts a weak argument in an opponent’s mouth when stronger arguments are available.

    20. False Dilemma

    Example: If things have gone wrong, I’m talking to myself, and you’ve got a wet towel wrapped around your head. (total recall)

    Explanation: Because it claims when there are only two options.

  12. Fallacies of Relevance

    R1: Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)

    Example:

    “The solar system must be younger than a million years because even if the sun were made of solid coal and oxygen it would have burned up within that time at the rate it generates heat.”
    -an argument from ignorance, from 19th century encyclopedias

    It was based on the assumption that because there was no means known at that time of producing heat more efficient than coal, this logically put a limit on the Sun’s possible age. In fact in the 20th century with the discovery of radioactivity and nuclear fusion, the sun’s age was more correctly dated at many billions of years old instead. The ‘ignorance’ in this case was assuming that no fuel source could be more efficient than coal and oxygen.

    R2: Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to inappropriate authority)

    Example:

    “Famous physicist John Taylor studied Uri Geller extensively and found no evidence of trickery or fraud in his feats.”
    -an argument from several books and magazines

    Here, Taylor was not qualified to detect trickery or fraud of the kind used by stage magicians. Taylor later admitted Geller had tricked him, but he apparently had not figured out how.

    R3: Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    Example:

    “Paula says the umpire made the correct call, but this can’t be true, because Paula wasn’t even watching the game.”
    -an argument from wikipedia.org

    Assuming the premise is correct, Paula’s evidence is valueless, but the umpire may nonetheless have made the right call.

    R4: Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular prejudice)

    Example:

    “Every society but ours believed in magic; why should we think otherwise?” “Every society but ours thought the sun revolved about the Earth, rather than the other way round. Would you decide the matter by majority vote?”
    -Isaac Asimov

    R5: Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)

    Example:

    “I don’t remember owing you any money. If I do not pay this supposed debt, you will beat me up and hurt my family. Therefore I do owe you some money.”
    -an argument in wikipedia.org

    Because he fears of being beaten up, he considered that he has an unpaid debt to the other person.

    R6: Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)

    Example:

    “You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so unhappy!”
    -an argument in wikipedia.org

    Here, he is asking for pity by explaining to someone that he studied for a long time and he doesn’t deserve to fail that exam, and he will be very unhappy because he failed that exam.

    R7: Ignoratio Elenchi (Missing the Point)

    Example:

    “Baseball player Mark McGwire just retired. He’s such a nice guy, and he gives a lot of money to all sorts of charities. Clearly, he will end up in the Hall of Fame.”
    -www.wikipedia.org

    The conclusion is ignoratio elenchi, since friendliness and charity are not the main qualifications for induction into the Hall of Fame.

    Fallacies of Presumption

    P1: Complex Question

    Example:

    “Have you stopped beating your wife?”
    -www.logicalfallacies.info

    This is a complex question because it presupposes that you used to beat your wife, a presupposition that either answer to the question appears to endorse.

    P2: False Cause (non causa pro causa)

    Example:

    1.) “Either a Creator brought the universe into existence, or the universe came into existence out of nothing.”
    2.) “The universe didn’t come into existence out of nothing (because nothing comes from nothing).”
    Therefore:
    3.) “A Creator brought the universe into existence.”
    -www.logicalfallacies.info

    The first premise of this argument presents a false dilemma; it might be thought that the universe neither was brought into existence by a Creator nor came into existence out of nothing, because it existed from eternity.

    P3: Petitio Principil (Begging the question)

    Example:

    1.) “The Bible affirms that it is inerrant.”
    2.) “Whatever the Bible says is true.”
    Therefore:
    3.) “The Bible is inerrant.”
    -www.logicalfallacies.info

    This argument is circular because its conclusion–The Bible is inerrant–is the same as its second premise–Whatever the Bible says is true. Anyone who would reject the argument’s conclusion should also reject its second premise, and, along with it, the argument as a whole.

    P4: Accident (Sweeping generalization)

    Example:

    1.) “Children should be seen and not heard.”
    2.) “Little Wolfgang Amadeus is a child.”
    Therefore:
    3.) “Little Wolfgang Amadeus shouldn’t be heard.”
    -www.logicalfallacies.info
    No matter what you think of the general principle that children should be seen and not heard, a child prodigy pianist about to perform is worth listening to; the general principle doesn’t apply.

    P5: Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    Example:

    1.) “My Christian / atheist neighbour is a real grouch.”
    Therefore:
    2.) “Christians / atheists are grouches.”
    -www.logicalfallacies.info

    This argument takes an individual case of a Christian or atheist, and draws a general rule from it, assuming that all Christians or atheists are like the neighbour.

    The conclusion that it reaches hasn’t been demonstrated, because it may well be that the neighbour is not a typical Christian or atheist, and that the conclusion drawn is false.

    Fallacies of Ambiguity

    A1 Equivocation

    Example:

    1.) “Christianity teaches that faith is necessary for salvation.”
    2.) “Faith is irrational, it is belief in the absence of or contrary to evidence.”
    Therefore:
    3.) “Christianity teaches that irrationality is rewarded.”
    -www.logicalfallacies.info

    This argument, which is a reasonably familiar one, switches between two different meanings of “faith”. The kind of faith that Christianity holds is necessary for salvation is belief in God, and an appropriate response to that belief. It does not matter where the belief and the response come from; someone who accepts the gospel based on evidence (e.g. Doubting Thomas) still gets to heaven, according to Christianity.

    A3: Accent Fallacies

    Example:

    Suppose that two people are debating whether a rumour about the actions of a third person is true. The first says, “I can imagine him doing that; it’s possible.”
    The second replies, “Yes, it’s possible to imagine him doing that.” This looks like agreement.
    -www.logiclfallacies.info

    If however, the second person stresses the word imagine, then this appearance vanishes; “Yes, it’s possible to imagine him doing that.” This now sounds like a pointed comment meaning that though it may just about be possible to imagine him doing that, there’s no way that he would actually do it.

    Distraction Fallacies

    D1: Red Herring

    Example:

    “The prime minister’s tax policies may be popular, but I suspect he had an affair and is paying the woman to keep quiet. The media should investigate that! ”
    -www.wikipedia.org

    A red herring, the unrelated alleged affair, attempts to change the subject away from the popular policies. However, if the original discussion were of the prime minister’s public integrity (encompassing both popularity and conduct), this argument could be perfectly valid.

    D2: Slippery Slope

    Example:

    “If a $1,000 monthly rent is affordable, why isn’t $1,025 or $1,050? By lumping the tenants into one abstract entity, the argument renders itself vulnerable to a slippery slope argument. A more careful argument in favor of price ceilings would statistically characterize the number of tenants who can afford housing at various levels based on income and choose a ceiling that achieves a specific goal, such as housing 80% of the working families in the area.”
    -www.wikipedia.org
    Slippery slope can also be used as a retort to the establishment of arbitrary boundaries or limitations. For example, one might argue that rent prices must be kept to $1,000 or less a month to be affordable to tenants in an area of a city.

    D3: False Analogy

    Example:

    “The universe is like an intricate watch.”
    “A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker. “
    “Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.”
    -wikipedia.org

    While the universe may be like a watch in that it is intricate, this does not in itself justify the assumption that watches and the universe have similar origins. For this reason, most scientists and philosophers do not accept the analogy, known as the argument from design, with this one specifically known as The Watchmaker Analogy.

    D4: Straw Man

    1.) “Trinitarianism holds that three equals one.”
    2.) “Three does not equal one.”
    Therefore:
    3.) “Trinitarianism is false.”
    -logicalfallacies.info

    This is an example of a straw man argument because its first premise misrepresents trinitarianism, its second premise attacks this misrepresentation of trinitarianism, and its conclusion states that trinitarianism is false. Trinitarianism, of course, does not hold that three equals one, and so this argument demonstrates nothing concerning its truth.

    D5: False Dilemma

    Example:

    “Either the nobles of this country appear wealthy, in which case they can be taxed for good; or they appear poor, in which case they are living frugally and must have immense savings, which can be taxed for good.”

    This is a false dilemma, because some members of the nobility may in fact lack liquid assets.

  13. R1-Watch the Business Report at 7:00 on channel 6. It’s the best report on current dealings on Wall Street because no comparative study of business reposts has ever proved to our satisfaction that there is any better.
    Explanation: From the fact that the conclusion has not been proved, no other conclusion can be drawn.

    R2-John Bardeen, a professor at the Advanced Institute of Physics, has gone on record to say that the American Medical Association needs to raise its standards for physicians. The opinion of a man of that brilliance should not be disregarded.
    Explanation: An authority in Physics is being cited outside of his field of expertise

    R3- Hilda Robinson, an old backwoods, ignorant lady who never got past the fourth grade in school, claims that chicken soup is good for a cold. What does she know? She is ignorant of the scientific evidence.
    Explanation: The attack on character and circumstances is a characteristic of this fallacy.

    R4- The Roper Organization says that more persons watch CBS’s 60 Minutes that any other news program on television. Therefore, it must be the best news programming on TV.
    Explanation: Simply because a program is popular it does not follow that it is the best among others

    R5-Look Mr. IRS examiner, of course I owe taxes—I’m not denying that. However, I was unable to file on time because my wife was sick and my two children need my attention. Surely the IRS is not opposed to keeping the family together.
    Explanation: The unfortunate circumstances of the taxpayer are logically independent of his responsibility to pay his taxes

    R6- I think that the tests given in this class were more than fair, and I think you will agree with me because, if you do not, your grade in this course will certainly be in jeopardy.
    Explanation: The threat of a poor grade is logically unrelated to the fairness of tests.

    R7- “The 52 former hostages are seen as national heroes. I consider them survivors. A hero is one who is admired for his achievements and qualities. Therefore, the true heroes are those servicemen who volunteered for the failed rescue mission.”
    Irene Coyne, “Letters” Time (Vol 117, No. 7), 4.
    Explanation: In order to determine relevance, we would ask Ms. Coyne, “Would those servicemen be true heroes if they had not volunteered, and if they would have rescued the hostages?” Doubtless, she would agree that they still would be considered heroes

    P1-Why haven’t you written to your Mother as often as you should? You would feel much better about yourself if you would attend to the details of life which are this important.
    Explanation: The supposition that the mother is not written to sufficiently often is assumed without evidence and is used for drawing another conclusion.

    P2- Einstein became a great physicist because his parents and his teachers left him alone to dream. Had they badgered him to study, he never would have gotten beyond the Swiss patent office.
    Explanation: There is no casual connection between “leaving someone alone to dream” and “becoming a great physicist”

    P4-The best definition distinguishing man from other animals is that man is a rational animal. Therefore, you, as a person, should spend more time studying and using your brain than you should spend for partying.
    Explanation: Although all personshave rational capacities, it does not follow that in this case, one should be rational more often

    P5- I made low grades on my first tests in math and English. I must really be dumb.
    Explanation: Too few examples to justify such a conclusion

    A1- The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.
    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24.
    Explanation: it is true that the “humanity” of an embryo or fetus is medically undeniable, in the second sense of “human”—that is, it is a “human embryo or fetus”. It is, however, an equivocation on “human” to conclude, that it “has a right not to be killed”.

    A2- The anthropologists went to a remote area and took photographs of some native women, but they weren’t developed.
    Source: Marilyn vos Savant, The Power of Logical Thinking (St. Martin’s Press, 1996), p. 76.
    Explanation: The pronoun “they” is ambiguous between the photographs and the native women, though presumably it was intended to refer to the former.

    A3- I told Jack that I never want to see another Bruce Willis movie. As a result, he never shows me another one – he just keep showing me the same one, over and over.
    Explanation There is ambiguity created by the word “another,”

    A4- Sodium and Chloride are both dangerous to humans. Therefore any combination of sodium and chloride will be dangerous to humans.
    Explanation: Sodium and Chloride if combined is salt, and salt is not dangerous to humans.

    A5- “Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large.”
    Explanation: It does not follow that when you live in a large or tall building, your apartment would be large.

    D1- “I think there is great merit in making the requirements stricter for the graduate students. I recommend that you support it, too. After all, we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affected.”
    Explanation: The speaker attempts to distract his audience from the issue at hand by introducing something that is not relevant to the line of reasoning

    D2- “The US shouldn’t get involved militarily in other countries. Once the government sends in a few troops, it will then send in thousands to die.”
    Explanation: it is like a “domino effect”. Once the US send some troops, it will not stop doing so until thousands of soldiers are sent.

    D3- A school is not so different from a business. It needs a clear competitive strategy that will lead to profitable growth.
    Explanation: An argument from analogy can be successful only if the dissimilarities between the things being compared are insignificant

    D4- We should have conscription. People don’t want to enter the military because they find it an inconvenience. But they should realize that there are more important things than convenience.
    Explanation: The argument diverts attention from entering the military by making it appear that more things are more important than convenience

  14. Yes!

  15. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Example: “If polar bears are (the) dominant (predator) in the Arctic, then there would seem to have been no need for them to evolve a white-coloured form of camouflage.”

    This argument was addressed by the evolutionary theorist Richard Dawkins in his book The Blind Watchmaker, who wrote that if the writer had thought to imagine a black polar bear trying to sneak up on a seal in the Arctic, he would see the evolutionary value of such fur. The ignorance in this case was assuming that no other purpose could be served.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Example: Referring to the philosophical beliefs of Aristotle. “If Aristotle said it was so, it is so.”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Verecundiam. The conclusion based from someone with higher authority/achievement does not assume the truth of the argument.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    Example: “You claim that this man is innocent, but you cannot be trusted since you are a criminal as well.”

    This argument would generally be accepted as reasonable, as regards personal evidence, on the premise that criminals are likely to lie to protect each other. On the other hand, it is a valid example of ad hominem if the person making the claim is doing so on the basis of evidence independent of their own credibility.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Example: Since 88% of the people polled believed in UFOs, they must exist.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Populum. The truth of an argument does not always depend on how many people are involved.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Example: “I don’t remember owing you any money. If I do not pay this supposed debt, you will beat me up and hurt my family. Therefore I do owe you some money.”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Baculum. The application of force/threats does not imply a true argument.

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam

    Example: “You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so unhappy!”
    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum Misericordiam. The acceptance of a conclusion/suggestion must not have pity/concern to the receiver.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    Example: The WWE superstar Eddie Guerrero passed away at an early age not even at the brink of his career but he will still end up in the Hall of Fame.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Ignorantio Elenchi. The following sentences after the first one does not support the idea of Guerrero being dead, but it supports another idea.

    P1 Complex question

    Example: “Would you be a nice guy and loan me five bucks?”

    Buttering-up: actually asks two questions, one that the questioned person will want to answer “yes” to, and another that the questioner hopes will be answered with the same “yes”.

    P2 False Cause

    Example: My mother’s back broke because I stepped on a crack.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Cause. It is not the crack which caused the mother injuring her back. Just because of saying “Step on a crack, break your mama’s back.”

    P3 Petitio Principii

    Example:
    • How can one know God exists?
    • Because the Bible says so.
    • How can one know the Bible is accurate?
    • Because it is the word of God.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Petitio Principii. This is an example of a circular argument.

    P4 Accident

    Example:
    For instance:
    1. Cutting people with a knife is a crime.
    2. Surgeons cut people with knives.
    3. Surgeons are criminals.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accident. The application of a generalization does not support the truth of a claim.

    P5 Converse Accident

    Example: Every swan I have seen is white, so it must be true that all swans are white

    This is an example of the fallacy, Converse Accident. The observation from an individual case does not apply as an observation for the general case.

    A1 Equivocation

    For example:
    A feather is light.
    What is light cannot be dark.
    Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Equivocation. Here, a word is repeated twice, but it has different meanings in each of its usage.

    A2 Amphiboly

    Example: Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Amphiboly. Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets.

    A3 Accent

    Example: I’ve never seen Naruto looking stronger.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accent. The ambiguity of the stress of the word/s change/s the meaning of the statement.

    A4 Composition

    1. Atoms are not visible to the naked eye
    2. Humans are made up of atoms
    3. Therefore, humans are not visible to the naked eye

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Composition. A characteristic of an individual does not apply to its group.

    A5 Division

    Example: “Our subdivision (Montevista) is one of the greatest here in Rizal, and since I live in Montevista we are one of the greatest.”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Division. The characteristic of a group does not apply to its parts; it’s the reverse of composition.

    D1 Red Herring

    • Bill Maher on Scarborough Country
    Maher: It’s arbitrary, isn’t it? If you had been born in Pakistan, you wouldn’t be believing in Jesus Christ. You would have been told another fairy and you would have been believing that.
    Scarborough: Well, Bill, that’s your opinion.
    Whether Maher’s argument is his opinion or not is irrelevant and does not address the argument made.

    D3 False Analogy

    • The following is an example of a false analogy:
    The universe is like an intricate watch.
    A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker.
    Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Analogy. The two objects being compared does not have any similarities that are comparable to each other.

    D5 False Dilemma

    Example: “Either the nobles of this country appear wealthy, in which case they can be taxed for good; or they appear poor, in which case they are living frugally and must have immense savings, which can be taxed for good.”

    This is a false dilemma, because some members of the nobility may in fact lack liquid assets.

  16. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    “The solar system must be younger than a million years because even if the sun were made of solid coal and oxygen it would have burned up within that time at the rate it generates heat.”

    In fact in the 20th century with the discovery of radioactivity and nuclear fusion, the sun’s age was more correctly dated at many billions of years old instead. The ‘ignorance’ in this case was assuming that no fuel source could be more efficient than coal and oxygen.)

     Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Believing something because it is attributed to an honored profession, as in “This doctor recommends (brand-name) aspirin” or “Bankers recommend that people have six months’ wages in a savings account”.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Verecundiam. The conclusion based from someone with higher authority/achievement does not assume the truth of the argument.

     Argumentum ad Hominem

    Example: “Paula says the umpire made the correct call, but this can’t be true, because Paula wasn’t even watching the game.”

    Assuming the premise is correct, Paula’s evidence is valueless, but the umpire may nonetheless have made the right call.

     Argumentum ad Populum

    Most Americans hold that the Vietnam War was morally wrong. Therefore, the Vietnam War was morally wrong.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Populum. The truth of an argument does not always depend on how many people are involved.

     Argumentum ad Baculum

    “Our political views are right and you should agree with them, because if you do not we will put you in a Gulag.”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Baculum. The application of force/threats does not imply a true argument.

     Argumentum Misericordiam

    Example: “You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so unhappy!”
    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum Misericordiam. The acceptance of a conclusion/suggestion must not have pity/concern to the receiver.

     Ignorantio Elenchi

    Example: Tracy Parker is so talented when it comes to video games, Surely he is having a hard time in his studies.
    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Ignorantio Elenchi. The following sentences after the first one does not support the idea of Tracy being good in video games, but it supports another idea.

     Complex question

    Example: “Are you still beating your wife?”

    Loaded questions: contain an incriminating assumption that the questioned person seems to admit to if she answers the question instead of challenging it.

     False Cause

    Example: Today is scary because it’s the 13th of a friday.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Cause. As it is not scary due to the day being Friday the 13th, based only on a belief

     Petitio Principii

    Example:
    • Suppose Paul believes what he (Paul) says.
    • Therefore, Paul is not lying.

    Although these statements have a logical form, they do nothing to convince one of the honesty of the speaker because the matter (that is, what the words actually symbolize) of the major premise (that Paul believes what he says) and the conclusion are actually the same thing. The speaker is stating a tautology “If Paul believes what he says, then Paul is not lying”.

     Accident

    Example:
    For instance:
    1. Cutting people with a knife is a crime.
    2. Surgeons cut people with knives.
    3. Surgeons are criminals.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accident. The application of a generalization does not support the truth of a claim.

     Converse Accident

    Example: Every swan I have seen is white, so it must be true that all swans are white

    This is an example of the fallacy, Converse Accident. The observation from an individual case does not apply as an observation for the general case.

     Equivocation

    For example:
    All Jackasses have long ears
    Karl is a jackass
    Therefore, Karl has long ears

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Equivocation. Here, a word is repeated twice, but it has different meanings in each of its usage.

     Amphiboly

    Example: I once shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got in my pajamas I’ll never know.

    A famous quotation by Groucho Marx from the comedic film Animal Crackers. The first sentence alone is unclear about whether the speaker shot the elephant while wearing pajamas or whether the elephant was in the speaker’s pajamas.

     Accent

    Example: I’ve never seen Sasuke looking stronger.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accent. The ambiguity of the stress of the word/s change/s the meaning of the statement.

     Composition

    1. Atoms are not visible to the naked eye
    2. Humans are made up of atoms
    3. Therefore, humans are not visible to the naked eye

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Composition. A characteristic of an individual does not apply to its group.

     Division

    Example: “Our school holds the best students in the country, therefore I’m the best.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Division. The characteristic of a group does not apply to its parts; it’s the reverse of composition.

     Red Herring

    “I should not pay a fine for reckless driving. There are actual dangerous criminals on the street, and the police should be chasing them instead of harassing a decent tax-paying citizen like me.”
    The existence of worse criminals is a secondary issue which has no bearing on whether the driver deserves a fine for recklessness. If the speaker were deliberately attempting to divert the issue, this would be an example of a red herring. While the argument about how the police should spend their time may have merit, the question of whom the police should prioritize pursuing and the question of what should be done with those the police have caught are separate questions.

     False Analogy

    • The following is an example of a false analogy:
    The universe is like an intricate watch.
    A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker.
    Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Analogy. The two objects being compared does not have any similarities that are comparable to each other.

     False Dilemma

    The presentation of a false choice often reflects a deliberate attempt to eliminate the middle ground on an issue. Eldridge Cleaver used such a quotation during his 1968 presidential campaign: You’re either part of the solution or part of the problem. This quotation was in turn a variation from The Guthrian seven years earlier: Every person is either part of the problem, or part of the solution.
    This expression is sufficiently common to inspire comic versions, such as “You are either part of the solution, or part of the precipitate.”

  17. R1 | Argumentum ad Ignorance
    (Appeal to Ignorance)

    “You’re my best friend, coz you did not say I am not!”
    – Naruto, “Naruto Shipuuden”

    Naruto assumes that they are best friends because Sasuke did not disprove the idea.

    R2 | Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Authority)

    “Do you know why the sky is blue? …It’s for me. I want it to be blue so it is blue.”
    – Girl, “My Sassy Girl”

    In this argument, the girl appeals that the reason of why the sky is blue is that because of her having authority. However, the authority mentioned is untrustworthy.

    R3 | Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack on the Person)

    “She is a sorceress! Why is she with us? She is not our Matron anymore!”
    – Zell, “Final Fantasy”

    In this argument, Zell points not to trust “Matron” anymore because she has became a sorceress.

    R4 | Argumentum ad Populum
    (Appeal to popular prejudice)

    “I shoot him because I thought he was the criminal.”
    – Kyung-Jin, “Windstruck”

    In this argument, Kyung-Jin believed that the one she was chasing was the criminal so she fired her gun. After investigating the body, she realized that it is her love that he killed. She committed a wrong belief which leads to death of an innocent.

    R5 | Argumentum ad Baculum
    (Appeal to force)

    “No indeed! And I tell you that if you do not turn from your sins, you will all die as they did.”
    – Jesus Christ (Luke 13:3 Good News Bible)

    In this argument, Jesus states two condition that is to surrender from their sins, else, they will all die.

    R6 | Argumentum Misericodiam
    (Appeal to pity)

    “The bonds between you and Naruto will be broken if you don’t come with us back to Konoha.”
    – Sai, “Naruto Shipuuden”

    In this argument, Sai states that the bond between him (Sasuke) and Naruto will be broken if he did not do the condition. However, it is not the appropriateness of the pity were at issue but the will of Sasuke to go back.

    R7 | Ignorantio Elenchi
    (Missing the Point)

    “I’m not the one with the problem, it’s the world that seem to have the problem with me…”
    – Shrek, “Shrek”

    Shrek diverts the topic from being himself as the problem to the world being the problem with him.

    P1 | Complex question

    “So… your training is complete…?”
    – Sakura, “Naruto Shipuuden”

    Sakura assumes that Naruto’s training must be over since he is already back in the village. However, Sakura concealed another question in her statement that might mean that Naruto ran from his training.

    P2 | False Cause
    (non causa pro causa)

    “Konoha is cursed because of that boy!”
    – Villager, “Naruto”

    In this statement, the villager accuses Naruto to be the reason of the curse to Konoha.

    P3 | Petitio Principii
    (Begging the question)

    “I am what I am and that’s all that I am, I’m Popeye the sailorman!”
    – Popeye, “Popeye the sailorman”

    The statement is fallacious because the conclusion is repeated to prove the same conclusion.

    D1 | Red Herring
    (Missing the point)

    “There’s no need to fear, Underdog is here!”
    – Shoeshine/Underdog in the movie Underdog

    In this statement, Underdog is a superhero and because of that there is no need to fear for he will save those in need. But, even though he is a superhero, it does not follow that we should not fear in reasons that he couldn’t attend on everybody at the same time and still, he cannot solve everybody’s problem that cause them such condition. What about financial problems? Can Underdog lend them money?

    D2 | Slippery Slope

    “I’ve seen things you people wouldn’t believe. Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched C-beams glitter in the dark near the Tanhauser gate. All those moments will be lost in time like tears in rain. Time to die”
    – Eldon Tyrell, “Blade Runner”

    In this argument, Eldon stated what happened in chain that at the end, he concluded death.

    D3 | False Analogy

    “I am powerful, it will help you become powerful. Just remove the seal and you will be powerful too.”
    – Kyubii, “Naruto Shipuuden”

    In this statement is a bad analogy. The kyubii provokes Naruto to remove the seal. He states that if the seal is remove Naruto will powerful like him.

    D4 | Straw Man

    “Friendship is the bond between us. It is what makes us search for you. Somebody who cannot save even one friend does not fit to be a Hokage!
    – Naruto, “Naruto Shipuuden”

    D5 | False Dilemma

    “If you’re not with me, you’re my enemy.”
    – Anakin Skywalker, “Star Wars”

    In this argument, Anakin states that there are only two possibilities in which when the person he is talking to is not an ally, then he is an enemy.

  18. 1. Complex Question
    “If you really had a perm that day, how come you’re in the shower when the rule is not to take one within 24 hours after the treatment?”
    -Legally Blonde
    The lawyer here is asking a question that seems to accuse the witness. She’s indirectly pointing out that the witness has something to do with the crime.

    2. Division
    Malfoy is disgusted with Mudbloods and he is a Slytherin. The Slytherin House is known for their obsession with their lineage, therefore, they disgust anyone lesser than pure-blood.
    -Harry Potter
    It doesn’t mean that only because Malfoy hates Muggles, everyone from his house feels the same way too.

    3. Straw Man
    “Exploring space is a dangerous and costly business. We should either do it right or not at all.”
    -Marjorie Tench, Deception Point
    What they’re talking about is if NASA is spending too much in their projects, not trying to abolish it or continue its programs.

    4. Composition
    “I won’t ever trust a single guy again. All my boyfriends only broke the promises they made. Men will always be like that.”
    -Kate McGill, Prom Date
    It doesn’t mean that just because every guy she dated broke her heart, the remaining males are also the same. The reason is she hasn’t dated every single guy in the world, which means there’s a few who’ll prove she’s wrong.
    5. Appeal to Ignorance
    “The Deathly Hallows can exist because it wasn’t yet proven that it doesn’t exist at all.”
    -Xenophilius Lovegood, Harry Potter
    Lack of evidences that the Hallows exist or not shows that it is either actually real or not at all. The statement proves nothing.

    6. Appeal to Popular Prejudice
    “…the Church proclaimed them (Illuminati) the single most dangerous anti-Christian force on earth.”
    -Robert Langdon, Angels & Demons
    The Church have their reasons why they should be against the Illuminati, but they should not use their influences in affecting the beliefs of others.

    7. Appeal to Force
    Herney told Pickering that if he ever interfered in the campaign again, he would be indicted.
    -Angels & Demons
    Here, the President is using his power to control Herney’s decision for personal reasons.

    8. Missing the Point
    “You should ground him too! He came home later than I did! Don’t punish me just because I’m a girl!”
    -Kelly Ashe, Sibs
    The curfew in Kelly’s house differs between a girl and a boy. The issue here is that of Kelly’s, not her brother’s, because they follow different set of rules.

    9. Amphiboly
    Sibyll’s prophecy to the wizard who will destroy Voldemort:
    “…the boy who will be born by the end of July shall bring forth the Dark Lord’s descend.”
    It is unclear here whether the prophecy is referring to Harry Potter or Neville Longbottom, because they were both born on the same day.

    10. Accident
    “Wands only choose witches or wizards. You are not a witch.”
    -Dolores Umbridge, Harry Potter
    Wands doesn’t necessarily choose witches or wizards only, they also choose those who were gifted with magical abilities though not born from a magical family.

    11. Converse Accident
    “Every politician has to lie one way or another, either for the good or for the bad. Therefore, we should never trust politicians.”
    -Rachel Sexton, Deception Point
    This is Rachel’s perception, probably most of us too, but this doesn’t mean that a politician cannot say the truth.

    12. Begging the Question
    Voldemort cannot die because no he cannot be killed.
    -Harry Potter
    ‘Cannot be killed’ is also the same as ‘cannot die.’ These two statements are univocal for they represent the same meaning.

    13. Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    “I trust Snape because Dumbledore trusts him.”
    -Remus Lupin, Harry Potter
    Dumbledore has his own reasons why he trusts Snape. Lupin’s trust to Snape shouldn’t be affected with that of Dumbledore’s because they have different views with regards to Snape.

    14. Accent
    “I’m not dating him.”
    -Laurie Collins, Blind Date
    Laurie might have said the statement with a heavy inflection of tone on the last word. We might assume she’s trying to tell that she isn’t just clearing the fact that she’s not dating him, but she might also be hinting that she’s dating someone but not him.

    15. Red Herring
    “Harry Potter is dead because he’s not fighting.”
    -Daily Prophet, Harry Potter
    The Prophet is misleading the readers that Potter is a coward. The real case is whether he’s alive or dead, not whether he’s fighting or hiding.

    16. Appeal to Pity
    “Please don’t kill me. I only did it because the Dark Lord will kill me if I don’t.”
    -Peter Pettigrew, Harry Potter
    Harry is begged here by Pettigrew to have mercy on him because he only chose that decision because he’s life is at stake. However, Harry’s desire to hurt Peter on that occasion has nothing to do with his parent’s death in the past.

    17. Attack on the Person
    “I heard he’s from downtown. Why did you even considered dating him? He’s not your class. You should dump him.”
    -Meg Albert, The Boyfriend
    It is not fair for the guy to be judged by someone who haven’t even met him. He hasn’t yet proven that he’s worthy with the speaker’s friend.

    18. False Cause
    “God, why is it that I always fail an exam everytime I break a nail?”
    -Ashley Woods, Sweet Sixteen
    Breaking a nail hasn’t had anything to do with the results of an exam. It’s either the topics she reviewed didn’t come out or she wasn’t prepared at all.

    19. Equivocation
    “I am nobody; and nobody is perfect; Therefore, I am perfect.”
    -Marlon Manalo, Professor
    ‘Nobody’ in the first statement refers to the perception of the speaker to himself, while in the second one, it tells that every one of us have our own faults. Its conclusion is not valid for it tells of two different things.

    20. False Dilemma
    “War involves casualties. We must sacrifice the few to save many.”
    -William Pickering, Deception Point
    It is stated here that it is either only a few will die or more. The options were narrowed to two choices only. Both will result to terrible outcomes and it seems that the only choice is to choose the one that won’t affect the majority of people.

  19. Informal Fallacies
    1. R6-Argumentum Misericordiam

    Ex. The request of reconsideration is done by the fake Batousai explaining for the usage of Kenshin’s name for financial purposes.

    “Please don’t kill me, I know it was wrong to use your name to get money but I have no job and I needed it to feed these poor little children.”-Samurai X

    Explanation:
    It is surely hard to feed children without having a stable job but it is not a relevant reason of not having a job and would not be a reason to for a change of mind and to be killed (act of punishment during the shinsengumi era in Japan).

    2. R7-Ignorantio Elenchi
    Ex. “I, the genius Hanamichi Sakuragi should not sweep the floor. It should be done by those bastards like Rukawa.”-Slam Dunk
    Explanation:
    It is a fact that Sakuragi’s performance in basketball is superior compared to most of the guys in the team but the fact that he is still a freshman in the team does not excuse him from cleaning the floor.
    3. R2-Argument ad Verecundiam
    Ex. “Alchemy is evil because the elder of the Imbala tribe forbids it.”-Full Metal Alchemist
    Explanation:
    “All demons are evil because there is no proof that it is not.”-Disgaea, Afternoon of Darkness
    Explanation:
    The statement doesn’t prove anything. It can’t be true just because it has no proof against it.
    4. P2-False Cause
    “Bad luck came to me ever since I kissed that guy that night.”-Just my luck
    Explanation:
    The statement does not follow because it is not causally related.

    5. P3 –Petitio Principii
    Ex. “The life stream is a cycle that never ends because it goes round and round.”-Final Fantasy 7
    Explanation: The same premise is just the same as the conclusion only used in other terms.
    6. A2-Amphiboly
    Ex. “We can’t let him do this.. or else he’ll destroy the town for good.”_ Ben (Ben 10)
    Explanation: In this statement, we are unsure of whose or what town is going to get destroyed. It can be someone else’s or the speaker’s. This therefore falls under the fallacy of Amphiboly.
    7. R4-Argumentum ad Populum

    Ex. “Harry Potter can talk to snakes! He his evil! He is using it to hurt people.”-Harry Potter
    Explanation: Because the public education in their wizard world taught them that the people who can speak in snake language are evil but Harry Potter is not evil at all. But the public was taught/brain washed that Harry Potter is evil because he speaks snakes. But Harry is not evil at all.
    8. A5-Division
    Ex. “Everyone knows Chinese know Kong-fu. You’re a Chinese so you must know Kong-fu.” – The Forbidden Kingdom

    Explanation: The first sentence is a normal knowledge that is not really applicable for everyone because there are also Chinese that don’t know Kong-fu.

    9. D3- False Analogy
    Ex. “I am powerful, it will help you become powerful. Just remove the seal and you will be powerful too.”-Naruto Shipuuden
    Explanation: In this statement is a bad analogy. The kyubii provokes Naruto to remove the seal. He states that if the seal is remove Naruto will powerful like him.
    10. A3-Accent
    Ex. “I’ve never seen Naruto looking stronger.”
    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accent. The ambiguity of the stress of the word/s change/s the meaning of the statement.

    11. D4-Straw Man
    Ex. “We want to build a bridge to the future. Bob Dole talks about building a bridge to the past.”- Bill Clinton
    Explanation: Bob Dole did talk about restoring the values of an earlier America, but Clinton created a false image by suggesting that he was looking forward while Dole was only looking backward. This is fallacious because the arguer makes a position appear strong by making the opposition appear weaker.
    12. A3- Composition
    Ex. “Conventional bombs did more damage in W.W. II than nuclear bombs. Thus, a conventional bomb is more dangerous than a nuclear bomb. -Copi, p. 118
    Explanation: This is fallacious because it shows that the arguer mistakenly reasons out the properties in question are the properties of the whole, and not of each part or member or the whole. It does not necessarily mean that the conventional bombs are dangerous just because it did more damage than the nuclear bomb.
    13. R4 – Argumentum Populum
    Ex. “I just bought this manga written by a newbie. They say that it’s really good so I bought it.”
    – School Rumble
    Explanation: The proposition above is held to be true because it is widely held to be true or is held to be true by most sector of the population. In this case, the manga is said to be really good and is very appealing to many people. This popularity led the arguer to buy it.
    14. D2-Slippery Slope
    Ex. “If you kill someone in war, his friends and family will hate you. Then they will find a way to take revenge and kill you. And if you were killed, your friends and family will avenge your death. Thus, the cycle of hatred will never stop as long as there is war. Same is true in acquiring justice. There is a non-ending chain reaction and cycle. ” – Full Metal Alchemist
    Explanation: This statement shows that if you kill someone you will be killed. But it does not really follow because accepting death differs from one person to another so the chain reaction in killing someone may have different conclusions.
    15. R5-Argumentum ad Baculum
    Ex. “We have decided to drop you 3 ranks. You have 2 choices. You can either start over as a beginner pilot, or go work on an orange plantation.” – Code Geass
    Explanation: In this statement, it is obvious that a careful reasoning is replaced with a threat to have an accepted conclusion in which the person talking will let the person he is talking to choose one of the premises to result with his desirable conclusion.
    16. P5-Converse Accident
    Ex. ”Human destroy digital world’s peace!I not forgive humans!”-Digimon Savers
    Explanation: Ikuto’s experience affected how he thinks and that is why he consider every human being evil and yet he is human.
    17. D1-Red Hering
    Ex. “Critics who suspect me of taking bribes also want to take away my family’s dog”.-Richard Nixon
    Explanation: Richard Nixon employs a red herring in his famous “Checkers speech”. This is fallacious because, the arguer diverted the issue from the bribes to a different one which is about taking away their dog.
    18. D5-False Dilemma
    Ex. “Look, my hand’s a hook. I can only be a pirate or a coat-hanger now.” – Gintama
    Explanation: This statement claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable, so we should choose the other. But in reality, there are more alternatives than what the two stated.
    19. A1-Equivocation
    Ex. “Kisame is a shark, and sharks are fish. Therefore Kisame is a fish… did you understand Itachi?” – Naruto Shippuuden Doujinshi
    Explanation: This statement used same words with multiple meaning thus, creating a fallacy of equivocation. The first statement used to describe Kisame as a shark. But then in the second one sharks were described as fish, thus it concluded that Kisame is a fish.
    20. P1-Complex Question
    Ex. “Are you a priest?” – Trigun
    Explanation: This one single question conceals multiple questions. In this statement, the speaker jumped to a conclusion as to what of person he is talking to.

  20. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Example: Since you cannot prove that ghosts do not exist, they must exist.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Ignorantiam. The conclusion “ghosts must exist” was assumed true because it was not yet proven.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Example: The brilliant William Jenkins, the recent Nobel Prize winner in physics, states uncategorically that the flu virus will be controlled in essentially all of its forms by the year 2,050. The opinion of such a great man cannot be disregarded.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Verecundiam. The conclusion based from someone with higher authority/achievement does not assume the truth of the argument.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    Example: A prosecutor asks the judge to not admit the testimony of a burglar because burglars are not trustworthy.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Hominem. The attack of the prosecutor is directly against the burglars and it seeks to discredit them.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Example: Hundreds of millions of people have been Christians, devoutly following it and even dying for it. How could that be possible if Christianity weren’t true?

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Populum. The truth of an argument does not always depend on how many people are involved.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Example: You should believe God exists because, if you don’t, when you die you will be judged and God will send you to Hell for all of eternity. You don’t want to be tortured in Hell, do you? If not, it is a safer bet to believe in God than to not believe.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Baculum. The application of force/threats does not imply a true argument.

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam

    Example: Public Schools, K through 12, need to have much easier exams for students because teachers don’t fully realize the extent of the emotional repercussions of the sorrow and depression of the many students who could score much better on easier exams.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum Misericordiam. The acceptance of a conclusion/suggestion must not have pity/concern to the receiver.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    Example: Baseball player Mark McGwire just retired. He’s such a nice guy, and he gives a lot of money to all sorts of charities. Clearly, he will end up in the Hall of Fame.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Ignorantio Elenchi. The following sentences after the first one does not support the idea of McGwire’s being retired, but it supports another idea.

    P1 Complex question

    Example: “Have you stopped beating your wife?”

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Complex question. Not only does it assume that you beat your wife in the past, but also it asks that if you stopped doing it or is still doing it.

    P2 False Cause

    Example: It is dark now, which makes it very dangerous.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Cause. It is not the darkness which causes the danger.

    P3 Petitio Principii

    Example: “Women write the best novels because men do not write novels as well.”

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Petitio Principii. This is an example of a circular argument.

    P4 Accident

    Example: I read where there have been no reported cases of HIV infection in Liberty Lake. The people of Liberty Lake must be free of the HIV virus.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accident. The application of a generalization does not support the truth of a claim.

    P5 Converse Accident

    Example: “As I drove to school this morning, not one car which was turning had its turn signal on. Thus, I conclude that drivers in South Carolina are not trained to drive very well.”

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Converse Accident. The observation from an individual case does not apply as an observation for the general case.

    A1 Equivocation

    Example: Margarine is better than nothing. Nothing is better than butter. Therefore margarine is better than butter

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Equivocation. Here, a word is repeated twice, but it has different meanings in each of its usage.

    A2 Amphiboly

    Example: “There is no man wiser”

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Amphiboly. Here, the statement no man wiser has more than one meaning.

    A3 Accent

    Example: I’ve never seen you looking better.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accent. The ambiguity of the stress of the word/s change/s the meaning of the statement.

    A4 Composition

    Example: Each human cell is very lightweight, so a human being composed of cells is also very lightweight.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Composition. A characteristic of an individual does not apply to its group.

    A5 Division

    Example: “Today’s newspaper has a lot of grocery ads, so each page of today’s newspaper has a lot of grocery ads.”

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Division. The characteristic of a group does not apply to its parts; it’s the reverse of composition.

    D1 Red Herring

    Example: “The opposition claims that welfare dependency leads to higher crime rates — but how are poor people supposed to keep a roof over their heads without our help?”

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Red Herring. The response to the first proposition diverts the attentions of others to start on another topic.

    D3 False Analogy

    Example: Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must employees.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Analogy. The two objects being compared does not have any similarities that are comparable to each other.

    D5 False Dilemma

    Example: I want to go to Scotland from London. I overheard McTaggart say there are two roads to Scotland from London: the high road and the low road. I expect the high road is dangerous because it’s through the hills. But it’s raining, so both roads are probably slippery. I don’t like either choice, but I guess I should take the low road.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Dilemma. Here, the speaker chose 1 of the only two options stated, but in reality, there are more alternatives possible.

  21. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    – Since the class has no questions concerning the topics discussed in class, the class is ready for a test.

    Even though the class has no questions about the topic, it doesn’t mean that they are ready for a test. It was just concluded that the class was ready because there was no questions asked regarding the topics discussed.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    – “All you need to do is trust in love… according to the curse.”
    -Avatar, the Legend of Aang

    This statement commits an error because they are depending on what the “curse” said. Whether the curse is true or not, they should do what it said in order to survive and get trough the labyrinth.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem
    – “Why would you even try to defend him!? He almost killed us all!”
    -Avatar, the Legend of Aang

    The speaker sees the person they are talking about as a bad, good for nothing person because of their past experience from him. And without hearing and knowing what he’s intentions are and that is he really wanted to help, the speaker already concluded that he can’t be trusted because of his personality.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum
    – “Many great warriors bought an eagle as their messengers. Look! I got my own.”
    -Avatar, the Legend of Aang

    Because of its popularity, he also bought himself an eagle because he believes that he, himself, is a great warrior. Its popularity doesn’t guarantee that every warrior that owns an eagle is great and honored.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum
    – “I’m the second Kira. Whoever opposes to Kira will die.”
    – Death note

    The “second Kira” threatens the people to obey what she said or they will die. They will be forced to obey because their lives are the one in danger.

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam
    – I did not murder my mother and father with an axe. Please don’t find me guilty; I’m suffering enough through being an orphan.

    The accused is pleading the jury that he is not guilty because of the fact that his parents was killed and he was experiencing enough pain and wouldn’t have the guts to do the crime.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi
    – “It’s likely social security may run into financial difficulties around the year 2018. To avoid these difficulties, it’s imperative that we get rid of social security.

    This statement committed the fallacy of ignorantio Elenchi or fallacy of missing the point because the conclusion drawn from the statement can support another thought. It doesn’t support the idea given in the statement.

    P1 Complex Question
    – Have you stopped using illegal sales practices?

    This statement asked a multiple question in just a single question. It also assumed that he used illegal sales practices before and asked if he still continue or already stopped using it.

    P2 False Cause
    – “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”

    Napoleon did not become a great emperor because of his height. If this were a causal inference, then all short people would become emperors.

    P3 Petitio Principii
    – “Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree.”
    – Oscar Wilde, De Profundis.

    The 1st statement was just the same with the second statement. The argument is just arguing in circles.

    P4 Accident
    – Tina bought a used camera while she was up in Portland, and got a great deal. Portland must be a good place to buy used cameras.

    When Tina got a 2nd hand camera and got in a great deal in Portland, it does not automatically mean that Portland is a great place to buy used camera.

    P5 Converse Accident
    – “Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”

    The statement can’t conclude that all teenage drivers are pathetic because he only saw one driver that run the red light. He can’t make a generalization from observing only one or even just a small number of them.

    A1 Equivocation
    – Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too.

    The statement concluded that Brad is perfect because he was a nobody and nobody is perfect. The fallacy of equivocation is committed because the “nobody” is used twice but doesn’t have the same meaning.

    A2 Amphiboly
    – The anthropologists went to a remote area and took photographs of some native women, but they weren’t developed.
    – Marilyn vos Savant

    In this statement, it is unclear whether or not the modifying phrase “were not developed” is being used to refer to the photographs, or the native women. It committed the fallacy of amphiboly because it can be interpreted in multiple ways with equal justification.

    A3 Accent
    – “My spouse must be cheating on me – he told me ‘I don’t really love you now.’”

    The conclusion of the statement depends on how it will be delivered and what word will be emphasized. If this will change, the meaning and the conclusion of the statement will be changed.

    A4 Composition
    – Atoms are colorless. Cats are made of atoms, so cats are colorless.

    Atoms are colorless, but cats are not. It can’t be concluded that cats are colorless just because they are made up of atoms and atoms are colorless.

    A5 Division
    – Joshua’s soccer team is the best in the division because it had an undefeated season and shared the division title, so Joshua, who is their goalie, must be the best goalie in the division.

    The statement is fallacious and committed the fallacy of division because it concluded that Joshua is the best goalie just because he is the goalie of the division’s best soccer team.

    D1 Red Herring
    – “You may think that he cheated on the test, but look at the poor little thing! How would he feel if you made him sit it again?”

    The statement committed the fallacy of red herring because the real topic was now off track because there was a new topic related to the real one but totally different inserted to the statement.

    D3 False Analogy
    – The book “Investing for Dummies” really helped me understand my finances better. The book “Chess for Dummies” was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount. So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances.

    The book “Investing for Dummies” and “Chess for Dummies” are two different books though it was written by the same author, published by the same press and even cost about the same price. The 2nd book will not help a person to understand his finances because the book is about chess.

    D5 False Dilemma
    – “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.”

    The statement committed the fallacy of false dilemma because as if there was no other choice but to afford the stereo if he really wants to listen to music. If he will not buy the stereo he wouldn’t have any music for a while.

  22. HI SIR!!!!!!!!!
    😛

    R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Example: “If polar bears are (the) dominant (predator) in the Arctic, then there would seem to have been no need for them to evolve a white-coloured form of camouflage.”

    This argument was addressed by the evolutionary theorist Richard Dawkins in his book The Blind Watchmaker, who wrote that if the writer had thought to imagine a black polar bear trying to sneak up on a seal in the Arctic, he would see the evolutionary value of such fur. The ignorance in this case was assuming that no other purpose could be served.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Believing something because it is attributed to an honored profession, as in “This doctor recommends (brand-name) aspirin” or “Bankers recommend that people have six months’ wages in a savings account”.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Verecundiam. The conclusion based from someone with higher authority/achievement does not assume the truth of the argument.

    Argumentum ad Hominem

    “Paula says the umpire made the correct call, but this can’t be true, because Paula wasn’t even watching the game.”

    Assuming the premise is correct, Paula’s evidence is valueless, but the umpire may nonetheless have made the right call.

    Argumentum ad Populum

    Since 94% of the people polled believed in ghosts, then they must exist.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Populum. The truth of an argument does not always depend on how many people are involved.

    Argumentum ad Baculum

    “Our political views are right and you should agree with them, because if you do not we will put you in a Gulag.”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Baculum. The application of force/threats does not imply a true argument.

    Argumentum Misericordiam

    “You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so unhappy!”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum Misericordiam. The acceptance of a conclusion/suggestion must not have pity/concern to the receiver.

    Ignorantio Elenchi

    Example: All star basketball player Kobe Bryant has spend most of his time in charity events, surely he will wind up in the hall of fame.
    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Ignorantio Elenchi. The following sentences after the first one does not support the idea, but it supports another idea.

    Complex question

    “Would you be a nice guy and loan me five bucks?”

    Buttering-up: actually asks two questions, one that the questioned person will want to answer “yes” to, and another that the questioner hopes will be answered with the same “yes”.

    False Cause

    My mother’s back broke because I stepped on a crack.

    This is an example of the fallacy, False Cause. It is not the crack which caused the mother injuring her back. Just because of saying “Step on a crack, break your mama’s back.”

    Petitio Principii

    How can one know God exists?
    Because the Bible says so.
    How can one know the Bible is accurate?
    Because it is the word of God.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Petitio Principii. This is an example of a circular argument.

    Accident

    Cutting people with a knife is a crime.
    Surgeons cut people with knives.
    Surgeons are criminals.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Accident. The application of a generalization does not support the truth of a claim.

    Converse Accident

    Every swan I have seen is white, so it must be true that all swans are white

    This is an example of the fallacy, Converse Accident. The observation from an individual case does not apply as an observation for the general case.

    Equivocation

    All Jackasses have long ears
    Karl is a jackass
    Therefore, Karl has long ears

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Equivocation. Here, a word is repeated twice, but it has different meanings in each of its usage.

    A2 Amphiboly

    Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Amphiboly. Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets.

    Accent

    I’ve never seen Sasuke looking stronger.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accent. The ambiguity of the stress of the word/s change/s the meaning of the statement.

    Composition

    Atoms are not visible to the naked eye
    Humans are made up of atoms
    Therefore, humans are not visible to the naked eye

    This is an example of the fallacy, Composition. A characteristic of an individual does not apply to its group.

    Division

    “Our Team is one of the greatest here in Antipolo, and since I am part of the team I am the greatest.”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Division. The characteristic of a group does not apply to its parts; it’s the reverse of composition.

    D1 Red Herring

    Bill Maher on Scarborough Country
    Maher: It’s arbitrary, isn’t it? If you had been born in Pakistan, you wouldn’t be believing in Jesus Christ. You would have been told another fairy and you would have been believing that.
    Scarborough: Well, Bill, that’s your opinion.
    Whether Maher’s argument is his opinion or not is irrelevant and does not address the argument made.
    False Analogy

    The universe is like an intricate watch.
    A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker.
    Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.

    This is an example of the fallacy, False Analogy. The two objects being compared does not have any similarities that are comparable to each other.

    False Dilemma

    The presentation of a false choice often reflects a deliberate attempt to eliminate the middle ground on an issue. Eldridge Cleaver used such a quotation during his 1968 presidential campaign: You’re either part of the solution or part of the problem. This quotation was in turn a variation from The Guthrian seven years earlier: Every person is either part of the problem, or part of the solution.
    This expression is sufficiently common to inspire comic versions, such as “You are either part of the solution, or part of the precipitate.”

    SOURCE/s:
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacy
    http://www.logicalfallacies.info
    http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/
    web.cn.edu/kwheeler/fallacies_list.html

  23. 1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Example:
    [Joe McCarthy] announced that he had penetrated “Truman’s iron curtain of secrecy” and that he proposed forthwith to present 81 cases… Cases of exactly what? “I am only giving the Senate,” he said, “cases in which it is clear there is a definite Communist connection…persons whom I consider to be Communists in the State Department.” … Of Case 40, he said, “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”
    (Middleton B. Freeman, Louisville, “Letters From Readers”, The Courier-Journal, April 1, 1987)
    Explanation:
    In this example, we can see that no one is disagreeing on his statement being given thus this statement s true for the reason that it is not proven to be false.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecandium
    Example:
    Cheating by the Soviets
    Barry Schweid of the Associated Press, in his efforts to criticize President Reagan’s space-based defense against Soviet missiles, came up with a report from some Stanford University group that claimed to find little evidence of cheating by the Soviet Union on arms-control treaties.
    Where were they when Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and George Shultz, secretary of state, and several members of our military forces went on TV and described and enumerated the different times and ways that the Soviet Union has cheated on the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty?
    Does Schweid really believe that the group at Stanford is more knowledgeable about U.S. arms-control policy than all our military experts, with Congress thrown in for good measure? If I thought that was true, I wouldn’t sleep much tonight. And I doubt if he would either.
    (Middleton B. Freeman, Louisville, “Letters From Readers”, The Courier-Journal, April 1, 1987.)
    Explanation:
    The example commits the fallacy of Ad Verecundiam because most of the authorities cited are not disinterested (problem 3). Weinberger and Shultz were members of Reagan’s cabinet, and could be counted on to support his proposals. Similarly, members of the armed forces are not encouraged to disagree with the Commander-In-Chief, especially when the services stand to benefit from the proposal. The one exception in this letter is Congress, which was controlled by the opposition party, but this evidence is added as an afterthought and is difficult to assess. In contrast, the Stanford University group cited by Schweid was disinterested, so far as we can tell from the letter.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Example:
    “You foolish impostor who tried to take Nunnally’s place, I will use you until you dry up then throw you away like a ragged cloth!”
    (Code Geass)
    Explanation:
    Here we can see that the person committed a personal attack at the person of oppponent.

    4.Argumentum ad Populum
    Example:
    Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier. The recognition of that can take most of the sting out of accusations that you’re being “selfish.” Why should you feel guilty for seeking your own happiness when that’s what everyone else is doing, too?
    (Harry Browne, “The Unselfishness Trap”, from How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World (1973))
    Explanation:
    This is an argumentum ad populum because all of us may believe on that popular line thus it may be considered correct.

    5. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Example:
    Students stormed the stage at Columbia University’s Roone auditorium yesterday, knocking over chairs and tables and attacking Jim Gilchrist, the founder of the Minutemen, a group that patrols the border between America and Mexico. Mr. Gilchrist and Marvin Stewart, another member of his group, were in the process of giving a speech at the invitation of the Columbia College Republicans. They were escorted off the stage unharmed and exited the auditorium by a back door. … The student protesters…booed and shouted the speakers down throughout. They interrupted Mr. Stewart…. A student’s demand that Mr. Stewart speak in Spanish elicited thundering applause and brought the protesters to their feet. The protesters remained standing, turned their backs on Mr. Stewart for the remainder of his remarks, and drowned him out by chanting, “Wrap it up, wrap it up!” … On campus, the Republicans’ flyers advertising the event were defaced and torn down.
    (Eliana Johnson, “At Columbia, Students Attack Minuteman Founder”, The New York Sun, 10/5/2006)
    Explanation:
    The example is an instance of the second type of ad baculum, that is, the use of force and the threat of it to prevent the other side of a debate from being heard.

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Example:
    I should not go to jail for not having a sufficient alibi. There are two more people that are present in the crime scene and the investigators must also consider them suspects, not harass an innocent civilian like me for if you’re investigation about me is wrong, I will file a case against all of you”
    (Ms. Yokomizo-Detective Conan)
    Explanation:
    Certainly, there are many criminals. That’s another issue when she diverts her argument to the two people that are present. She has been investigated and already considered as a major suspect.

    7. Complex Question
    Example:
    You’re great. Are you the impostor?*
    ( Inu Yasha)
    Explanation:
    He asked the person f he’s the impostor although he really knew it.

    8.False Cause
    Example:
    Every month at the quarter moon, there will be a monsoon in your lagoon.
    (Jumanji)
    Explanation:
    It treats the cause of a thing what is not really its cause.

    9. Petitio Principii
    Example:
    To cast abortion as a solely private moral question,…is to lose touch with common sense: How human beings treat one another is practically the definition of a public moral matter. Of course, there are many private aspects of human relations, but the question whether one human being should be allowed fatally to harm another is not one of them. Abortion is an inescapably public matter.
    (Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy, Greenhaven, 1995, p. 23.)
    Explanation:
    This argument begs the question because it assumes that abortion involves one human being fatally harming another. However, those who argue that abortion is a private matter reject this very premiss. In contrast, they believe that only one human being is involved in abortion—the woman—and it is, therefore, her private decision.

    10. Accident
    Example:
    No rule is so general, which admits not some exception.
    (Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy )
    Explanation:
    It simple describes the fallacy of accident.

    11. Converse Accident
    Example:
    Mater: Wow! Did you see that race car run that red light? Race cars are really pathetic.
    (Cars)
    Explanation:
    He is considering certain exceptional cases and generalizing to a rule that fits them alone. A general statement is made on the basis of insufficient evidence.

    12. Equivocation
    Example:
    The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.
    (Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24)
    Explanation:
    It is true that the “humanity” of an embryo or fetus is medically undeniable, in the second sense of “human”—that is, it is a “human embryo or fetus”. It is, however, an equivocation on “human” to conclude, as Alvaré did, that it “has a right not to be killed”. Parts of the human body are “human” in this sense, but it is only a whole human being who has a right to life.

    13. Amphiboly
    Example:
    It’s the one place we never have to hide.
    (Edward Cullen, Twilight)
    Explanation:
    It was not mentioned what was that thing they would never have to hide, but in the scene proved that, that thing would be their property.

    14. Accent
    Example:
    I’m not dating him.
    (Laurie Collins, Blind Date)
    Explanation:
    This statement has an accent fallacy because the statement may mean that he is not dating him but dating other guys or persons.

    15. Composition
    Example:
    Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?
    (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Martin Ostwald, translator (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962, p. 16)
    Explanation:
    The function of an organ is definable in terms of what the organ does to help the whole organism to live, however, one cannot define a function for the organism as a whole in this way. For this reason, “function” is not expansive. If it were true that human beings as a whole have a function, this would be a very different notion of function than that of the function of a human organ. So, even in this case, Aristotle’s argument would commit a fallacy, though a different one, namely, Equivocation.

    16. Division
    Example:
    We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English, and the English are best at everything.
    (Lord of the Flies)
    Explanation:
    The fallacy is committed because the arguer reasons the attributes of the English to their selves, the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its part.

    17. Red Herring
    Example:
    She knows everything about everyone. That’s why her hair is so big.”
    (Janis Ian -Mean Girls)
    Explanation:
    The fallacy is committed because when Janis said that the person she is referring to knows everything, it doesn’t mean that it’s the same reason why the person’s hair is big. Knowing everything does not actually connects to why a person’s hair is big.

    18. False Analogy
    Example:
    Efforts to ban chlordane assailed
    WASHINGTON (AP)–The only exterminator in Congress told his colleagues Wednesday that it would be a short-sighted move to ban use of chlordane and related termiticides that cause cancer in laboratory animals.
    Supporters of the bill, however, claimed that the Environmental Protection Agency was “dragging its feet” on a chemical that could cause 300,000 cancers in the American population in 70 years.
    “This bill reminds me of legislation that ought to be introduced to outlaw automobiles” on the grounds that cars kill people, said Rep. Tom DeLay, R-Texas, who owns an exterminating business.
    EPA banned use of the chemicals on crops in 1974, but permitted use against termites because the agency did not believe humans were exposed. Chlordane does not kill termites but rather drives them away.
    (Associated Press, June 25th, 1987)
    Explanation:
    Representative DeLay attempts to argue against a bill banning chlordane by comparing it to a bill banning automobiles, but this analogy is very weak. Here are some of the relevant differences:
    • Banning automobiles would be economically and socially disruptive in a way that banning a single pesticide would not.
    • There are many alternative pesticides available to replace a banned one, but there are few modes of transportation available which could replace cars.
    • Automobiles play a significant role in our society, whereas chlordane was used only to prevent termite damage to houses, which is of comparatively minor importance.
    19. Slippery Slope
    Example:
    Why do you like such things? The life of a mafioso and a hitman is hard. But being a hitman requires bravery and wisdom.
    (Tsuna-Katekyo Hitman Reborn)
    Explanation:
    The conclusion jumps.

    20. False Dilemma
    Example:
    If we are going to fire him in the company, the company will suffer because it will not run better under the control of his son. Thus, let us just forgive his mistakes.
    (Mr. Kogoru Detective Conan)
    Explanation:
    As if there are no more other than to accept him. He must be punished if he have done a crime or something else that is bad or immoral.

  24. Fallacies of Relevance
    R1 Appeal to Ignorance (argumentum ad ignoratiam)
    Martha Shaw: Look, a woman knows when a man looks into her eyes and sees someone else.
    In the quote is reasoning because we accept the truth of a proposition unless an opponent can prove otherwise.
    R4 Appeal to Emotion (argumentum ad populum)

    Noah: Summer romances begin for all kinds of reasons, but when all is said and done, they have one thing in common. They’re shooting stars, a spectacular moment of light in the heavens, fleeting glimpse of eternity, and in a flash they’re gone.

    This relies upon emotively strong feelings that may lead an audience to accept its conclusion
    R5 Appeal to Force (argumentum ad baculum)
    Anne: She is out foolin’ around with that boy until two o’clock in the morning and it has got to stop! I didn’t spend seventeen years of my life raising a daughter and giving her EVERYTHING, so she could throw it away on a summer romance!
    a position of power threatens to bring down upon anyone who dares to disagree with a proffered proposition.
    R6 Appeal to Pity (argumentum ad misericordiam)

    Young Allie: When I’m with Noah I feel like one person and when I’m with you I feel like someone totally different.
    Lon: Allie, it’s normal not to forget your first love but I want you for myself. I don’t want to convince my fiancée that she should be with me.
    Young Allie: You don’t have to. I already know I should be with you.

    A resoning this tries to win acceptance by pointing out the unfortunate consequences upon the speaker and others, for whom we would then feel sorry.

    R7 Irrelevant Conclusion (ignoratio elenchi)

    Young Noah: So it’s not gonna be easy. It’s going to be really hard; we’re gonna have to work at this everyday, but I want to do that because I want you. I want all of you, forever, everyday. You and me… everyday. (Source: The Notebook)

    the truth of a quote by offers an argument that actually provides support to the conclusion that is not similar to the one being described.

    Fallacies of presumption

    P1 Complex Question

    Allie: Do you think our love, can take us away together?
    Duke: I think our love can do anything we want it to.

    the truth of its own conclusion by including it implicitly in the statement of the issue

    P2 False Cause
    Noah: …He got this notion into his head that if he restore the old house where they had come that night, Allie would find a way to go back to him…
    presence of a causal connectionsimply because events appear to occur
    P3 Begging the Question (petitio principii)
    Det. Stella Bonasera: What do *normal* people do when they can’t get to sleep?
    the conclusion of an argument as one of the premises has its own support and is acceptable In a way. (CSI NY)
    P4 Accident
    Duke: How’s it hangin’ Harry?
    Harry: I keep trying to die, but they won’t let me.
    Duke: Well, you can’t have everything.
    some principle that is true as a general rule applying this principle,that makes it a reasonable statement.

    P5 Converse
    Young Allie: Now, say you’re a bird.
    Young Noah: If you’re a bird, I’m a bird

    deriving from this case the truth of a general rule begins with a specific case that is unusual or atypical in some way

    (Source: The Notebook)

    Fallacies of ambiguity

    A1 Equivocation

    Dewey Finn: Now raise your goblet of rock. It’s a toast to those who rock! (School of rock)

    its meanings in one of the propositions of an argument but also in another of its meanings in a second proposition.

    A2 Amphiboly

    Shrek: If I treat you so badly, then why are you still here?
    Donkey: Because that’s what friends do, they FORGIVE EACH OTHER.
    Therefore they are still here when we forgive.

    every term of the dialogiue,the grammatical construction of a sentence creates its own ambiguity (shrek)

    A3 Accent

    Lulu: Minimum wage for a maximum loser!

    The quote has produced a shift of spoken characteristics or a written emphasis. (the hot chick)

    A4 Composition involves

    Shrek: Well it’s no wonder you don’t have any friends.
    The Donkey: Wow, only a true friend would be that truly honest.

    an inference from the attribution of some feature to every individual member,ist involes both sides of the characters.( shrek)

    A5 Division

    Pinocchio: I’m not a puppet. I’m a real boy.
    Therefore real boys are not puppets.

    an inference from the attribution of some feature to an entire class of the same feature by each of its individual members (shrek)

    Distraction fallacies

    D1 Red Herring(Missing the point)

    Ruth: So this is the ship they say is unsinkable.
    Cal Hockley: It is unsinkable. God himself could not sink this ship.

    The irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The statement is irrelevant because all ship cannot be unsinkable.

    D2 Slippery Slope

    David Seville: You know; if I make a list of my worst days ever, guess what? Today would be on top of the list.
    Alvin: And it’s still early.

    A sequence of increasingly unacceptable events is shown. This quotes states that Dave is not accepting the fact that his day went bad from the ordinary.(Alvin and the chipmunks)

    D3 False Analogy.

    Agamemnon: A great victory was won today, but that victory was not yours. Kings do not kneel to Achilles. Kings do not pay homage to Achilles.
    Achilles: Perhaps the kings were too far behind to see: the soldiers won the battle.

    Achilles unjustified the inference Agamemnon drawn on the basis of similarities between two items or types of items.(troy)

    D4 Straw Man

    Jessica (Clive): This is by far the worse day of my life!

    Jessica (clive) simply ignores a person’s actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position.(the hot chick)

    D5 False Dillema

    Gaston : (tells fellow citizens of his village)”You’re either with us, or against us,” and thereafter locks up Belle and her father so he can hunt the Beast.

    while in reality there are more options but the character is having a hard time to choose which is which. (beauty and the beast)

  25. Complex Question
    -Naruto
    Naruto had a mission to guard a person. The person asked Naruto in this way “Why are you the one guarding me?” “You’re not a ninja, are you?”
    Explanation: The person had the conclusion of thinking that Naruto is not a ninja

    Argumentum ad Populum
    -Naruto
    “Everyone believed that Naruto did that, so I believed that Naruto really did that.” –
    Explanation: The popularity of the arguer so they believed that Naruto is the cause.

    Argumentum ad Baculum
    -The Legend of Aang
    “You will obey me or this fine breath of yours will be your last”
    Fallacy because it shows as if Zuko has no choice but to obey his father or his he will die.

    False Cause
    -Ouran High School Host Club
    (During Halloween)
    Haruhi: Ahh. So it was a witch. Then the person who was us at the top floor of Central Hall this morning was also someone in costume… ara? Still there!
    (Others rush by the window to look)
    Hikaru: Really? Where? Lemme see. Where is it? I can’t see anything…
    Haruhi: Why can’t anyone else see tha…?
    (Window panes crack)
    Classmates: It’s… it’s a curse! Haruhi received the witch’s curse!
    -It all started when Haruhi thought she saw someone in a witch costume up in the tower. Nekozawa proceeded to tell them about a witch’s curse, resulting to Haruhi being blamed for all he bad things that happened that day. In the end, they found out that it was just a prank played by the twins

    Begging the question
    -Kaoru Hitachiin, Ouran High School Host Club
    “Whatever I’m not, Hikaru is… and whatever Hikaru is not, I am.”
    -This commits the fallacy of petitio principii because it is going in circles. You can ask what Kaouru is but that would only be answered by what Hikaru isn’t. You can ask what Hikaru is and that would be what Kaoru isn’t.

    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    – The Legend of Aang
    “Some people believe that the avatar was never reborn and the cycle of avatar’s life was broken because the avatar was nowhere to be found to maintain the balance of the 4 kingdom.”
    -The statement is fallacy because they cannot conclude that the avatar was never been reborn just because they cannot see his existence. No one might saw him but it doesn’t mean that he does not exist

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    -Harry Potter to Hagrid(Harry Potter and the Sorcere’s Stone)
    “I can’t be a wizard, just can’t be, Uncle Vernon always telling it to me”
    -This is invalid.It doesn’t mean that if Uncle Vernon told Harry that he is not a wizard, then he’s not really a wizard. Uncle Vernon hates anything that is connected to the world of Wizardry that’s why he doesn’t want Harry to be involve on such things.

    Amphiboly
    -Sharpay to Gabriella(High School Musical)
    “Well congratulations, I guess I’m going to be the understudy in case you can’t make one of the shows, so break a leg!”
    – For some, it might sound that Sharpay is angry or something, but in theatre, “break a leg” means goodluck.

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    -Lyrics of Akin Ka na Lang, Itchyworm
    ‘Wag kang maniwala d’yan. ‘Di ka n’ya mahal talaga, Sayang lang ang buhay mo kung mapupunta ka lang sa kanya, Iiwanan ka lang n’yan, mag-ingat ka, Dagdag ka lang sa milyun-milyong babae n’ya’
    -He is judging the other guy so that he could have the girl.

    Ignorantio Elenchi
    –Mouth (One Tree Hill)
    “We just heard Principal Turner read a list of Erica’s accomplishments. I could try to do that for Brooke but it would be kind of a short speech. As you know, Brooke’s probably one of the most popular people in school.”
    – In the TV series, everyone may agree to Mouth that Brooke is one of the most popular people in school but that is just another issue. The question at hand is if Mouth’s gonna talk about Brooke’s accomplishment to the student body. The accomplishment of the candidates is the issue that is important because it is after all an election. So by Mouth saying that Brooke is popular, it is missing the point.

    Accident
    –James Carter (Rush Hour 2)
    “When the shooting started, he was way too cool. And normally when there’s shooting’ white people aren’t that cool, man. They either run around in circles, or screaming out ‘Aaaaagh!’ “
    – Maybe some white people really run on circles or scream when there is shooting but this is not true to all the white people.

    Equivocation
    –Sonja (Love and Death)
    “To love is to suffer. To avoid suffering one must not love. But then one suffers from not loving. Therefore, to love is to suffer; not to love is to suffer; to suffer is to suffer. To be happy is to love. To be happy, then, is to suffer, but suffering makes one unhappy. Therefore, to be unhappy, one must love or love to suffer or suffer from too much happiness. I hope you’re getting this down”
    – Love, suffering and happy is used in the statements with multiple meanings deliberately. That is why the statements said might be irrelevant to the conclusion.

    Accent
    –Jimmy Cooper (The O.C.)
    “If there’s one thing you know how to do, it’s get money from rich old men.“
    – The line could mean that the person Jimmy is referring to knows how to get money from rich people or that the person does not know how to get money from rich old men. There is a shift in meaning if Jimmy changes the emphasis of the word or parts therefore changing the meaning of the statement.

    False Analogy
    – Chris Rock (Hard Time)
    “Women are like the police. They can have all the evidence in the world, but they still want the confession.”
    – Women are not generally police officers, since there are women who are accountants, business managers, etc.The statement is comparing women to how police act. It somehow is like generalizing that women are police.

    Division
    -Kenshin Himura (Rurouni kenshin)
    “Sensei is very skillful in martial arts. Since I’m his student, I could be as great as him, too, in the future.”
    – He is arguing that “sensei” or “master” In English, is skillful and since he is his student, he could be as great as him. This is a case of Division since he is arguing the attributes of his master to his own attributes.

    False Dilemma
    -Captain Kyouraku (Bleach)
    “In life, there are two reasons why we should fight: it’s either to protect one’s life or to protect one’s pride.”
    – Protecting one’s pride is quite unacceptable if the situation is to whether to protect someone or to ignore that person and stand up to one’s pride and belief.

    Slippery Slope
    -Coach Carr (Mean Girls)
    “Don’t have sex, because you will get pregnant and die.”
    -In this event, Coach Carr is currently having her class on Sex Education and while explaining the lessons to his students he commits a fallacy wherein the topic of the discussion resulted to chain reactions that leads down to the “slippery slope” which is the final consequence that is clearly undesirable but implausible. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Slippery slope.

    Poisoning the well
    -Kuchiki Byakuya (Bleach)
    “Would you believe those good for nothing prisoners other than me? Your own brother?”
    -here byakuya is trying to convince rukia that the prisoners are good for nothing and that he is better than them. He is influencing rukia even before the prisoners have a say in the argument.

    Argumentum Misericordiam
    – Righteous kill
    “I will get myself killed if I told you anything.”
    -The situation of the person is that he knows the things that the police need to know but if he told the police all the things he know the bad guys will do anything to kill him. It is what they call the insinuated threats that bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.

    Petitio Principii
    –Fate Stay Night
    “People Die when they are killed”
    -It is given that if you kill a person, he will obviously die. So this statement is only restating the conclusion as the premise.

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    special thanks to:
    God for inspiring me to do this khit tntmad ako.
    Vann Tria for giving me the ideas i needed.. haha
    sir odchimar dhil siya ang nagppgawa nito..ü

    ~ICEMAN.ü

  26. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Well, as far as I’m concerned the Internet is just another way of being rejected by a woman. – youv’e got mail

    It is inappropriate to conclude that internet is another way of being rejected by a woman just because of your own floss concerning that matter.

    R2 Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

    They vote for who the Archbishop tells them to vote for. And the archbishop gets his orders from their king with his pointy hat, sitting in Rome. – Gangs of New York

    It is stated that the people votes the one that the authorities tell them. The people are only the ones who vote but the decision comes from the authorities.

    R3 Argumentum Ad Hominen

    He just came from prison. Don’t put away your eyes in him.

    It is an attack to the person judging that he will not do any good and will just cause trouble so he is better left seen.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier. – Harry Browne, “The Unselfishness Trap”

    It doesn’t mean that if everyone else is selfish, this will be the right thing to do.

    R5 Appeal to Force

    You see this knife? I’m gonna teach you to speak English with this fucking knife! – Gangs of New York

    It is clearly threatening.

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam

    Please let me go. My mom is already looking for me. – General’s Daughter

    The person is begging for her to be free stating that be pity to her mother that is already looking for her.

    P1 Complex Question

    Do you think that’s air you’re breathing? – Matrix

    This question jumps into conclusion that you are not breathing anything besides from air.

    P2 False Cause

    “Write down everything your feeling. Take it out of your soul, put it on the paper, and then throw it away. Legend says that the River Piedra is so cold that anything that falls into it – leaves, insects, the feathers of birds – is turned into stone. Maybe it would be a good idea to toss your sufferings into its waters.” – By the River Piedra I sat down and wept

    The coldness of the water in the river cannot erase the suffering of a person for it has nothing to do with it. It will just at least make the person at ease for quite some time but will not reduce the suffering of that person.

    P3 Petitio Principii

    Well if you were me, then I’d be you! – Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls – 1995

    The premise “ If you were me” is the same with the conclusion “Then I’d be you”

    P5 Converse Accident

    “I’m going crazy. I must be an alcoholic. Drinking so much two days in a row.” – By the River Piedra I sat down and wept

    Drinking for two days doesn’t indicate that you’re alcoholic already. In addition, drinking two days in a row doesn’t indicate that you’re being crazy already.

    A1 Equivocation

    Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts? – Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics

    The function of an organ is definable in terms of what the organ does to help the whole organism to live, however, one cannot define a function for the organism as a whole in this way. For this reason, “function” is not expansive. If it were true that human beings as a whole have a function, this would be a very different notion of function than that of the function of a human organ.

    A2 Amphiboly

    “I am the way, the truth and the light.” – Jesus, Bible

    Light doesn’t literally mean like a bulb that could take away the darkness but it is a symbolic meaning that Jesus could take away the darkness in you.

    A3 Accent

    Bring it on. – Half Past Dead

    The stress on the last word is unclear.

    A4 Composition

    Christians read devotionals. You read devotionals. Then you are a Christian.

    It doesn’t mean that when you read a devotional, you are already a Christian. Not all who reads devotionals are Christians.

    A5 Division

    So you’re a Chinese, do you know origami?

    Knowing how to do Origami is an attribute of Chinese but it doesn’t mean that all Chinese knows how to do Origami.

    D1 Red Herring (Missing the Point)

    The war can’t last forever – We had business of our own – Gangs of New York

    Their business has nothing to do with war. You can’t never conclude that the war will never last just because you have your own business.

    D2 Slippery Slope

    If you will steal my money, you will broke into my vault. Congratulations you’re a dead man. – Ocean’s eleven

    If you will steal my money jumps into conclusion that you will be a dead man.

    D3 False Analogy

    If juice could regain a person’s energy, then a drink is not that bad for it could also boost your energy.

    Juice is different from beer. It doesn’t mean that if juice could help you regain energy, also drinking beer could help you regain energy.

    D4 Straw Man

    Studying in the library makes me fall asleep. Sleeping will be a reason if I fail. Therefore, studying in the library will make me fail.

    The conclusion doesn’t count because sleeping is a matter of choice. It is in you if you are going to sleep in the library or will study.

    D5 False Dilemma

    You are going to marry him or I will never sustain you again.

    The respondent is given only two options. And she has no choice but to accept the lesser consequence.

  27. Ampiboly

    Peter Parker
    Not everyone is meant to make a difference. But for me, the choice to lead an ordinary life is no longer an option.

    Accent

    Peter Parker
    Who am I? You sure you want to know? The story of my life is not for the faint of heart. If somebody said it was a happy little tale… if somebody told you I was just your average ordinary guy, not a care in the world… somebody lied.

    division

    Peter Parker: Spiderman Quotes
    Whatever life holds in store for me, I will never forget these words: “With great power comes great responsibility.” This is my gift, my curse. Who am I? I’m Spiderman.

    argumentum ad ignorantiam

    Green Goblin
    No matter what you do for them, eventually, they will hate you.

    red herring

    Green Goblin
    Here’s the real truth. There are eight million people in this city. And those teeming masses exist for the sole purpose of lifting the few exceptional people onto their shoulders. You and me… We’re exceptional.

    Converse accident

    Peter Parker
    Some spiders change colors to blend into their environment. It’s a defense mechanism. If you do not change colors to blend into their environment. It’s not a defense mechanism

    false analogy

    Peter Parker: Spiderman Movie Quotes
    No matter what I do, no matter how hard I try, the ones I love will always be the ones who pay…

    accident

    Peter Parker and Aunt May
    Peter Parker(about Uncle Ben): I can’t help thinking about… the last thing I said to him. He tried to tell me something important, and I threw it in his face.
    Aunt May: You loved him. And he loved you. He never doubted the man you’d grow into; how you were meant for great things. You won’t disappoint him.

    argumentum ad hominem

    Green Goblin and Spider Man
    Green Goblin: Spider Man. This is why only fools are heroes… because you never know when some lunatic will come along with a sadistic choice. Let die the woman you love… or suffer the little children. Make your choice, Spider Man, and see how a hero is rewarded.
    Spider Man: Don’t do it, Goblin.
    Green Goblin: We are who we choose to be… now choose!

    argumentum ad misericordiam

    May Parker and Spider Man
    May Parker: Too few characters out there, flying around like that, saving old girls like me. And Lord knows, kids like Henry need a hero. Courageous, self-sacrificing people. Setting examples for all of us. Everybody loves a hero. People line up for them, cheer them, scream their names. And years later, they’ll tell how they stood in the rain for hours just to get a glimpse of the one who taught them how to hold on a second longer. I believe there’s a hero in all of us, that keeps us honest, gives us strength, makes us noble, and finally allows us to die with pride, even though sometimes we have to be steady, and give up the thing we want the most. Even our dreams…

    argumentum ad verecundiam

    Dr. Davis and Spider Man
    Dr. Davis: You say you can’t sleep. Heart break? Bad Dreams?
    Spider Man: There is one dream where in my dream, I’m Spider Man. But I’m loosing my powers. I’m climbing a wall but I keep falling.
    Dr. Davis: Oh. So you’re Spider Man…
    Spider Man: (interrupts Dr. Davis) In my dream… Actually, it’s not even my dream, it’s a friend of mine’s dream.
    Dr. Davis: Oh. Somebody else’s dream. What about this friend? Why does he climb these walls? What does he think of himself?
    Spider Man: That’s the problem, he doesn’t know what to think.
    Dr. Davis: Kind of makes you mad not to know who you are? Your soul disappears, nothing is bad as uncertainty. Listen, maybe you’re not supposed to be Spider Man climbing those walls? That’s why you keep falling. You’ll always have a choice Peter.
    Spider Man: (whispers) I have a choice.

    Mary Jane and Spider Man
    Spider Man: You don’t understand! I’m not an empty seat anymore. I’m different!

    ignorantio elenchi

    Mary Jane and Spider Man
    Mary Jane: (on the giant spider web) I think I always knew all this time who you really were.
    Peter Parker: Then you know why we can’t be together. Spider Man will always have enemies. I can’t let you take that risk. I will always be Spider Man. You and I can never be…

    complex question

    Dr. Otto Octavius
    Before we start… did anyone lose a bunch of twenties rolled up in a rubber band? Because we found the rubber band.

    slippery slope

    Peter Parker
    But she can never know. I made a choice once to live a life of responsibility. A life she can never be a part of. Who am I? I’m Spider Man, given a job to do. And I’m Peter Parker, and I too have a job.

    Petition principii

    Dr. Otto Octavius to Peter Parker
    Dr. Otto Octavius: If you want to get a woman to fall in love with you, feed her poetry.
    Peter Parker: Poetry?
    Dr. Otto Octavius: Never fails.

    argumentum ad baculum

    J. Jonah Jameson to Peter Parker
    Get your pretty little portfolio off my desk before I go into a diabetic coma!

  28. My older sister gave these examples that’s why there is no reference.

    1.”Superintendent, you should cut the school budget by $16,000. I need not remind you that past school boards have fired superintendents who cannot keep down costs.”

    -ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    -While intimidation may force the superintendent to conform, it does not convince him that the choice to cut the budget was the most beneficial for the school or community.

    2. “If we allow the government to infringe upon our right to privacy on the Internet, it will then feel free to infringe upon our privacy on the telephone. After that, FBI agents will be reading our mail. Then they will be placing cameras in our houses. We must not let any governmental agency interfere with our Internet communications, or privacy will completely vanish in the United States.”

    -SLIPPERY SLOPE
    -Such thinking is fallacious; no logical proof has been provided yet that infringement in one area will necessarily lead to infringement in another, no more than a person buying a single can of Coca-Cola in a grocery store would indicate the person will inevitably go on to buy every item available in the store, helpless to stop herself.

    3. Prosecutors in a Virginia court presented overwhelming proof that a boy was guilty of murdering his parents with an ax. The defense presented a “not-guilty” plea for on the grounds that the boy was now an orphan, with no one to look after his interests if the court was not lenient.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD MISERICORDIAM
    -This appeal to emotion obviously seems misplaced, and the argument is irrelevant to the question of whether or not he did the crime.

    4. I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.

    -PETITIO PRINCIPII
    -The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible

    5. Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    -Simply from the fact that someone is in education, it does not follow that they would be prejudiced. What someone argues should be assessed on independent grounds from who they might be

    6. I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?

    -COMPLEX QUESTION
    -The salesman assumes you are going to buy a car and proposes the complex question on this basis.

    7. As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.

    -CONVERSE ACCIDENT
    -The locator is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances

    8. The late Ely Culbertson, one of the world’s outstanding bridge players, once declared that the United Nations as presently constituted has serious defects. He must be right because I don’t think the opinion of a man of his caliber should be taken lightly

    -ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    -Mr. Culbertson is cited as an authority on bridge, not international affairs

    9. During the Gulf war many Americans made immense profits. That is an indisputable fact. Therefore, there can be no doubt that American business interests instigated the war.

    -FALSE CAUSE
    -Simply because some persons made profits, it does not logically follow these persons caused the war.

    10. Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    -Simply because many people believe something is true, this fact does not make it true

    11. Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.

    -ACCIDENT
    -The general rule is being used in an instance not meant to be covered by the rule

    12. A great many charges of graft and corruption have been brought against Senator Anderson over the past several years, and he has had numerous opportunities to refute them, but he has never done so. Therefore, I think, the evidence indicates he is not to be trusted.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM
    -Charges can be made without evidence, and no evidence is cited. From the fact we do not know, no conclusion can be drawn

    13. Stanford produces the best graduates in the United States. Therefore, any every Ph.D. from Stanford is better than any other Ph.D. in the country.

    -DIVISION
    -The argument moves from whole (best graduates in general) to part (each graduate in a distributive sense)

    14. Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.

    -COMPOSTION
    -The argument moves from part to whole, committing the fallacy of composition.

    15. I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.

    -EQUIVOCATION
    -The word ”right” is used in two different senses, what is ethically right and what is politically right

    16. Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.

    -AMPHIBOLY
    -Because of the loose and awkward sentence construction the fallacy of amphiboly occurs.

  29. My older sister gave these examples that’s why there is no reference.

    1.”Superintendent, you should cut the school budget by $16,000. I need not remind you that past school boards have fired superintendents who cannot keep down costs.”

    -ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    -While intimidation may force the superintendent to conform, it does not convince him that the choice to cut the budget was the most beneficial for the school or community.

    2. “If we allow the government to infringe upon our right to privacy on the Internet, it will then feel free to infringe upon our privacy on the telephone. After that, FBI agents will be reading our mail. Then they will be placing cameras in our houses. We must not let any governmental agency interfere with our Internet communications, or privacy will completely vanish in the United States.”

    -SLIPPERY SLOPE
    -Such thinking is fallacious; no logical proof has been provided yet that infringement in one area will necessarily lead to infringement in another, no more than a person buying a single can of Coca-Cola in a grocery store would indicate the person will inevitably go on to buy every item available in the store, helpless to stop herself.

    3. Prosecutors in a Virginia court presented overwhelming proof that a boy was guilty of murdering his parents with an ax. The defense presented a “not-guilty” plea for on the grounds that the boy was now an orphan, with no one to look after his interests if the court was not lenient.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD MISERICORDIAM
    -This appeal to emotion obviously seems misplaced, and the argument is irrelevant to the question of whether or not he did the crime.

    4. I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.

    -PETITIO PRINCIPII
    -The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible

    5. Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    -Simply from the fact that someone is in education, it does not follow that they would be prejudiced. What someone argues should be assessed on independent grounds from who they might be

    6. I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?

    -COMPLEX QUESTION
    -The salesman assumes you are going to buy a car and proposes the complex question on this basis.

    7. As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.

    -CONVERSE ACCIDENT
    -The locator is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances

    8. The late Ely Culbertson, one of the world’s outstanding bridge players, once declared that the United Nations as presently constituted has serious defects. He must be right because I don’t think the opinion of a man of his caliber should be taken lightly

    -ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    -Mr. Culbertson is cited as an authority on bridge, not international affairs

    9. During the Gulf war many Americans made immense profits. That is an indisputable fact. Therefore, there can be no doubt that American business interests instigated the war.

    -FALSE CAUSE
    -Simply because some persons made profits, it does not logically follow these persons caused the war.

    10. Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    -Simply because many people believe something is true, this fact does not make it true

    11. Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.

    -ACCIDENT
    -The general rule is being used in an instance not meant to be covered by the rule

    12. A great many charges of graft and corruption have been brought against Senator Anderson over the past several years, and he has had numerous opportunities to refute them, but he has never done so. Therefore, I think, the evidence indicates he is not to be trusted.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM
    -Charges can be made without evidence, and no evidence is cited. No conclusion can be drawn rrom the fact we do not know.

    13. Stanford produces the best graduates in the United States. Therefore, any every Ph.D. from Stanford is better than any other Ph.D. in the country.

    -DIVISION
    -The argument moves from whole (best graduates in general) to part (each graduate in a distributive sense)

    14. Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.

    -COMPOSTION
    -The argument moves from part to whole, committing the fallacy of composition.

    15. I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.

    -EQUIVOCATION
    -The word ”right” is used in two different senses, what is ethically right and what is politically right

    16. Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.

    -AMPHIBOLY
    -Because of the loose and awkward sentence construction the fallacy of amphiboly occurs.

  30. 1.Rule Number 5:”Show no love.Love will get you killed.”

    -Majestic(Get rich or die tryin’)
    Argumentum ad Baculum bec. there is a threat that he will get killed if he show love.

    2.”All my life,I had been looking for my father. i realized, i had been looking for myself.”

    -Marcus(Get rich or die tryin’)
    Equivocation bec. it doesn’t explain why he realized that he is looking for himself, not his father.

    3.”It felt like i was walking away from the old me, and the new me was being born.”

    -Marcus(Get rich or die tryin’)
    Fallacy of Presumption bec. this statement has many meanings,it does not say if he changed from good to bad person or from bad person to good person.

    4.”there is nothing on this earth more to be prized than true friendship”

    -Saint Thomas Aquinas(Friendship Quotes)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam. this is possibly true bec. it hasn’t been proven false.

    5.”friendship…it is not something you learn in school.but if you haven’t learned the meaning of friendship, you really haven’t learned anything”

    -Muhammad Ali(Friendship Quotes)
    Argumentum ad Baculum bec. there is a threat that if you haven’t learned the meaning of friendship, you haven’t really learned anything

    6.”The only way to have a friend is to be one. ”

    -Ralph Waldo Emerson(Friendship Quotes)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam.this is possibly true bec. it hasn’t been proven false.

    7.”An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.”

    -Mohandas Gandhi(Quotes about Peace)
    Fallacy of Presumption bec. if somebody doesn’t take an eye(everybody is good) then nobody will be blind.

    8.”Peace begins with a smile.”

    -Mother Teresa(Quotes about Peace)
    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam. this is possibly true bec. it is not proven false.

    9.”Success is going from failure to failure without a loss of enthusiasm.”

    -Winston Churchill(Quotes about Success)
    Amphiboly bec. it depends on each other peoples meaning of Success.

    10.”Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can’t lose.”

    -Bill Gates(Quotes about Success)
    Equivocation bec. in this fallacy, there is no real and factual explanation regarding the fallacy that is why there is something wrong with the formality of the statement.

    11.”Formula for success: rise early, work hard, strike oil.”

    -J.Paul Getty(Quotes about Success)
    Fallacy of Presumption bec.it does not say why you need to do it and there are other ways to succeed.

    “jecjecman>:)”

  31. Ad Hominem
    Bill: “I believe that abortion is morally wrong.”
    Dave: “Of course you would say that, you’re a priest.”
    Bill: “What about the arguments I gave to support my position?”
    Dave: “Those don’t count. Like I said, you’re a priest, so you have to say that abortion is wrong. Further, you are just a lackey to the Pope, so I can’t believe what you say.”

    The reason why an Ad Hominem (of any kind) is a fallacy is that the character, circumstances, or actions of a person do not (in most cases) have a bearing on the truth or falsity of the claim being made (or the quality of the argument being made).

    Appeal to Pity

    “I should receive an ‘A’ in this class. After all, if I don’t get an ‘A’ I won’t get the fellowship that I want.”

    An Appeal to Pity is a fallacy in which a person substitutes a claim intended to create pity for evidence in an argument. The form of the “argument” is as follows:

    Straw Man

    “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”

    The Straw Man fallacy is committed when a person simply ignores a person’s actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position. This sort of “reasoning” has the following pattern:

    Red Herring

    “We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.”

    This sort of “reasoning” is fallacious because merely changing the topic of discussion hardly counts as an argument against a claim.

    Composition

    “Every player on the team is a superstar and a great player, so the team is a great team.” This is fallacious since the superstars might not be able to play together very well and hence they could be a lousy team.”

    The fallacy of Composition is committed when a conclusion is drawn about a whole based on the features of its constituents when, in fact, no justification provided for the inference. There are actually two types of this fallacy, both of which are known by the same name.

    Division

    “Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large.”

    The fallacy of Division is committed when a person infers that what is true of a whole must also be true of its constituents and justification for that inference is not provided.

    False Dilemma

    Bill: “Jill and I both support having prayer in public schools.”
    Jill: “Hey, I never said that!”
    Bill: “You’re not an atheist are you Jill?”

    A False Dilemma is a fallacy in which a person uses the following pattern of “reasoning”.

    Slippery Slope

    “We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they’ll be charging $40,000 a semester!”

    This sort of “reasoning” is fallacious because there is no reason to believe that one event must inevitably follow from another without an argument for such a claim. This is especially clear in cases in which there is a significant number of steps or gradations between one event and another.

    Appeal to the People

    You should turn to channel 6. It’s the most watched channel this year.

    This is fallacious because of its implicitly accepting the questionable premise that the most watched channel this year is, for that reason alone, the best channel for you.

    Appeal to Ignorance

    Nobody has ever proved to me there’s a God, so I know there is no God.

    This kind of reasoning is generally fallacious. It would be proper reasoning only if the proof attempts were quite thorough, and it was the case that if God did exist, then there would be a discoverable proof of this.

    Complex Question

    Mr. President: Are you going to continue your policy of wasting taxpayer’s money on missile defense?

    The question unfairly presumes the controversial claim that the policy really is a waste of money. The fallacy of complex question is a form of begging the question.

    False Cause

    My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter. So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter.

    This fallacy pertains to the belief of a certain bad luck is coming due to the fact that an advice was given as proof of belief.

    Accident

    People should keep their promises, right? I loaned Dwayne my knife, and he said he’d return it. Now he is refusing to give it back, but I need it right now to slash up my neighbors’ families. Dwayne isn’t doing right by me.

    People should keep their promises, but there are exceptions as in this case of the psychopath who wants Dwayne to keep his promise to return the knife.

    Converse Accident

    I’ve heard that turtles live longer than tarantulas, but the one turtle I bought lived only two days. I bought it at Dowden’s Pet Store. So, I think that turtles bought from pet stores do not live longer than tarantulas.

    The original generalization is “Turtles live longer than tarantulas.” There are exceptions, such as the turtle bought from the pet store.

    Equivocation

    Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too.

    The term “nobody” changes its meaning without warning in the passage. So does the term “political jokes” in this joke: I don’t approve of political jokes. I’ve seen too many of them get elected.

    Accent

    A member of Congress is asked by a reporter if she is in favor of the President’s new missile defense system, and she responds, “I’m in favor of a missile defense system that effectively defends America.”

    With an emphasis on the word “favor”, this remark is likely to favor the President’s missile defense system. With an emphasis, instead, on the words “effectively defends”, this remark is likely to be against the President’s missile defense system.

    Amphiboly

    In a cartoon, two elephants are driving their car down the road in India. They say, “We’ve better not get out here,” as they pass a sign saying:
    >ELEPHANTS PLEASE STAY IN YOUR CAR..<

  32. Upon one grammatical construction of the sign, the pronoun “YOUR” refers to the elephants in the car, but on another construction it refers to those humans who are driving cars in the vicinity.

    False Analogy

    The book Investing for Dummies really helped me understand my finances better. The book Chess for Dummies was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount. So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances.

    When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy

    P.S. kulang to ser  honest me ah 😀 lacking 2 >..<

  33. R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    “The grown-ups’ response, this time was to advise me to lay aside my drawings of boa constrictors, whether from the inside or the outside, and devote myself instead to geography, history, or arithmetic and grammar. That is why, at the age of six, I gave up what might have been a magnificent career as a painter.”

    The Little Prince

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    “That, however, is not my fault. The grown-ups discouraged me in my painter’s career when I was six years old, and I never learned to draw anything, except boas from the outside and boas from the inside.”

    The Little prince

    P4 Accident

    “His asteroid has only once been seen though the telescope. That was by a Turkish astronomer, in 1909. On making his discovery, the astronomer had presented it to the International Astronomical Congress, in a great demonstration. But he was in a Turkish Costume, and so nobody would believe what he said.”

    The Little Prince

    D3 False Analogy

    “-It is true, isn’t it, that sheep eat little bushes?”
    “Yes, that is true.”
    “Ah! I am glad!”
    I did not understand why it was so important that sheep should eat little bushes. But the little prince added:
    “Then it follows that they also eat baobabs?”

    -The Little Prince

    P3 Petitio Principii

    “Ano bang ginagawa mo sa bato ko?”
    “Ikaw, an bang ginagawa mo sa ibabaw ng bato sa ilalim ng nagliliyab na araw?”
    “Wala.”
    “Wala ka bang ibang pinagkakaabalahan?”
    “Meron”.
    “Ano?”
    “Ito ang pinagkakaabalahan ko. Gumagawa ako ng wala.” sagot ni Ulang
    “Wala kang ginagawa?”
    “Hindi. Iba ang walang ginagawa sa gumagawa ng wala.”
    “Itinuro ni Ulang ang malawak na kapaligiran.
    “Yan ang wala. Yan ang ginagawa ko. Gumagawa ako ng wala.”
    “Paano yun?” tanong ng nalalabuang talangka.
    “Paano mo malalaman kung tapos mo nang gawin ang wala?”
    “Kapag gumawa na ako ng meron.”
    “Pero hindi mo naman nakikita ang gingawa mo, ‘di ba?”
    “Dahil nga ang ginagawa ko sa ngayon ay wala. Sa katunayan, lahat yang pinagmamasdan mo ngayon ay pinagpaguran ko.”
    Tinignan ni Tong ang kawalan. “Andami mo na pa lang nagawa!”

    -Alamat ng Gubat

    R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Pentheus by now is blind to everything except his anger and his scourn. He spoke roughly to Dionysus, who answered him with entire gentleness. He warned him that he could not keep him in prison, “for God will set me free.”
    “God?” Pentheus asked.
    “Yes,” Dionysus answered. “He is here and sees my suffering.”
    “Not where my eyes can see him,” Pentheus said

    D1 Red Herring

    “kaya kailangan nating maghimagsikan! Panahon na para tayo ay mag-aklas laban sa mga hayup na ‘yon!” sabio ni Tipaklong.
    “Sandali, maghunos dili ka naman. Hindi sagot ang himagsi- ”
    “Wag ka nang humirit, langgam!” putol ni tipaklong. “Takot ka lang dhail maapektuhan ng kilusan ang negosyo mo. Palibhasa maraming mawawala sa’yo pag nagkagulo! ”
    “Anong mali doon? Natural lang na protektahan ko ang bunga ng pinagpaguran ko!” pagtatanggol ni langgam sa sarili. “At ikaw, kaya ka lang din matapang ay dahil walang mawawala sa’yo! Wala ka kasing pinagpaguran. Nagpapatalsik ka lang ng laway habang ang iba ay nagpapatulo ng pawis?”

    -Alamat ng Gubat

    [haiyy.. kowt di ba? pasaway talaga ako…=(]

  34. 1. “If one cannot perform any of these processes, they have memory disorder.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Explanation:
    Even if it’s true, is this statement proven? This statement is merely an opinion.

    2.“You can’t see it ’cause you’re wearing glasses.”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P2 False Cause

    Explanation:
    What’s the connection? Aren’t glasses supposed to enhance your vision and not impair it?

    3. “The crafter, whose name is Aozaki Tohko, is a hermit to put it simply. I guess her true job is doll-making, but it seems she designs buildings as well. She does anything that involves making something, but she never accepts any requests. She always goes to someone and shows them what she will make, and starts making it once she receives the payment up front. She must be a big time prodigal, or just a big weirdo.”
    – Fallacies of Ambiguity -> A4 Composition

    Explanation:
    Look at the last sentence. Is it necessary to imply that Tohko is a big time prodigal? Does it actually follow?

    4.”As Tohko-san puts it, there are two types of people with one of two attributes; the one to make and the one to search, the one to use and the one to destroy.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance -> R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Explanation:
    As stated in the book, this is an example of intellectual laziness. The possibility that this statement is false has been discarded simply because the speaker fully believes what has been said to him.

    5.”… I feel it. Yes, we are alike. Yeah… I can kill you as you are now.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R5 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Explanation:
    Well, this one’s kinda self-explanatory. In the statement, Shiki’s intent to kill is shown and is directed at Asagami Fujino, her enemy.

    6. “To confess one more thing, I think I burdened a sin with this thing today. But I found out one thing in return. What my life is and what I want. It’s vague and fragile, but I will have to follow it for now. It turns out that what I’m following isn’t as ugly as I thought it was. I’m a bit happy. A bit. A killing impulse that leans slightly towards your view..”

    I can only frown at her last sentence, but Shiki is beautiful as she smiles saying so in the rain.

    – Fallacies of Ambiguity -> A2 Amphiboly

    Explanation:
    The statement shows a “lapse in judgment”

    7.”I wonder at my conclusion. I used to have him inside of me, but he is not anymore. Not being there means that he is dead”
    – Fallacies of presumption -> P5 Converse accident

    Explanation:
    “not being there means that he is dead” It’s like Shiki’s jumping to conclusions. Just because SHIKI is no longer inside of her doesn’t mean that he(SHIKI) is already dead.

    8.” You will be killed if you stay in here too.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R6 Argumentum Misericordiam

    Explanation:
    This is an appeal to pity because Mikiya, the speaker, is showing sympathy to the person he’s talking to.

    9.“That did it. A pure power… Pure words erase everything just because it is pure.”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P3 Petitio Principii

    Explanation:
    The statement is not clear. The term “pure words” was not explained clearly.

    10.Shiki: “I’m sorry. I am a killer. Why do you let me go even after seeing that scene?”

    Mikiya looks dumb-struck

    Mikiya: “There’s nothing to let go, because you never did such a thing.”

    Shiki: “Even if I say so myself?”

    Mikiya nods

    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    Explanation:
    Kinda self-explanatory, but Mikiya obviously missed Shiki’s point. Even though Mikiya saw Shiki kill someone, he still denied the fact.

    11. “If I get to know someone, SHIKI will just kill that person because SHIKI’s purpose is to deny.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    Explanation:
    This statement is kinda abusive.

    12. ” Why do you keep saying that you’ll get killed? You will be killed if you stay in here, too. So you’ll just get killed if Fujino sees you, her target.”
    -Distraction Fallacies -> False analogy

    Explanation:
    What the speaker said here is probably used just to calm the person he’s speaking to. Somehow, he gave out a false analogy on purpose.

    13. “Don’t come near me. If you continue to ‘open’ me up, SHIKI will kill you. So, this is for the best…”
    – Distraction Fallacies -> D5 False Dilemma

    Explanation:
    This is a false dilemma because the ‘result’ she’s thinking about might only end up as an opinion.

    Ultraman Nexus:

    14. ” That silver giant(ultraman) is enormous. The space beasts that attac us are also enormous. Therefore, that silver giant won’t save us. It will try to destroy us just like the other space beasts.”
    -Fallacies of Ambiguity ->A1 Equivocation

    Explanation:
    This statement is equivocal. Just because ultraman is enormous doesn’t mean that it will act like the beasts.

    Major Dream:
    – This is a show about someone who’s dedicated to baseball.

    15.” WHAT!? You’re not Japanese! With blonde hair and pale skin like that, you’re obviously a foreigner. It’s rare for Japanese people to have that hair color!”
    -Fallacies of Ambiguity -> A5 Division

    Explanation:
    This statement shows that the speaker is somehow disregarding the possibility of a recessive trait.

    Fate/Stay Night:
    – This show is about a person’s will to protect people. He participated in the “Holy Grail War” to defeat evil masters that use their servants to kill people.

    16.” A master that protects his servant? That’s silly! If you continue protecting Saber like that, you’ll die for sure. And if you, Saber’s master, dies, she’ll disappear anyway.”
    – Distraction Fallacies -> D2 slippery slope

    Explanation:
    The speaker is obviously jumping to conclusions. Of course, there’s a possibility that Saber’s master will not die because of “something”(story related, omitted to prevent spoilers).

    17.“She’s mysterious… She must be a magus!”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P4 Accident

    Explanation:
    If someone is mysterious, does it mean that he/she is a magus? That doesn’t add up.

    18.“Draining a human soul for mana replenishment is unacceptable. Those masters who order their servant to drain human souls are evil. So, draining a human soul is evil.”
    – Distraction Fallacies -> D4 Straw Man

    Explanation:
    The speaker just made the argument look strong, but it just covers up the statement’s weakness.

    Shingetsutan Tsukihime
    – This show is an alternate world of Kara no Kyoukai. This is about Tohno Shiki’s life that took a turn to the supernatural.

    19.“Nii-san, I noticed that you’ve been coming home late recently. Do you enjoy making me angry that much?”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P1 Complex Question

    Explanation:
    Akiha, the speaker for this one, is jumping to conclusions. Surely Shiki, her brother, didn’t mean to make her angry.

    20. “Everyone thinks that the serial killings are caused by a vampire, so I stopped hanging out at night.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Explanation:
    As they say, “Majority wins.”. Just because it is a popular saying, doesn’t mean that it’s true.

    THANK YOU SIR ODCHI!!
    SANA MAKAPASA T_T

  35. 1.) False dilemma -Helen of Troy

    “Greeks are to travel to Troy but the wind was so strong that it is impossible to sail. They must sacrifice a royal maiden, daughter of Agamemnon, or they won’t have a successful travel to Troy at all.”

    He claimed that the greeks’ only choice is either to sacrifice the daughter of Agamemnon or be defeated in war. This is a false dilemma since other options are available. They can opt to not give out the daughter of Agamemnon but still win the battle. The speaker gave them a choice in which both choice are unfair to them

    2.)Argumentatum ad Baculum (appeal to force) -SAW

    “Live or die? Make your choice.” –jigsaw

    The arguer forced the victim to make a choice an if he chose wrongfully then he will die. This is an appeal to force because he threatens his life and forced him to accept his condition. If the man don’t want to die, then why does he have to make a choice for it?
    3.) Argumentum ad Ignorantiam -The Matrix
    Morpheus:
    What is real? How do you define real? If you’re talking about what you can feel, what you can smell, what you can taste and see, then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain.
    this is a fallacy of “Appeal to Ignorance” because something is drawn out as the conclusion even though the premises is not yet proven to be true.
    4.) Complex question -TIME magazine
    “Already a commercial giant, China is aiming to be the world’s next great power. Will that lead to a confrontation with the U.S?”–Michael Elliot
    He jumps into the conclusion without warrant. It is not necessarily that China will dominate against U.S. Maybe there are some other way around.
    5.) Composition.- WWE

    “that tall kid over there, really good, she’s worth a hundred of the others and she’s more reliable than most guys. i like her.”- Carlito Carribean Cool

    this sentence consists of words or phrases as a unit when they should be taken separately

    6.) Converse Accident- FRIENDS

    “You don’t like the game, because you suck at it.” -Monica Geller

    Speaker assumed too quickly that he/she sucks at the game without defense.

    7.) False Analogy-Weeds

    Silas: How can you be all into Jesus and still smoke weed?
    Tara: Because pot is natural, it’s not processed; it’s made by God, Himself. So it’s spiritual, it elevates you, opens your mind…and that’s what God’s love is all about.

    This is a fallacy because they are relating Jesus with drugs and it is just false reasoning.
    8.) Division- Detective Conan
    “We all know how intelligent Shinichi Kudo is. And since he is a great detective like me, I must be intelligent too!”–Mr. Mouri–
    There is a big difference between parts and wholes. In this argument, Mouri hastily generalized himself as a great detective by considering the part of Shinichi Kudo as an intelligent person.
    9.) Red Herring- Twilight
    “Don’t you see, Bella? It’s one thing for me to make myself miserable, but a wholly other thing for you to be so involved” –Edward Cullen
    He takes about him being so miserable, then suddenly, blabbed out that Bella seems to be so involved.
    10.) Argumentum ad Hominem- I met you
    “Why did you like Nodame?! She is not good-looking, not sexy and doesn’t even have sex appeal!”
    The arguer is saying harsh things about Nodame. She released statements that could hurt nodame’s feelings. Should nodame have heard about it, she will feel bad and be broken emotionally
    11.) Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)- One Tree Hill

    “We just heard Principal Turner read a list of Erica’s accomplishments. I could try to do that for Brooke but it would be kind of a short speech. As you know, Brooke’s probably one of the most popular people in school.”
    –Mouth

    In the TV series, everyone may agree to Mouth that Brooke is one of the most popular people in school but that is just another issue. The question at hand is if Mouth’s gonna talk about Brooke’s accomplishment to the student body. The accomplishment of the candidates is the issue that is important because it is after all an election. So by Mouth saying that Brooke is popular, it is missing the point.

    12.) Equivocatio- Love and Death

    “To love is to suffer. To avoid suffering one must not love. But then one suffers from not loving. Therefore, to love is to suffer; not to love is to suffer; to suffer is to suffer. To be happy is to love. To be happy, then, is to suffer, but suffering makes one unhappy. Therefore, to be unhappy, one must love or love to suffer or suffer from too much happiness. I hope you’re getting this down”–(Sonja)

    Love, suffering and happy is used in the statements with multiple meanings deliberately. That is why the statements said might be irrelevant to the conclusion.

    13.) False Dilemma- Gone with the wind

    No, I don’t think I will kiss you, although you need kissing, badly. That’s what’s wrong with you. You should be kissed and often, and by someone who knows how. -Rhett Butler (Gone with the Wind)
    The fallacy is committed because there are only two alternatives but the one is unacceptable.
    15.). Slippery Slope – Sacred Urbandism p.48
    If we grant a building permit to build a Mosque (or Church, or Temple) in our community, then there will be no bound on the number of building permits we will have to grant for Mosques (or Churches, or Temples) and the nature of this city will change
    The arguer stated about not building a mosque but then jumped into conclusions such as the nature of the cirt, granting permirs, etc. the arguer claimed many conclusion from such simple statement
    16.) Argumentum Misercordiam- Spongebob squarepants
    “No! Please don’t fire me! I have three kids!”
    The “employee” is asking for consideration, out of pity, from his “boss” to keep him in his job and not fire him.
    17.) Straw Man- Sen. palin
    “Withdrawal of US troops from Iraq is cowardice. Staying on is honoring the lives of those who died.”
    The point here is that if the war should be continued further, not if the pulling out of US troops would disgrace those who sacrificed themselves for the war.
    18.) False Analogy -Fight Club

    Tyler Durden: Shut up! Our fathers were our models for God. If our fathers bailed, what does that tell you about God?
    The bailing of fathers does not tell something about God. They are only models. Models cannot define the creator.
    19.). Composition- Will and grace
    Karen: What’s so great about a man anyway? All they do is manhandle your boobs and eat all the ham!
    The statement is an informal fallacy because not all man are that. Karen used the subject man instead of a particular person. Therefore, all who are man fall in her category. If george bush is a man, therefore all he does is manhandle a woman’s boobs and eats them which is not true
    20.) Ignoranti Elenchi -Charmed

    ”Piper: Why are you being so stubborn about this?
    Phoebe: Because I’m a Scorpio, what’s your excuse?”
    being a scorpio doesn’t necessarily mean that one is stubborn. The question asked to him was that why he was stubborn and not what his zodiac sign was. The arguer drew conclusion that is different from the question asked. Him being a scorpio is very irrelevant to him being a stubborn man

    Hirap mag copy paste nakakapagod :)hehe… jowk lang, love you sir odchimar!!!! :))))))))

    rock and rowl!- pepe ni smith \,,,,/

  36. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Example: “The world is the center of the universe. It’s because that the sun and stars revolve around us.”

    The argument falls into the fallacy, Argumentum ad Ignorantiam. It was first believed that the sun did revolve around the earth. They had no way of proving that it was anything else

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Example: “It said so in the radio!” – Timmy’s Dad in Fairly Oddparents

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum ad Verecundiam. Timmy’s dad agreed to everything the radio said during that episode. And so he accepted a statement from a radio without really understanding the consequences for Timmy.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    Example: “How come things that happen to stupid people keep happening to me?” – Homer in The Simpsons

    This argument attacks stupid persons and probably himself. Homer won’t/can’t accept the fact that he is a stupid person. He already makes an accuse but without knowing he is one of the accused.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Example: “Homer, of all the things you’ve done — going into space, attending Clown College, joining the navy — I’d never thought you’d join the army.” – Marge in The Simpsons

    Homer was egged by his friends to do things. Homer thought that it was fine because his friends said so. And that is where the fallacy Argumentum ad Populum enters.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Example: “No foul, basket counts, besides you won’t score again.” – Lucas Scott/Chad Michael Murray in One Tree Hill

    In this argument, Lucas/Chad states that even though he will take the punch, Nathan will still lose the match. Lucas threatens Nathan that even if he(Nathan) fouls him(Lucas) Lucas would still win.

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam

    Example: “He’s not even your real father! Um, I’m sorry, Peyton. I always imagine what it would be like to know you. You know, to really get inside you. And, now I can’t ever imagine not knowing you, not mattering to you. I matter to you, don’t I Peyton?” – Psycho Derek in One Tree Hill

    This is an example of the fallacy, Argumentum Misericordiam. The acceptance of a conclusion/suggestion must not have pity/concern to the receiver.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    Example: His girlfriend died. He probably won’t be able to date for a while.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Ignorantio Elenchi.

    P1 Complex question

    Example: “Would you be a nice guy and loan me five bucks?”

    Buttering-up: actually asks two questions, one that the questioned person will want to answer “yes” to, and another that the questioner hopes will be answered with the same “yes”.

    P2 False Cause

    Example: We were robbed because I spilt a dash of salt.

    This is an example of the fallacy, False Cause. It is not the salt which caused the robbery.

    P3 Petitio Principii

    Example:
    How can one know God exists?
    1 Because the Bible says so.
    2 How can one know the Bible is accurate?
    3 Because it is the work of God.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Petitio Principii. This is an example of a circular argument.

    P4 Accident

    Example:
    a. Shooting people is a crime.
    b. Police shoot people.
    c. Police are criminals.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accident. The application of a generalization does not support the truth of a claim.

    P5 Converse Accident

    Example: Every goose I have seen is white, so it must be true that all geese are white

    This is an example of the fallacy, Converse Accident. The observation from an individual case does not apply as an observation for the general case.

    D1 Red Herring

    Maher: It’s arbitrary, isn’t it? If you had been born in Pakistan, you wouldn’t be believing in Jesus Christ. You would have been told another fairy and you would have been believing that.
    Scarborough: Well, Bill, that’s your opinion.
    Whether Maher’s argument is his opinion or not is irrelevant and does not address the argument made.

    D3 False Analogy

    • The following is an example of a false analogy:
    The universe is like an intricate watch.
    A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker.
    Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, False Analogy. The two objects being compared does not have any similarities that are comparable to each other.

    D5 False Dilemma

    Example: “Either the nobles of this country appear wealthy, in which case they can be taxed for good; or they appear poor, in which case they are living frugally and must have immense savings, which can be taxed for good.”

    This is a false dilemma, because some members of the nobility may in fact lack liquid assets.

    A1 Equivocation

    For example:
    A hamster is a member of the mouse family.
    We use a mouse on our computers.
    We can also use hamsters for our computers.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Equivocation. Here, a word is repeated twice, but it has different meanings in each of its usage.

    A2 Amphiboly

    Example: Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets.

    This is an example of the fallacy, Amphiboly. Teenagers should be taught to drive. So the danger level decreases.

    A3 Accent

    Example: I’ve never seen Goku looking stronger.

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Accent. The ambiguity of the stress of the word/s change/s the meaning of the statement.

    A4 Composition

    Atoms are not visible to the naked eye
    Animals are made up of atoms
    Therefore, animals are not visible to the naked eye

    Explanation: This is an example of the fallacy, Composition. A characteristic of an individual does not apply to its group.

    A5 Division

    Example: “Our town is one of the greatest here in Cambacbaccan, and since I live there, we are one of the greatest.”

    This is an example of the fallacy, Division. The characteristic of a group does not apply to its parts; it’s the reverse of composition.

    thank you tlga sir odchi!!!…

    mwuahh..^^,

  37. Hello Sir… ayan, late na po ako… But it is better to be late than never.. hehe..So, ito na po ung project ko…TIME CHECK: 10:00 PM

    ♥♣♠♦Informal Fallacies♦♠♣♥

    ☺ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    “I trust Snape because Dumbledore trusts him.” (Remus LUpin, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious due to the fact that it appeals to a certain authority. Dumbledore is the authority that is being referred to by Remus Lupin.

    ☺ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    “It is awfully hard to be b-b-brave, when you’re only a very small animal.” (Piglet, Pooh’s Little Instruction Book)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because the line is attacking those very small animals (who act like humans on cartoon). It simply concludes that all very small animals will find it hard to be brave.

    ☺ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    “Major Strasser has been shot. Round up the usual suspects.” (Claude Rains, Casablanca)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because it pertains to the appeal of the crowd. They haven’t made any investigations regarding the killing yet they already came up with suspects (those who are popular with the crowd’s suspicions).

    ☺ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    “Sawyer, you’re going out a youngster, but you’ve got to come back a star!” (Julian Marsh, 42nd Street)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because it uses force. The speaker commands Sawyer with such force that he will find it hard refuse.

    ☺ARGUMENTUM MISERICORDIAM
    “Remember, if the time should come when you have to make a choice between what is right, and what is easy, remember what happened to a boy who was good, and kind, and brave, because he strayed across the path of Lord Voldemort.” (Albus Dumbledore, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire)
    ···It is considered fallacious because it stated what happened to Harry. It simply suggests the receiver to feel sorry for Harry so that the receiver will be able to choose.

    ☺IGNORANTIO ELENCHI
    “The consequences of our actions are so complicated, so diverse, that predicting the future is a very difficult business indeed.” (Albus DUmbledore, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban)
    ···It is considered fallacious because instead of explaining why actions are said to be complicated, Dumbledore immediately gave the example about predicting the future.

    ☺COMPLEX QUESTION
    “You know how to whistle, don’t you, Steve?” (Marie “Slim” Browning, To Have and Have Not)
    ···It is considered fallacious due to the abrupt conclusion that Steve can whistle before her confirming questions took place.

    ☺FALSE CAUSE
    “The dementors affect you worse than the others because there are horrors in your past that others don’t have.” (Remus Lupin, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban)
    ···It is considered fallacious because the cause stated is not true. It was just a presumption of Remus Lupin but the fact is that Harry is affected worse because the dementors are instructed by Lord Voldemort to do so.

    ☺Petitio Principii
    “What’s comin’ will come and we’ll meet it when it does.” (Hagrid, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire)
    ···It is considered fallacious because the sentence is just redundant in meaning. Of course anything that is coming will definitely come.It is not necessary to indicate ‘will come’ because of the word ‘coming.’

    ☺ACCIDENT
    “Ryuu studied at Tokyo University. He must be really intelligent and versatile.” (kazuma, Tantei Gakuen Q)
    ···It is considered fallacious because Kazuma generalized according to the standards of the Tokyo University, not Ryuu as an individual.

    ☺CONVERSE ACCIDENT
    “Some spiders change colors to blend into their environment. It is a defense mechanism. If you do not change colors to blend into their environment, you don’t have a defense mechanism.” (Peter Parker, Spiderman)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because presumes that once you don’t change color, then you don’t have a defense mechanism though in reality, there are other types of defense mechanisms.

    ☺EQUIVOCATION
    “Anger is to hate. Hate is to suffering.” (Star Wars)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious due to the usage of the word hate.

    ☺AMPHIBOLY
    “That’s 30 minutes awat. I’ll be there in 10.” (Harvey Kietel, Pulp Fiction)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because the meaning of 10 confuses the reader.

    ☺ACCENT
    “Go ahead, make my day!” (Clint Eastwood, Sudden Impact)
    ···It is considered fallacious because the meaning will differ if the phrase ‘Go ahead’ will be emphasized. It will mean that the receiver can leave so that the day will be complete. But if the emphasized phrase is ‘make my day,’ it will mean that the receiver must act to make the day complete.

    ☺DIVISION
    “Sensei is very skillful in martial arts. Since I’m his student, I could be as great as him, too, in the future.” (Samurai X)
    ···It is considered fallacious because of the attributes of his teacher, he generalized that he is the same as his teacher is.

    ☺RED HERRING
    “Remember, Ichigo, you are the man which the woman I fell in love with gave her life to protect. Live to the fullest, age to the fullest, go bald to the fullest, and die long before me. And if possible, die with a smile.” (Isshin, Bleach)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because the second and third sentence does not clearly state its relation to the first sentence which misleads the reader.

    ☺FALSE ANALOGY
    “Some people care too much, I think it’s called love.” (Pooh, Winnie the Pooh)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because Not all people that care too much can be classified as love.

    ☺STRAW MAN
    “Friendship is the bond between us. It is what makes us search for you. Somebody who cannot save even one friend does not fit to be a Hokage!” (Naruto, Naruto Shipuuden)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because threatens the receiver with such strong lines.

    ☺FALSE DILEMMA
    “Either he’s dead, or my watch stopped.” (Groucho Marx, A Day at the Races)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because it gives only two choices but in reality, there are other things that might be included as a choice.

    ♥♣♠♦THE END♦♠♣♥

    Sa wakas… natapos na po ako… Thank you po sir sa pag extend… =)

  38. pahabol po… 19 pa lang po pala yan… hehe… last one..

    ☺COMPOSITION
    “The CCU football team should be good next year. After all, everyone on the team is a good athlete, so the team as a whole should be good.” (Hurley)
    ···It is considered to be fallacious because the attribute about being a good athlete is taken part as a whole which generalized the idea the whole whole team should be good because of the good athletes.

  39. [sir mali po ata ung time sa site]
    11:14 pm po ako ngsubmit
    =)
    sir wag nio na po minusan
    thanks po

    A. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

    R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)

    Example:

    1. Enchanted (2007)

    Robert Philip
    “Forget about “happily ever after”. It doesn’t exist”

    — There is a lack of evidence in this statement thus proves nothing. A statement is not true merely because there is no evidence against it.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam ( Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    Example:

    1. Shrek 2 (2004)

    Fairy Godmother

    “I TOLD YOU! OGRES DON’T LIVE HAPPILY EVER AFTER!”

    — This fallacy is committed because the judgement of the fairy godmother is not legitimate to claim that ogres don’t live happily ever after. It is an appeal to an improper authority, such as the fairy godmother is not reliable.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    Example:

    1. A Bugs Life (1998)

    Hopper

    “Let this be a lesson to all you ants: ideas are very dangerous things. You are mindless, soil-shoving losers put on this earth to serve us!”

    — This is called “name calling”. It is an abusive attack against (the ants) because it directly bring into disrepute and attempts to support a claim by drawing attention to the circumstance that the arguer (hopper) assumes should compel the reader or listener to agree.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to the people)

    Example:

    1. Mean Girls (2004)

    Cady

    “In Girl World, Halloween is the one night a year when girls can dress like a total slut and no other girls can say anything about it, so dress like one.”

    — Numbers do not make a wrong action right. In this case being dress like a total slut in Halloween does not imply that you can do it because it is what girls do believe in.

    R5 Argumetnum Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)

    Example:

    1. A Cinderella Story (2004)

    Sam

    “I know that the guy that sent those emails is some where down inside of you, but I cant wait for him, because waiting for you is like waiting for rain in this drought. Useless and disappointing!”

    — This fallacy is committed when careful reasoning is replaced with direct threays to bring about acceptance of the conclusion. In this case, it is said that “… is like waiting for rain in this drought. Useless and disappointing!.” It replaced support of a claim with an “appeal to pity”.

    R6 Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)

    Example:

    1. Ice Age 1 (2002)

    Manfred: [to Sid] Okay, you. Check for poop.
    Sid: Hey, why am I the poop-checker?
    Manfred: Because returning the runt was YOUR idea, because you’re small and insignificant, and because I’ll pummel you if you don’t.
    [slight pause]
    Sid: Why else?
    Manfred: NOW, SID!

    — In this case the fallacy is committed because reasoning is replaced with direct threats (Manfred: Because returning the runt was YOUR idea, because you’re small and insignificant, and because I’ll pummel you if you don’t.)to bring the acceptance of the conclusion (Manfred: [to Sid] Okay, you. Check for poop.)

    R7 Ignoratio Elenchi (Missing the point)

    Example:

    1. Ratatouille (2007)

    Django: Now don’t you feel better, Rémy, huh? You’ve helped a noble cause!
    Rémy: “Noble”? We’re thieves, Dad, and what we’re stealing is, let’s face it, garbage!
    Django: It isn’t stealing if no one wants it!

    — This is an attempt to change the subject or divert the argument fro the real question at issue. It is called “non sequitur” because the argument does not follow from the previous statements. Wherein they are both talking about stealing but it turned out that what matters most is that no one wants it.

    B. FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION

    P1 Complex Question

    Example:

    1. Enchanted (2007)

    Robert Philip

    “Is this a big habit of yours, falling off stuff?”

    — This fallacy is committed when a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in that question. In this case, Robert’s statement may be interpreted in 2 ways. First falling off stuff would mean dropping objects or things, and the secondly, it would mean falling in love.

    P2 False Cause (non causa pro causa)

    Example:

    1. Finding Nemo (2003)

    Marlin

    “If this is some kind of joke, it’s not funny! And I know funny! I’m a clown fish!”

    —It does not follow that being a clown fish would mean that you know what’s funny or not.

    P3 Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)

    Example:

    1. Ratatouille (2007)

    Skinner

    “Tell them Chef Linguini has prepared something special for them, something definitely “off-menu”, mmm?. Oh, and don’t forget to stress its…Linguini-ness.”

    — The statement was restated in other term. In this case, a special order is an order that is off-menu. Thus this statement is fallacious.

    P4 Accident (Sweeping Generalization)

    Example:

    1. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005)

    Dr. Wilbur Wonka

    “Lollipops. Ought to be called ‘cavities on a stick’!”

    — This fallacy is committed because it applies generalization on the lollipops that those are cavities on a stick and of course it’s not.

    P5 Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    1. Transformers (2007)

    Sam Witwicky

    “It’s a robot. You know, like a super advanced robot. It’s probably Japanese. [pause] It’s definitely Japanese.”
    — Because it’s a super advanced robot does not mean that its made in Japan.

    C. FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY

    A1 Equivocation

    Example:

    1. Star Wars

    Yoda, Jedi Master

    “Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.”
    — The fallacy is committed when the same word or phrase is used with two or more meanings deliberately or accidentally, in the formulation of an argument. In this case, it is that anger was equated to hate then hate was equated to suffering thus anger is equated to suffering.
    A2 Amphiboly

    1. Transformers (2007)

    Sgt. Robert Epps

    “Spooky-Three-Two, use 105 shells. Bring the rain!”

    — The word rain can refer to two meanings. First is the rain that is a natural phenomenon and second is that being referred as rain of bullets.

    A3 Accent

    Example

    1. Hancock (2008)

    Mary Embrey

    “I think you’re wasting your time with this guy.”

    — The fallacy of accent arises from an ambiguity produced by a shift of spoken or written emphasis. Who is this guy?

    A4 Composition

    Example:
    1. Pretty Woman (1990)

    Edward Lewis

    “You and I are such similar creatures, Vivian. We both screw people for money.”

    — It doesn’t mean that both of you screw people for money then you are similar creatures.

    A5 Division

    Example

    1. Mean Girls (2004)
    Karen
    “So if you’re from Africa…why are you white?”

    — This fallacy is committed because the arguer (Karen) reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its parts. If a person is from Africa it doesn’t mean that the person should be non white.

    D. FALLACIES OF DISTRACTION

    D1 Red Herring (Missing the point)

    Example:

    1. Happy Feet (2006)
    Noah the Elder
    “So it follows. Dissent leads to division and division leads us to doom! You, Mumble Happyfeet, must go!”

    — The fallacy is committed because it diverts the issue from the dissent, division and doom to a different one about forcing Mumble Happyfeet to go. Forcing Mumble Happyfeet to go does not necessarily leads to doom.

    D2 Slippery Slope

    Example:

    1. A Cinderella Story (2004)

    Fiona

    “People go to school to get smarter, so that they can get a job. You already have a job you don’t need to go to school.”

    — The fallacy made here is that the conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction. It is indeed people go to school to get smarter so they can get a job but that doesn’t employ that when you have a job you don’t need to go to school.

    D5 False Dilemma

    Example

    1. Chicken Run (2000)

    Fowler

    “Keep pedalling! We’re not there yet! You can’t see paradise if you don’t pedal!”
    — This is a false dilemma, as if there is no other choice than pedaling.

  40. EQUIVOCATION

    “The pro-abortion-rights people, of course, say a baby is not a human until it

    is born. What do they think it is? A vegetable or a fruit? It just shows where

    our society is headed when we no longer have value for human life.” -Columbus

    Dispatch

    The ambiguous word here is ‘human’. The pro-abortion-rights people say that a

    baby is not human in the sense that it lacks a right to life, i.e., they

    define the word ‘human’ in this context as meaning “having a right to life”.

    SLIPPERY SLOPE

    “A person apparently hopelessly ill may be allowed to take his own life. Then

    he may be permitted to deputize others to do it for him should he no longer be

    able to act. The judgment of others then becomes the ruling factor. Already at

    this point euthanasia is not personal and voluntary, for others are acting on

    behalf of the patient as they see fit. This may well incline them to act on

    behalf of other patients who have not authorized them to exercise their

    judgment. It is only a short step, then, from voluntary euthanasia

    (self-inflicted or authorized), to directed euthanasia administered to a

    patient who has given no authorization, to involuntary euthanasia conducted as

    a part of a social policy.” – J. Gay Williams, “The Wrongfulness of

    Euthanasia”

    But it’s unlikely that permitting euthanasia in a restricted set of cases is

    likely to result in mass unjust killings, especially in contemporary American

    society.

    APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE

    “Then we had a death. A 32-year-old woman hemorrhaged to death as a result of

    a cervical laceration. I finally realized, we weren’t helping women – we were

    destroying them.” – from an ad published by the National Right to Life

    Here, Everett appeals to the reader’s sympathy rather than to their reason.

    STRAW MAN FALLACY

    “I’m a very controversial figure to the animal rights movement. They no doubt

    view me with some measure of hostility because I am constantly challenging

    their fundamental premise that animals are superior to human beings.”-Rush

    Limbaugh

    If this is followed with the argument that animals are not superior to human

    beings, and thus the animal rights movement is misguided, then we have an

    example of a straw man fallacy. The straw man is the misrepresentation of

    animal rights activists as holding the view that animals are superior to human

    beings: virtually no animal rights activists hold this view.

    RED HERRING

    “I am qualified to be president because my husband is Bill Clinton.” -Clinton

    The fact that her husband is Bill Clinton has no logical connection whatsoever

    to her personal qualification to the presidency … it is used to throw people

    off.

    FALSE DILLEMA

    “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance”-Derek Bok

    While it is true that some education is better than none, the education we get

    needn’t cost as much.

    FALSE ANALOGY

    The planet Mars possesses an atmosphere with clouds and mists resembling our

    own; it has seas distinguished from the land by a greenish color, and polar

    regions covered with snow. The red color of the planet seems to be due to the

    atmosphere, like the red color of our sunrises and sunsets. So much is similar

    in the surface of Mars and the surface of the Earth that we readily agree that

    there must be inhabitants there as here.-W.S Jevons

    Earth and Mars are being compared favorably; however, the facts don’t support

    the analogy. We now know that Mars has no seas and no earth-like atmosphere.

    While there might be some similarities, they are not sufficient to justify the

    conclusion that Mars must have inhabitants like Earth does.

    AMPHIBOLY

    The Duke yet lives that Henry shall depose. -Henry IV

    It is unclear if there lives a duke whom Henry shall depose, or if there lives

    a duke who shall depose Henry. This ambiguity is caused by unclear grammar.

    AD HOMINEM

    “Jim argues that there’s no God. Yet another self-styled intellectual making

    the same old claim.”

    The response to Jim’s argument ignores the argument itself and instead attacks

    the person, in this case lumping him into a group whose arguments needn’t be

    heard.This type of ad hominem is often called “abusive,” but note that simple

    abuse does not make something a fallacy. One must argue that a given position

    is false because of some fault of the person who holds the position.

    COMPOSITION

    Each sentence in this composition is well-written. Therefore the whole essay

    is well-written.

    It doesn’t follow from the fact that each individual sentence is well written

    that the whole essay is well written.

    DIVISION

    Ocelots are now dying out.Sparky is an ocelot.Therefore, Sparky is now dying

    out.

    Although the premise is true of the species as a whole, this unfortunate fact

    does not reflect poorly upon the health of any of its individual members.

    APPEAL TO PITY

    A student argues that the teacher should let him/her pass the

    examination because he/she needs it in order to graduate.

    Of course, pity might be a relevant consideration in certain

    conditions, as in contexts involving charity.

    ACCENT

    Jorge turned in his assignment on time today.
    Therefore, Jorge usually turns in his assignments late.

    Even if the premise is true of each and every component of my

    curriculum, the whole could have been a chaotic mess, so this reasoning

    is defective.

    DIVISION

    America is a wealthy country. Bill Smith is an American, therefore he

    is wealthy.

    Even though it is true that the country as a whole is wealthy, it

    doesn’t follow that each individual in the country is a wealthy

    individual.

    NON SEQUITUR

    You can fool some of the people all of the time; therefore, you can

    fool all of the people some of the time.

    The word “therefore” suggests a logical connection between these two

    statements, but there is no necessary, logical relation between the two

    claims.

    BEGGING THE QUESTION

    The federal government has no right to investigate the financial

    affairs of a private citizen because a citizen’s business dealings are

    none of the government’s business.

    Here one finds essentially the same claim stated in two different ways,

    yet the sentence is worded so that the second part seems to support the

    first part. But saying that the government has “no right” to

    investigate a citizen’s financial affairs is equivalent to saying that

    it is ‘none of its business,” so no support has been offered.

    >>sir yan na po..sorry po nalate po..=]

    -connected24ever..wala ng gtg- hehehe

  41. R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Ex:
    “From East Middle School, Suzumiya Haruhi. I have no interest in ordinary humans. If there are any aliens, time travelers, sliders, or espers here…come join me. That is all!” – Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya

    Well obviously our scientific knowledge today does not prove of any aliens or whatever that exist, there were rumors but only rumors and that does not prove that aliens or whatever really exist. This statement tells something that is not proved; yet a conclusion is drawn.

    R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Ex:
    “Humans exist to chase for happiness” – Code Geass

    Do you really exist to chase for happiness? Or do you exist because of something else? This statement is an example of the fallacy that lets other people reason on our behalf. Because you would not know why you exist and so, you must find the answer by continuing to exist. As to why we exist is a thing that only God knows.

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    Ex:
    “You foolish impostor who tried to take Nunnally’s place, I will use you until you dry up then throw you away like a ragged cloth!” – Code Geass

    This statement can obviously discredit a person; therefore it can be considered a direct attack against the person being referred to. And of course it will hurt the feelings of that person.

    R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Ex:
    “ I’m a marine, and I’m doing what a marine’s supposed to do… capture pirates!” – One Piece

    As a marine, he’s duty is to protect the people and capture pirates. In this statement, it is clear that the person talking is a popularly held belief that because he is a marine, his will abide by his duties and responsibilities.

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Ex:
    “We have decided to drop you 3 ranks. You have 2 choices. You can either start over as a beginner pilot, or go work on an orange plantation.” – Code Geass

    In this statement, it is obvious that a careful reasoning is replaced with a threat to have an accepted conclusion in which the person talking will let the person he is talking to choose one of the premises to result with his desirable conclusion.

    R6 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Ex:
    “You’re life and the lives of those connected to you will be in danger if you continue to be involved with me” – Detective Conan

    The statement implies that the reasoning is replaced with insuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion. This gives an impression of pity that the person talking is in great danger and that he needs more help.

    R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    Ex:
    “Science is the answer to everything. If I were you, I’d drop the scriptures and pick up an Alchemy book. We’re the closest things to gods there are.”

    If science is the answer to everything, why can’t science answer the existence of God? Where he came from? And what are his plans? The point is that even if you say that science answers everything it denies the existence of God’s control over us, which in science may be called natural phenomena. Moreover, we’re not even a mile close to God.

    P1 Complex Question

    Ex:
    “Are you a priest?” – Trigun

    This one single question conceals multiple questions. In this statement, the speaker jumped to a conclusion as to what of person he is talking to.

    P2 False Cause

    Ex:
    “Mouri-kun… why does murder occur whenever you’re around? You know, it would be nicer if you could prevent them rather than solve them.” – Detective Conan

    This statement is an example of a false cause because the speaker treats the person he is speaking to as the cause of murders although he is not the reason why murders occur. It’s just by coincidence that he is there when the murdering happened.

    P3 Petitio Principii

    Ex:
    “People Die when they are killed” –Fate Stay Night

    It is given that if you kill a person, he will obviously die. So this statement is only restating the conclusion as the premise.

    P4 Accident

    Ex:
    “ He is either a pervert or a moron…. why? Because he’s a high school boy” – Shuffle

    Being a boy does not mean that I can only be distinguished between those two.

    P5 Converse Accident

    Ex:
    “ They say ‘idiots don’t catch cold’, then you must be an idiot” – GTO

    The statement above shows how the speaker jumped to a broad generalization and presumed that he did not catch a cold because he is an idiot.

    A1 Equivocation

    Ex:
    “Kisame is a shark, and sharks are fish. Therefore Kisame is a fish… did you understand Itachi?” – Naruto Shippuuden Doujinshi

    This statement used same words with multiple meaning thus, creating a fallacy of equivocation. The first statement used to describe Kisame as a shark. But then in the second one sharks were described as fish, thus it concluded that Kisame is a fish.

    A2 Amphiboly

    Ex:
    “WHAT DOES THE FATE OF THE EARTH HAVE TO DO WITH THE FATE OF MY BALLS?!!.” – Elfen Lied

    The word balls can refer to other meanings except on that meaning that is stuck on your mind when your first read it. It is a conclusion that is not supported because of the wrong interpretation of the syntactical ambiguous statement.

    A3 Accent

    Ex:
    “I am disgusting” – Neon Genesis Evangelion

    The statement could mean that he is disgusting because he did something bad or he is disgusting because he is dirty and needs to clean himself up. There is a shift in meaning to this statement.

    D1 Slippery Slope

    Ex:
    “ If you kill someone in war, his friends and family will hate you. Then they will find a way to take revenge and kill you. And if you were killed, your friends and family will avenge your death. Thus, the cycle of hatred will never stop as long as there is war. Same is true in acquiring justice. There is a non-ending chain reaction and cycle. ” – Full Metal Alchemist

    This statement shows that if you kill someone you will be killed. But it does not really follow because accepting death differs from one person to another so the chain reaction in killing someone may have different conclusions.

    D3 Red Herring

    Ex:
    “ Do you know why the snow is white? … Because I forgot what color it was.” – Code Geass

    This statement shows how the conclusion missed the answer to why the snow is white. Is the snow white because we forgot what color it was?

    D5 False Dilemma

    Ex:
    “ Look, my hand’s a hook. I can only be a pirate or a coat-hanger now.” – Gintama

    This statement claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable, so we should choose the other. But in reality, there are more alternatives than what the two stated.

    A5 Division

    Ex:
    “Humans are weak beings, they start war just to show their power that’s what being weak is like. Therefore, you’re one of those weak beings because you’re human.” – Gundam 00

    The statement reasoned mistakenly from attributes of a whole to the person being spoken to. Its said that humans are weak and his conclusion I that he is weak because he is a human. But in truth, even if he is a human being, it doesn’t mean that he is weak.

    A4 Composition

    Ex:
    “All Shinsengumi members must be also good with swords” – Gintama

    The statement mistakenly attributed a part to a whole. Even if it is not clearly stated, the statement only refers to an individual to be good with swords but the person talking concluded that if he is good with a sword then all of his friends from Shinsengumi are also good at handling swords.

  42. The most amazing toy in 2011 with remote control – flying fish . A giant flying sharks and flying fish clown will delight your friends and children. These toys are very maneuvers and have a remote control .Accidents and collisions for the flying fish is not a problem , they just bounce off prepyadstviya , so they can use at home or office.
    buybesttoys . ru

  43. Heya i’m for the primary time here. I found this board and I to find It really helpful & it helped me out much. I am hoping to offer something back and help others like you aided me.

  44. Fantastic site. Plenty of helpful info here. I am sending it to a few friends ans additionally sharing in delicious. And certainly, thank you in your effort!

  45. Hi all, here every person is sharing these knowledge, so it’s pleasant to read this website, and I used to go to see this website all the time.

  46. With Craps, you may gamble as much as $10 every stage.
    For the reason that this seller seeing that more likely to destroy in the event he/she can be
    showing another credit card.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: