1. Morality and Authority

The Socratic Method of Philosophical Inquiry

1.  Read Plato’s dialogue “Euthyphro” at http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/euthyfro.html.

2.  Define the term “morality” by answering Euthyphro’s dilemma.

If you were Euthyphro, how would you have responded when Socrates inquired:

“Is an action morally good because God commands it,
or does God command it because it is morally good?”

3. Read Euthyphro’s Dilemma at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euthyphro_Dilemma

4. Read Divine Command Theory at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divine_command_theory.

“EUTHYPHRO”

by Plato

Written 380 B.C.E

Translated by Benjamin Jowett

Persons of the Dialogue
Socrates
Euthyphro

Scene
The Porch of the King Archon.

Euthyphro. Why have you left the Lyceum, Socrates? and what are you doing in the Porch of the King Archon? Surely you cannot be concerned in a suit before the King, like myself?

Socrates. Not in a suit, Euthyphro; impeachment is the word which the Athenians use.

Euth. What! I suppose that some one has been prosecuting you, for I cannot believe that you are the prosecutor of another.

Soc. Certainly not.

Euth. Then some one else has been prosecuting you?

Soc. Yes.

Euth. And who is he?

Soc. A young man who is little known, Euthyphro; and I hardly know him: his name is Meletus, and he is of the deme of Pitthis. Perhaps you may remember his appearance; he has a beak, and long straight hair, and a beard which is ill grown.

Euth. No, I do not remember him, Socrates. But what is the charge which he brings against you?

Soc. What is the charge? Well, a very serious charge, which shows a good deal of character in the young man, and for which he is certainly not to be despised. He says he knows how the youth are corrupted and who are their corruptors. I fancy that he must be a wise man, and seeing that I am the reverse of a wise man, he has found me out, and is going to accuse me of corrupting his young friends. And of this our mother the state is to be the judge. Of all our political men he is the only one who seems to me to begin in the right way, with the cultivation of virtue in youth; like a good husbandman, he makes the young shoots his first care, and clears away us who are the destroyers of them. This is only the first step; he will afterwards attend to the elder branches; and if he goes on as he has begun, he will be a very great public benefactor.

Euth. I hope that he may; but I rather fear, Socrates, that the opposite will turn out to be the truth. My opinion is that in attacking you he is simply aiming a blow at the foundation of the state. But in what way does he say that you corrupt the young?

Soc. He brings a wonderful accusation against me, which at first hearing excites surprise: he says that I am a poet or maker of gods, and that I invent new gods and deny the existence of old ones; this is the ground of his indictment.

Euth. I understand, Socrates; he means to attack you about the familiar sign which occasionally, as you say, comes to you. He thinks that you are a neologian, and he is going to have you up before the court for this. He knows that such a charge is readily received by the world, as I myself know too well; for when I speak in the assembly about divine things, and foretell the future to them, they laugh at me and think me a madman. Yet every word that I say is true. But they are jealous of us all; and we must be brave and go at them.

Soc. Their laughter, friend Euthyphro, is not a matter of much consequence. For a man may be thought wise; but the Athenians, I suspect, do not much trouble themselves about him until he begins to impart his wisdom to others, and then for some reason or other, perhaps, as you say, from jealousy, they are angry.

Euth. I am never likely to try their temper in this way.

Soc. I dare say not, for you are reserved in your behaviour, and seldom impart your wisdom. But I have a benevolent habit of pouring out myself to everybody, and would even pay for a listener, and I am afraid that the Athenians may think me too talkative. Now if, as I was saying, they would only laugh at me, as you say that they laugh at you, the time might pass gaily enough in the court; but perhaps they may be in earnest, and then what the end will be you soothsayers only can predict.

Euth. I dare say that the affair will end in nothing, Socrates, and that you will win your cause; and I think that I shall win my own.

Soc. And what is your suit, Euthyphro? are you the pursuer or the defendant?

Euth. I am the pursuer.

Soc. Of whom?

Euth. You will think me mad when I tell you.

Soc. Why, has the fugitive wings?

Euth. Nay, he is not very volatile at his time of life.

Soc. Who is he?

Euth. My father.

Soc. Your father! my good man?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And of what is he accused?

Euth. Of murder, Socrates.

Soc. By the powers, Euthyphro! how little does the common herd know of the nature of right and truth. A man must be an extraordinary man, and have made great strides in wisdom, before he could have seen his way to bring such an action.

Euth. Indeed, Socrates, he must.

Soc. I suppose that the man whom your father murdered was one of your relatives-clearly he was; for if he had been a stranger you would never have thought of prosecuting him.

Euth. I am amused, Socrates, at your making a distinction between one who is a relation and one who is not a relation; for surely the pollution is the same in either case, if you knowingly associate with the murderer when you ought to clear yourself and him by proceeding against him. The real question is whether the murdered man has been justly slain. If justly, then your duty is to let the matter alone; but if unjustly, then even if the murderer lives under the same roof with you and eats at the same table, proceed against him. Now the man who is dead was a poor dependent of mine who worked for us as a field labourer on our farm in Naxos, and one day in a fit of drunken passion he got into a quarrel with one of our domestic servants and slew him. My father bound him hand and foot and threw him into a ditch, and then sent to Athens to ask of a diviner what he should do with him. Meanwhile he never attended to him and took no care about him, for he regarded him as a murderer; and thought that no great harm would be done even if he did die. Now this was just what happened. For such was the effect of cold and hunger and chains upon him, that before the messenger returned from the diviner, he was dead. And my father and family are angry with me for taking the part of the murderer and prosecuting my father. They say that he did not kill him, and that if he did, dead man was but a murderer, and I ought not to take any notice, for that a son is impious who prosecutes a father. Which shows, Socrates, how little they know what the gods think about piety and impiety.

Soc. Good heavens, Euthyphro! and is your knowledge of religion and of things pious and impious so very exact, that, supposing the circumstances to be as you state them, you are not afraid lest you too may be doing an impious thing in bringing an action against your father?

Euth. The best of Euthyphro, and that which distinguishes him, Socrates, from other men, is his exact knowledge of all such matters. What should I be good for without it?

Soc. Rare friend! I think that I cannot do better than be your disciple. Then before the trial with Meletus comes on I shall challenge him, and say that I have always had a great interest in religious questions, and now, as he charges me with rash imaginations and innovations in religion, I have become your disciple. You, Meletus, as I shall say to him, acknowledge Euthyphro to be a great theologian, and sound in his opinions; and if you approve of him you ought to approve of me, and not have me into court; but if you disapprove, you should begin by indicting him who is my teacher, and who will be the ruin, not of the young, but of the old; that is to say, of myself whom he instructs, and of his old father whom he admonishes and chastises. And if Meletus refuses to listen to me, but will go on, and will not shift the indictment from me to you, I cannot do better than repeat this challenge in the court.

Euth. Yes, indeed, Socrates; and if he attempts to indict me I am mistaken if I do not find a flaw in him; the court shall have a great deal more to say to him than to me.

Soc. And I, my dear friend, knowing this, am desirous of becoming your disciple. For I observe that no one appears to notice you- not even this Meletus; but his sharp eyes have found me out at once, and he has indicted me for impiety. And therefore, I adjure you to tell me the nature of piety and impiety, which you said that you knew so well, and of murder, and of other offences against the gods. What are they? Is not piety in every action always the same? and impiety, again- is it not always the opposite of piety, and also the same with itself, having, as impiety, one notion which includes whatever is impious?

Euth. To be sure, Socrates.

Soc. And what is piety, and what is impiety?

Euth. Piety is doing as I am doing; that is to say, prosecuting any one who is guilty of murder, sacrilege, or of any similar crime-whether he be your father or mother, or whoever he may be-that makes no difference; and not to prosecute them is impiety. And please to consider, Socrates, what a notable proof I will give you of the truth of my words, a proof which I have already given to others:-of the principle, I mean, that the impious, whoever he may be, ought not to go unpunished. For do not men regard Zeus as the best and most righteous of the gods?-and yet they admit that he bound his father (Cronos) because he wickedly devoured his sons, and that he too had punished his own father (Uranus) for a similar reason, in a nameless manner. And yet when I proceed against my father, they are angry with me. So inconsistent are they in their way of talking when the gods are concerned, and when I am concerned.

Soc. May not this be the reason, Euthyphro, why I am charged with impiety-that I cannot away with these stories about the gods? and therefore I suppose that people think me wrong. But, as you who are well informed about them approve of them, I cannot do better than assent to your superior wisdom. What else can I say, confessing as I do, that I know nothing about them? Tell me, for the love of Zeus, whether you really believe that they are true.

Euth. Yes, Socrates; and things more wonderful still, of which the world is in ignorance.

Soc. And do you really believe that the gods, fought with one another, and had dire quarrels, battles, and the like, as the poets say, and as you may see represented in the works of great artists? The temples are full of them; and notably the robe of Athene, which is carried up to the Acropolis at the great Panathenaea, is embroidered with them. Are all these tales of the gods true, Euthyphro?

Euth. Yes, Socrates; and, as I was saying, I can tell you, if you would like to hear them, many other things about the gods which would quite amaze you.

Soc. I dare say; and you shall tell me them at some other time when I have leisure. But just at present I would rather hear from you a more precise answer, which you have not as yet given, my friend, to the question, What is “piety”? When asked, you only replied, Doing as you do, charging your father with murder.

Euth. And what I said was true, Socrates.

Soc. No doubt, Euthyphro; but you would admit that there are many other pious acts?

Euth. There are.

Soc. Remember that I did not ask you to give me two or three examples of piety, but to explain the general idea which makes all pious things to be pious. Do you not recollect that there was one idea which made the impious impious, and the pious pious?

Euth. I remember.

Soc. Tell me what is the nature of this idea, and then I shall have a standard to which I may look, and by which I may measure actions, whether yours or those of any one else, and then I shall be able to say that such and such an action is pious, such another impious.

Euth. I will tell you, if you like.

Soc. I should very much like.

Euth. Piety, then, is that which is dear to the gods, and impiety is that which is not dear to them.

Soc. Very good, Euthyphro; you have now given me the sort of answer which I wanted. But whether what you say is true or not I cannot as yet tell, although I make no doubt that you will prove the truth of your words.

Euth. Of course.

Soc. Come, then, and let us examine what we are saying. That thing or person which is dear to the gods is pious, and that thing or person which is hateful to the gods is impious, these two being the extreme opposites of one another. Was not that said?

Euth. It was.

Soc. And well said?

Euth. Yes, Socrates, I thought so; it was certainly said.

Soc. And further, Euthyphro, the gods were admitted to have enmities and hatreds and differences?

Euth. Yes, that was also said.

Soc. And what sort of difference creates enmity and anger? Suppose for example that you and I, my good friend, differ about a number; do differences of this sort make us enemies and set us at variance with one another? Do we not go at once to arithmetic, and put an end to them by a sum?

Euth. True.

Soc. Or suppose that we differ about magnitudes, do we not quickly end the differences by measuring?

Euth. Very true.

Soc. And we end a controversy about heavy and light by resorting to a weighing machine?

Euth. To be sure.

Soc. But what differences are there which cannot be thus decided, and which therefore make us angry and set us at enmity with one another? I dare say the answer does not occur to you at the moment, and therefore I will suggest that these enmities arise when the matters of difference are the just and unjust, good and evil, honourable and dishonourable. Are not these the points about which men differ, and about which when we are unable satisfactorily to decide our differences, you and I and all of us quarrel, when we do quarrel?

Euth. Yes, Socrates, the nature of the differences about which we quarrel is such as you describe.

Soc. And the quarrels of the gods, noble Euthyphro, when they occur, are of a like nature?

Euth. Certainly they are.

Soc. They have differences of opinion, as you say, about good and evil, just and unjust, honourable and dishonourable: there would have been no quarrels among them, if there had been no such differences-would there now?

Euth. You are quite right.

Soc. Does not every man love that which he deems noble and just and good, and hate the opposite of them?

Euth. Very true.

Soc. But, as you say, people regard the same things, some as just and others as unjust,-about these they dispute; and so there arise wars and fightings among them.

Euth. Very true.

Soc. Then the same things are hated by the gods and loved by the gods, and are both hateful and dear to them?

Euth. True.

Soc. And upon this view the same things, Euthyphro, will be pious and also impious?

Euth. So I should suppose.

Soc. Then, my friend, I remark with surprise that you have not answered the question which I asked. For I certainly did not ask you to tell me what action is both pious and impious: but now it would seem that what is loved by the gods is also hated by them. And therefore, Euthyphro, in thus chastising your father you may very likely be doing what is agreeable to Zeus but disagreeable to Cronos or Uranus, and what is acceptable to Hephaestus but unacceptable to Here, and there may be other gods who have similar differences of opinion.

Euth. But I believe, Socrates, that all the gods would be agreed as to the propriety of punishing a murderer: there would be no difference of opinion about that.

Soc. Well, but speaking of men, Euthyphro, did you ever hear any one arguing that a murderer or any sort of evil-doer ought to be let off?

Euth. I should rather say that these are the questions which they are always arguing, especially in courts of law: they commit all sorts of crimes, and there is nothing which they will not do or say in their own defence.

Soc. But do they admit their guilt, Euthyphro, and yet say that they ought not to be punished?

Euth. No; they do not.

Soc. Then there are some things which they do not venture to say and do: for they do not venture to argue that the guilty are to be unpunished, but they deny their guilt, do they not?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Then they do not argue that the evil-doer should not be punished, but they argue about the fact of who the evil-doer is, and what he did and when?

Euth. True.

Soc. And the gods are in the same case, if as you assert they quarrel about just and unjust, and some of them say while others deny that injustice is done among them. For surely neither God nor man will ever venture to say that the doer of injustice is not to be punished?

Euth. That is true, Socrates, in the main.

Soc. But they join issue about the particulars-gods and men alike; and, if they dispute at all, they dispute about some act which is called in question, and which by some is affirmed to be just, by others to be unjust. Is not that true?

Euth. Quite true.

Soc. Well then, my dear friend Euthyphro, do tell me, for my better instruction and information, what proof have you that in the opinion of all the gods a servant who is guilty of murder, and is put in chains by the master of the dead man, and dies because he is put in chains before he who bound him can learn from the interpreters of the gods what he ought to do with him, dies unjustly; and that on behalf of such an one a son ought to proceed against his father and accuse him of murder. How would you show that all the gods absolutely agree in approving of his act? Prove to me that they do, and I will applaud your wisdom as long as I live.

Euth. It will be a difficult task; but I could make the matter very dear indeed to you.

Soc. I understand; you mean to say that I am not so quick of apprehension as the judges: for to them you will be sure to prove that the act is unjust, and hateful to the gods.

Euth. Yes indeed, Socrates; at least if they will listen to me.

Soc. But they will be sure to listen if they find that you are a good speaker. There was a notion that came into my mind while you were speaking; I said to myself: “Well, and what if Euthyphro does prove to me that all the gods regarded the death of the serf as unjust, how do I know anything more of the nature of piety and impiety? for granting that this action may be hateful to the gods, still piety and impiety are not adequately defined by these distinctions, for that which is hateful to the gods has been shown to be also pleasing and dear to them.” And therefore, Euthyphro, I do not ask you to prove this; I will suppose, if you like, that all the gods condemn and abominate such an action. But I will amend the definition so far as to say that what all the gods hate is impious, and what they love pious or holy; and what some of them love and others hate is both or neither. Shall this be our definition of piety and impiety?

Euth. Why not, Socrates?

Soc. Why not! certainly, as far as I am concerned, Euthyphro, there is no reason why not. But whether this admission will greatly assist you in the task of instructing me as you promised, is a matter for you to consider.

Euth. Yes, I should say that what all the gods love is pious and holy, and the opposite which they all hate, impious.

Soc. Ought we to enquire into the truth of this, Euthyphro, or simply to accept the mere statement on our own authority and that of others? What do you say?

Euth. We should enquire; and I believe that the statement will stand the test of enquiry.

Soc. We shall know better, my good friend, in a little while. The point which I should first wish to understand is whether the pious or holy is beloved by the gods because it is holy, or holy because it is beloved of the gods.

Euth. I do not understand your meaning, Socrates.

Soc. I will endeavour to explain: we, speak of carrying and we speak of being carried, of leading and being led, seeing and being seen. You know that in all such cases there is a difference, and you know also in what the difference lies?

Euth. I think that I understand.

Soc. And is not that which is beloved distinct from that which loves?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. Well; and now tell me, is that which is carried in this state of carrying because it is carried, or for some other reason?

Euth. No; that is the reason.

Soc. And the same is true of what is led and of what is seen?

Euth. True.

Soc. And a thing is not seen because it is visible, but conversely, visible because it is seen; nor is a thing led because it is in the state of being led, or carried because it is in the state of being carried, but the converse of this. And now I think, Euthyphro, that my meaning will be intelligible; and my meaning is, that any state of action or passion implies previous action or passion. It does not become because it is becoming, but it is in a state of becoming because it becomes; neither does it suffer because it is in a state of suffering, but it is in a state of suffering because it suffers. Do you not agree?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Is not that which is loved in some state either of becoming or suffering?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And the same holds as in the previous instances; the state of being loved follows the act of being loved, and not the act the state.

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. And what do you say of piety, Euthyphro: is not piety, according to your definition, loved by all the gods?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Because it is pious or holy, or for some other reason?

Euth. No, that is the reason.

Soc. It is loved because it is holy, not holy because it is loved?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And that which is dear to the gods is loved by them, and is in a state to be loved of them because it is loved of them?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. Then that which is dear to the gods, Euthyphro, is not holy, nor is that which is holy loved of God, as you affirm; but they are two different things.

Euth. How do you mean, Socrates?

Soc. I mean to say that the holy has been acknowledge by us to be loved of God because it is holy, not to be holy because it is loved.

Euth. Yes.

Soc. But that which is dear to the gods is dear to them because it is loved by them, not loved by them because it is dear to them.

Euth. True.

Soc. But, friend Euthyphro, if that which is holy is the same with that which is dear to God, and is loved because it is holy, then that which is dear to God would have been loved as being dear to God; but if that which dear to God is dear to him because loved by him, then that which is holy would have been holy because loved by him. But now you see that the reverse is the case, and that they are quite different from one another. For one (theophiles) is of a kind to be loved cause it is loved, and the other (osion) is loved because it is of a kind to be loved. Thus you appear to me, Euthyphro, when I ask you what is the essence of holiness, to offer an attribute only, and not the essence-the attribute of being loved by all the gods. But you still refuse to explain to me the nature of holiness. And therefore, if you please, I will ask you not to hide your treasure, but to tell me once more what holiness or piety really is, whether dear to the gods or not (for that is a matter about which we will not quarrel) and what is impiety?

Euth. I really do not know, Socrates, how to express what I mean. For somehow or other our arguments, on whatever ground we rest them, seem to turn round and walk away from us.

Soc. Your words, Euthyphro, are like the handiwork of my ancestor Daedalus; and if I were the sayer or propounder of them, you might say that my arguments walk away and will not remain fixed where they are placed because I am a descendant of his. But now, since these notions are your own, you must find some other gibe, for they certainly, as you yourself allow, show an inclination to be on the move.

Euth. Nay, Socrates, I shall still say that you are the Daedalus who sets arguments in motion; not I, certainly, but you make them move or go round, for they would never have stirred, as far as I am concerned.

Soc. Then I must be a greater than Daedalus: for whereas he only made his own inventions to move, I move those of other people as well. And the beauty of it is, that I would rather not. For I would give the wisdom of Daedalus, and the wealth of Tantalus, to be able to detain them and keep them fixed. But enough of this. As I perceive that you are lazy, I will myself endeavor to show you how you might instruct me in the nature of piety; and I hope that you will not grudge your labour. Tell me, then-Is not that which is pious necessarily just?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And is, then, all which is just pious? or, is that which is pious all just, but that which is just, only in part and not all, pious?

Euth. I do not understand you, Socrates.

Soc. And yet I know that you are as much wiser than I am, as you are younger. But, as I was saying, revered friend, the abundance of your wisdom makes you lazy. Please to exert yourself, for there is no real difficulty in understanding me. What I mean I may explain by an illustration of what I do not mean. The poet (Stasinus) sings-

Of Zeus, the author and creator of all these things,
You will not tell: for where there is fear there is also
reverence. Now I disagree with this poet. Shall I tell you in what respect?

Euth. By all means.

Soc. I should not say that where there is fear there is also reverence; for I am sure that many persons fear poverty and disease, and the like evils, but I do not perceive that they reverence the objects of their fear.

Euth. Very true.

Soc. But where reverence is, there is fear; for he who has a feeling of reverence and shame about the commission of any action, fears and is afraid of an ill reputation.

Euth. No doubt.

Soc. Then we are wrong in saying that where there is fear there is also reverence; and we should say, where there is reverence there is also fear. But there is not always reverence where there is fear; for fear is a more extended notion, and reverence is a part of fear, just as the odd is a part of number, and number is a more extended notion than the odd. I suppose that you follow me now?

Euth. Quite well.

Soc. That was the sort of question which I meant to raise when I asked whether the just is always the pious, or the pious always the just; and whether there may not be justice where there is not piety; for justice is the more extended notion of which piety is only a part. Do you dissent?

Euth. No, I think that you are quite right.

Soc. Then, if piety is a part of justice, I suppose that we should enquire what part? If you had pursued the enquiry in the previous cases; for instance, if you had asked me what is an even number, and what part of number the even is, I should have had no difficulty in replying, a number which represents a figure having two equal sides. Do you not agree?

Euth. Yes, I quite agree.

Soc. In like manner, I want you to tell me what part of justice is piety or holiness, that I may be able to tell Meletus not to do me injustice, or indict me for impiety, as I am now adequately instructed by you in the nature of piety or holiness, and their opposites.

Euth. Piety or holiness, Socrates, appears to me to be that part of justice which attends to the gods, as there is the other part of justice which attends to men.

Soc. That is good, Euthyphro; yet still there is a little point about which I should like to have further information, What is the meaning of “attention”? For attention can hardly be used in the same sense when applied to the gods as when applied to other things. For instance, horses are said to require attention, and not every person is able to attend to them, but only a person skilled in horsemanship. Is it not so?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. I should suppose that the art of horsemanship is the art of attending to horses?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Nor is every one qualified to attend to dogs, but only the huntsman?

Euth. True.

Soc. And I should also conceive that the art of the huntsman is the art of attending to dogs?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. As the art of the ox herd is the art of attending to oxen?

Euth. Very true.

Soc. In like manner holiness or piety is the art of attending to the gods?-that would be your meaning, Euthyphro?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And is not attention always designed for the good or benefit of that to which the attention is given? As in the case of horses, you may observe that when attended to by the horseman’s art they are benefited and improved, are they not?

Euth. True.

Soc. As the dogs are benefited by the huntsman’s art, and the oxen by the art of the ox herd, and all other things are tended or attended for their good and not for their hurt?

Euth. Certainly, not for their hurt.

Soc. But for their good?

Euth. Of course.

Soc. And does piety or holiness, which has been defined to be the art of attending to the gods, benefit or improve them? Would you say that when you do a holy act you make any of the gods better?

Euth. No, no; that was certainly not what I meant.

Soc. And I, Euthyphro, never supposed that you did. I asked you the question about the nature of the attention, because I thought that you did not.

Euth. You do me justice, Socrates; that is not the sort of attention which I mean.

Soc. Good: but I must still ask what is this attention to the gods which is called piety?

Euth. It is such, Socrates, as servants show to their masters.

Soc. I understand-a sort of ministration to the gods.

Euth. Exactly.

Soc. Medicine is also a sort of ministration or service, having in view the attainment of some object-would you not say of health?

Euth. I should.

Soc. Again, there is an art which ministers to the ship-builder with a view to the attainment of some result?

Euth. Yes, Socrates, with a view to the building of a ship.

Soc. As there is an art which ministers to the housebuilder with a view to the building of a house?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And now tell me, my good friend, about the art which ministers to the gods: what work does that help to accomplish? For you must surely know if, as you say, you are of all men living the one who is best instructed in religion.

Euth. And I speak the truth, Socrates.

Soc. Tell me then, oh tell me-what is that fair work which the gods do by the help of our ministrations?

Euth. Many and fair, Socrates, are the works which they do. Soc. Why, my friend, and so are those of a general. But the chief of them is easily told. Would you not say that victory in war is the chief of them?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. Many and fair, too, are the works of the husbandman, if I am not mistaken; but his chief work is the production of food from the earth?

Euth. Exactly.

Soc. And of the many and fair things done by the gods, which is the chief or principal one?

Euth. I have told you already, Socrates, that to learn all these things accurately will be very tiresome. Let me simply say that piety or holiness is learning, how to please the gods in word and deed, by prayers and sacrifices. Such piety, is the salvation of families and states, just as the impious, which is unpleasing to the gods, is their ruin and destruction.

Soc. I think that you could have answered in much fewer words the chief question which I asked, Euthyphro, if you had chosen. But I see plainly that you are not disposed to instruct me-dearly not: else why, when we reached the point, did you turn, aside? Had you only answered me I should have truly learned of you by this time the-nature of piety. Now, as the asker of a question is necessarily dependent on the answerer, whither he leads-I must follow; and can only ask again, what is the pious, and what is piety? Do you mean that they are a, sort of science of praying and sacrificing?

Euth. Yes, I do.

Soc. And sacrificing is giving to the gods, and prayer is asking of the gods?

Euth. Yes, Socrates.

Soc. Upon this view, then piety is a science of asking and giving?

Euth. You understand me capitally, Socrates.

Soc. Yes, my friend; the. reason is that I am a votary of your science, and give my mind to it, and therefore nothing which you say will be thrown away upon me. Please then to tell me, what is the nature of this service to the gods? Do you mean that we prefer requests and give gifts to them?

Euth. Yes, I do.

Soc. Is not the right way of asking to ask of them what we want?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. And the right way of giving is to give to them in return what they want of us. There would be no, in an art which gives to any one that which he does not want.

Euth. Very true, Socrates.

Soc. Then piety, Euthyphro, is an art which gods and men have of doing business with one another?

Euth. That is an expression which you may use, if you like.

Soc. But I have no particular liking for anything but the truth. I wish, however, that you would tell me what benefit accrues to the gods from our gifts. There is no doubt about what they give to us; for there is no good thing which they do not give; but how we can give any good thing to them in return is far from being equally clear. If they give everything and we give nothing, that must be an affair of business in which we have very greatly the advantage of them.

Euth. And do you imagine, Socrates, that any benefit accrues to the gods from our gifts?

Soc. But if not, Euthyphro, what is the meaning of gifts which are conferred by us upon the gods?

Euth. What else, but tributes of honour; and, as I was just now saying, what pleases them?

Soc. Piety, then, is pleasing to the gods, but not beneficial or dear to them?

Euth. I should say that nothing could be dearer.

Soc. Then once more the assertion is repeated that piety is dear to the gods?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. And when you say this, can you wonder at your words not standing firm, but walking away? Will you accuse me of being the Daedalus who makes them walk away, not perceiving that there is another and far greater artist than Daedalus who makes them go round in a circle, and he is yourself; for the argument, as you will perceive, comes round to the same point. Were we not saying that the holy or pious was not the same with that which is loved of the gods? Have you forgotten?

Euth. I quite remember.

Soc. And are you not saying that what is loved of the gods is holy; and is not this the same as what is dear to them-do you see?

Euth. True.

Soc. Then either we were wrong in former assertion; or, if we were right then, we are wrong now.

Euth. One of the two must be true.

Soc. Then we must begin again and ask, What is piety? That is an enquiry which I shall never be weary of pursuing as far as in me lies; and I entreat you not to scorn me, but to apply your mind to the utmost, and tell me the truth. For, if any man knows, you are he; and therefore I must detain you, like Proteus, until you tell. If you had not certainly known the nature of piety and impiety, I am confident that you would never, on behalf of a serf, have charged your aged father with murder. You would not have run such a risk of doing wrong in the sight of the gods, and you would have had too much respect for the opinions of men. I am sure, therefore, that you know the nature of piety and impiety. Speak out then, my dear Euthyphro, and do not hide your knowledge.

Euth. Another time, Socrates; for I am in a hurry, and must go now.

Soc. Alas! my companion, and will you leave me in despair? I was hoping that you would instruct me in the nature of piety and impiety; and then I might have cleared myself of Meletus and his indictment. I would have told him that I had been enlightened by Euthyphro, and had given up rash innovations and speculations, in which I indulged only through ignorance, and that now I am about to lead a better life.

THE END

50 Responses

  1. God commands actions because it is morally good not because it is morally good for him.

    Morality is the principles that govern our behavior. It is important in our daily lives. In today’s world, morality is frequently thought of as belonging to a particular religious point of view, but by definition, we see that this is not the case. Everyone adheres to a moral doctrine of some kind.

    Something is moral not because God loves it but because it is morally good. It is us people that judge whether a certain thing is moral or not. At times, we judge things by how we see it not how God sees it. We are situated in the world that’s why we have different points of view. God will love us or the things we do because it is moral for him not because it is moral for the people around us.

    An action is morally good because God commands it. God is the creator of all things. He knows what the good things are good for us. Everything He commands is right and just. The perfect example for this is the Ten Commandments.

  2. God commands an action because it is morally good.

    Morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong, morals are define and created by the society, philosophy, religion or individual conscience. It also refers to an ideal code of conduct, one which would be espoused in preference to alternatives by all rational people, under specified conditions.

    An action is not morally good because it is commanded by God, but an action is commanded by God because it is morally good. An action is morally good for us because we know since the time we open our minds that it is morally good. It is morally good because the church teaches us those actions which are morally good and which were not morally good. The church teaches us things which are morally good.

    An action is morally good because it is commanded by God. We all know that God knows what is good for us, which means something is morally good because God commands it. It is then right and justifiable to do an action which is commanded by God because it is morally good.

  3. Morality are matters or rules given by a higher authority. But it doesn’t mean that the rules given by the higher authority are always right. It is our choice if we want to follow the rules or not. Because we are human being. We have the freedom to choice what we want to do or believe in.

    For example, the question “Is there a God?” what if the truth is there is no God, but the public told you that the people from higher authority say that there is God so they choice to believe in it because for them it makes sence just because it is what the higher authority said. But does living in a lie make sence to you? Or living in the truth even that it will cause some disorders?

    It is more important for me that I live in the truth instead of living a lie. Other people should choice their own choice because I believe life is all about making choices while we are situated in this world.

    What Socrates inquired about “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?” For me I’m more agree on the second choice. Becuse God is a higher authority but it doesn’t mean that what God says will always be right. Like we all know killing is not right but why did God use a flood to kill all people except the family of Noah? God commanded the flood to happen and kill the people in order to kill the sinners.So there will be less sinners which is for the moral good.

  4. God commanded it because it is morally good. Morality is being right. What is good is not always right. It is moral if it does not violate the rights of others.
    An action may be good because God commanded it. It may be “God” is the definition of goodness itself. But it also may depends whether you believe God or not and how and why you believe.

  5. God’s commands can be moraly good for us or God’s commands can be morally good for the church or Him.

    Morality can mean the decision that we make in our everyday life.Morality can also means that we can distinguish from good to bad and from right to wrong.

    God commands it because it is morally good but we can chose if we want to follow God’s order or not.If the command of God is from Him
    , Himself then maybe the command is morally good for mankind.God’s command can be leading us to our destiny that God set for us.

    It is morally good because God’s commands it or the church is telling us that these are the words of God , for the sake of the church so that people believe that these are the words from God.if God’s command is morally good then why did God send a flood to kill the corrupted people in that time.God’s command is morally good because it protect us from committing sins or it can be to protect the hidden truths about the church.

  6. Action is morally good because God commands it.

    Our action depends on what we know about moral values that Christ told us, As a Christian we know in the creation it is a sin to kill just like Cain did to Abel, so God knows what is right, is to exile Cain. Therefore God gives us the Prophets, Christ and his word, for us to differentiate what is evil from good. Another thing, there is the Church which is still doing its responsibility to keep the people from track to be good, not to evil. Thus God created us, and we follow his rules for living in this Earth.

    So God command it because it is morally good? is wrong, cause God knows what is right

    SO THOSE WHO WILL REPLY NEXT DON”T PICK THEIR IDEAS its so wrong.

  7. morality is a normative sense,iat means it is a decision,it is found within a person not on a person itself thus morality is based on the doer.

    an action is morally good because God commands it or God commands it because it is morally good

    action commanded by God is morally good;however,the action at risk is depending on the doer himself,God placed some ground rules that we must follow and they are all based on how we can be good,but when we violate the rules an action can be turned upside down.

    God shows us what is good,he tells us what to do,this are sited by church and they continue to show these ground rules given by God.

  8. Actions are morally good if we see it is.

    God gave us free will to help us choose what is right from what is wrong.If God tells you to kill will you do it? even if its against his own commandments?.All people are situated differently in the world so if I see one thing is wrong other people may see it right.Not all things that are wrong is bad,if it is done for a good reason.We have been given free will for us to choose the right choices or what is good from what is evil.

    So actions are morally good if that is what we see in our own point of views.

  9. The first statement “The pious is loved by the gods because it is pious”, implements that there isa an independent basis on morality of acts that even the gods recognize. The basis could be the human’s sense of good/evil and right/wrong or something that the authorities have agreed upon on like the church. But contrary to that, why would the gods listen or follow to someone who is much of a lower kind of being compared to them and what could be that independent basis of morality?

    The second statement “It is pious because it is loved by the gods” implements that gods have the absolute power of disctating what is right and what is wrong. It is like God as projection of man’s fears and desires. On the negative side, the gods can tell or command whatever they want and we should obey their orders because it is willed by the gods therefore it is the right thing to do. In Abraham’s dilemma, God ordered him to kill his firstborn as a sign of devotion to him. As a follower of the Lord, every order must be executed but as a loving father, it us very unethical for the son to be killed by the very hands of his own father for a reason that not justifiable. The order is categorized as holy because it is something willed by the gods. Could gods exercise such tyranny to its followers?

    In analyzing the dilemma, we could come up with opinions from the different time eras, on Socrates’ time and the present time which could be based on the Christian faith.

    In Socrates’ time, it is the people that pleases the gods and never the gods that please the people. In ancient mythology, Greek gods were most likely humans in way of thinking. They’re also vulnerable from thoughts of earthly desires. They demand sacrifices from men such as crops, animals or even life just to please them. In those times, the gods’ image were mostly fear, anger and total command among humans.

    As a Christian believer, God is the supreme being that is all knowing and the absolute good. He created us to be his followers and that’s what we should do. God as our loving father, he would not want us to be misled.

  10. An action becomes morally good when we perceive that what God says is morally good, but we cannot always agree that what we see as morally good is always morally good to others because we see life in a different perspective.

    Morality is the notion of each person in what is good in the world and what is evil. But it differs when speaking about the different situations we are in, because we are situated in the world we see things as well as morality in a different light. As a Catholic Christian I perceive things morally good as instructed by Jesus Christ, and the teachings that he left us with His promise of salvation.

    Something is moral because God commands it. His higher authority overwhelms us of His wisdom of what is moral and what is immoral.We know through His teachings that he has given us his wisdom for us to become closer to Him, to know right from wrong. Some say that there is an absolute moral act that must be followed, but how are we to judge that when all of us as human beings imperfect as we are say that when we have different points of view in what is moral.

    God commands it because its morally good. God has the higher wisdom of what is to be morally good or not since he is our creator and our heavenly Father, He would not want His sons and daughters to be distraught in the wrong doings of sin.

  11. God commanded actions because it is morally good.

    We could say that moral is always the right thing to do.Good that you treat a human being as a person and not a thing.

    I have my own mind which will tell me which is right.If others will control you, do you think do you have your rights?Even if there is no God,you should do the right one.

    If it was God, then it will never be wrong because God himself is perfect.In our case,authority seems to be God.Authority makes actions which will not benefit for everyone but for their own means.It violates
    me and you.

  12. Morality is independent. It does not require the approval of the Gods/authorities.

    “Is it loved by the Gods for it is moral? Or is it moral because it is loved by the Gods?” Morality is not a term used when we pleased the Gods. It is moral for it is right and just. We, as humans, are given a gift of ‘free will’ for us to choose our own destiny towards right and wrong. Actions are classified as right once it treats other people as fellow humans, not as things. And here is where morality will take its place. Being moral means that our actions are the right thing to do and its outcome is also good in the perception of the most in the crowd. We cannot say that morality is dependent to the Gods especially in the scenario when Abraham was told to kill his first born as an offering to God. Can we say that murder is moral?

    As Catholics, we all have faith in God. If it is true that God loves morality because it is moral, how can we explain our belief on the Ten Commandments of God in which, as Catholics, is our criterion for being moral?

  13. In my own perspective, the statement above CAN be either true or not. It only depends on someone else’s faith or on what they believe. When we say moral, we mean doing what is right… and doing what is right is by not violating the rights of other people. A certain action may be good because God says so. Although, generally, the answer lies on what you believe. Your conscience itself will reveal what is wrong and what is right.

    As a Catholic Christian, I believe an action is morally good because God commands it. He is our creator and set up the 10 commandments to guide us in distinguishing what is right and wrong for us. For example: if he asks us to kill, just like what He has told to Abraham, we must obey it even if it’s wrong. Why? If we can follow the 10 commandments, how could we not accept a direct order from Him? But of course, basically, God’s purpose for ordering such is to test our faith and not to mislead us. We, without hesitate, will and must do what He asks us to do, because we believe that He will not let us do something that will lead us in a wrong path. 🙂

  14. – An action is morally good because God commands it.*

    In my own perspective, the statement above CAN be either true or not. It only depends on someone else’s faith or on what they believe. When we say moral, we mean doing what is right… and doing what is right is by not violating the rights of other people. A certain action may be good because God says so. Although, generally, the answer lies on what you believe. Your conscience itself will reveal what is wrong and what is right.

    As a Catholic Christian, I believe an action is morally good because God commands it. He is our creator and set up the 10 commandments to guide us in distinguishing what is right and wrong for us. For example: if he asks us to kill, just like what He has told to Abraham, we must obey it even if it’s wrong. Why? If we can follow the 10 commandments, how could we not accept a direct order from Him? But of course, basically, God’s purpose for ordering such is to test our faith and not to mislead us. We, without hesitate, will and must do what He asks us to do, because we believe that He will not let us do something that will lead us in a wrong path. 🙂

    -(edited)-
    sir, nakalimutan ko i-add yung (*) part. xD

  15. “God is good all the time”, if you believe in this saying, you will know everything that He says and commands is no wonder morally good.

    Morality often goes along with religion and society. As a human being who believes in God, our actions are based on what is moral and what is not in the eyes of God. The society also affects our action. Based in the story, the character is torn between what is moral, his loyalty to his family and his obligations to prosecute the one who did wrong.

    As individuals who are situated in this world, we have different perspectives. It only depends on how we look at every points. For instance, we may find a glass is half empty, but others may find it half full.

    What is our basis to say if the action is morally good or not? Does it exist before we knew about it? As catholics, we believe that God is “alpha and omega” or the first and the last. From him and our thoughts as well, He know the things before it came to life. God is there before the things done morally came to realize.

  16. In my judgment, I feel that morality is a separate and independent entity from authority and thus, the morality of an action, is therefore not reliant on God.

    By definition, morality is the set of rules and standards; more specifically, it is a system of ideas of right and wrong conduct.

    It is a given that every person, sentient and rational as he is, has his own intrinsic value and can judge and decide for himself. If an authority is using or in this case, God, implements a morality ideal for himself, then that is just simply using another person for his own end which in a sense, can be good for him (and a bit too subjective), but not really right because of the violation of that person’s capability to set his own end.

    On the other hand, since God created everything, he must’ve also set this morality which we know of. Without him, there wouldn’t be any meaning for all of this. In addition, since God is omniscient and all-good, he wouldn’t really command something which virtually wrong in our morality today.

    Vann John Tria
    1CS-5

  17. Moral is a human value that which we are obliged to obey freely and responsibly what is right and wrong to us and to others. It doesn’t mean that we are not free if we are morally obliged. It is still left on us to do what is right. In other words, every person has a choice or free will to do what is the right thing.

    On the question, “Is something moral because the gods love it or the gods love it because it is moral?” In the first sentence, it tells that it is moral because the gods love it. So, it is dependent on the moral thing. While on the second sentence, it tells that the gods love it because it is moral. So, it is independent. It could have some problems: First, it show that it is just loved by gods without the reason. For example, “Kill your sibling.” The gods commanded you to kill your sibling without telling you the reason why they want to kill your sibling. Second, some people commanded by gods did not think why the gods want to kill that person. They just depend on what the gods said to them because they are scared to break the rules of gods. For them the gods are powerful.

    By examining this, for me, it is the best thing to prefer on the first sentence because it dependent on the moral thing. It still depends on our decision.

    thank you!!! god bless!!

  18. God created us. Why would he create something so beautiful just to hate it. God does not hate. He loves all.

    Morality is something He created so that all things would be in order. Even though we are situated in a world with different perspectives God himself created rules for us to know what is right and what is wrong.

    Knowing this it is up to us, His creation whom He loves, to decide if we should believe in him and do things morally or decline and say that there is no god and the thing such as morality does not even exists, that whatever man do has nothing to do with what is right and what is wrong.

    In politics, we have corruption because most of the Politians only want to live wealthy for their own sake and are numb of what being moral is.

    For me, if there is really no God, then I will still do what I think is right and moral, the things the church has taught me because for me it is still the right thing to do for the better of all mankind.

    All these things and more give praise to a loving creator who wants us, not just to live, but to enjoy the life that we have.

  19. An action being moral does not depend on the authorities if it is really morally good.

    Morality is something right done to others. If an action is treating a person as a human being, then it is morally good.

    As a child raised by a Catholic family, I can determine what is right and what is wrong. Not all of the actions that the authority said that are moral are all right. We still have the freedom to choose whether to follow them or not. With our own understanding about what is right from wrong, we can decide if what we are following and doing is morally good.

    Although all the actions the authority commanded are not right, God doesn’t want His people to be guided in the wrong path. He wouldn’t command actions that will do us harm.

  20. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    This are the terms and definitions I used to help me understand the question:
    Action is the process of doing something in order to achieve a purpose. Morality is the standards of conduct that are generally accepted as right or proper. Good is having the appropriate qualities to be something. God is the creator and ruler of the universe. Command is an order or instruction given by somebody in authority.

    My answer is: An action is morally good because God commands it.
    My answer can either be true or false because all of us have our own perception or beliefs. As a Christian, we believe that God gave us commandments. These commandments will help us know what is right or what is wrong. And these commandments will lead us from the righteuos path. Just like the authority, they are making rules so that the people will live in a peaceful manner. We follow the rules because we know that it is the right thing to do.

    Since we have our own free will, we have our own choice if we want to follow the rules or not. We have our own understanding whether we follow it or not. We can tell if what we are doing is right or wrong.

  21. God commands it because it is morally good.

    Morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong. morals are created by and define society, philosophy, religion, or individual conscience. Being moral is being good and doing the right thing, an action which makes the doer respect the rights of other people.

    For me, God gave us the ten commandments not only to follow them but also to understand them. That God commands those actions because they are moral and thus, They will serve as a law to protect our rights and freedom. Hence, making us; who do not follow and step on other’s freedom, immoral. Of course all our actions whether moral or not has consequences and responsibilities.

    On the other hand, An action is morally good because God commands it. Because we worship God, as Christian Catholics; we follow the teachings of our religion as morally good because it is what God commands. Not abiding by them makes us not morally good and thus, punishing us based from what God commands.

  22. Morality is the human capacity to judge what is right and wrong. It is often incorporated with our conscience, which is the inner voice that tells us to do what is right. Sometimes, God gives us the best answers to every problem without realizing it, but we can either obey him or disregard what he tells us.

    The first one, “An action is morally good because God commands it” would be my stand. For I believe that God himself is morally good and perfect in all ways. Therefore, in a sense, his commands are morally good.

    Still, some things are up to us to decide. We are capable of making the right decisions, given our own free will and intellect. An action could be considered morally good when we do not violate the rights of others, neither do we deprive ourselves with the same rights. It is God who created the standards of Morality, such as the Commandments. Our authorities impose such rules to maintain peace, order and harmony in this world.

  23. God commands it because it is morally good. moral is concerned with right and wrong distinctions between them. Command is simply to order or to have an authority. For me, Something is moral if it is worth doing and worth it for the reason of doing it. God gave us conscience for us to distinguish whether what we are doing is moral or not. Morality didn’t came from the command of God. It comes from our conscience if what we are doing is the right thing to do or not.

  24. not everything that is right is also good.. some things may seem right to us, but not everything that seems right to us is morally good.. there is a big difference between those 2 words..

    An action is morally good because it is commanded by God. We all know that God knows what is good for us, which means something is morally good because God commands it. It is then right and justifiable to do an action which is commanded by God because it is morally good.

    god has the authority over all things. he is the main reason why we are all here now. but we have the free will to decide whether we do what is morally right, or not. but we would have to suffer the consequences of our actions later on.

  25. Morality are rules given by some higher authority but it doesn’t mean that the rules given by the higher authority are always right. It is always our choice if we want to follow the rules or not because we are human beings. We have the freedom and the choice to choose what we want to do.

    In the question “Is there a God?”, what if the truth is there is no God but the public tells you that the people of the higher authority say that there is God and they chose to believe in it because for them it makes sence because the people of the higher authority said so. Also living in a lie doesn’t make sence to anyone or living in it evenif you know the truth will cause some disorders.

    It is more important for me that I live in the truth instead of living a lie though other people should choose their own choices and decisons because I believe life is all about making difficult choices while we are situated in this world.

    Although I believe that morality is good not because God ordered it, sometimes there are good things from living in lies. If people do not believe in God, then there will be chaos because they would live their life to the fullest and would not worry about what is right or wrong.

  26. God commands it because it is morally good.

    Morality is known as the ability to tell from what is right from wrong or good from evil. It is somehow a system determining right from wrong established by a authority, such as God.

    God knows that all of his commands is for the betterment of his people. As I believe that God is perfect in every way thus I can conclude that God has the right to tell us and command us the moral thing to do. Everything he says is right and as his people it is our duty to follow him as what
    God tells us to do is for our right not for his own right

  27. The Morality of an action does not depend on the authority that commands it, moreover, it depends on the doer of the action if he sees it as moral or immoral.

    Morality speaks of a system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior. The word carries the concepts of: (1) moral standards, with regard to behavior; (2) moral responsibility, referring to our conscience; and (3) a moral identity, or one who is capable of right or wrong action.

    Being able to live up to this point, I can say that all actions commanded by someone with higher authority is not always moral. It always depends on the doer of the action if it is moral or not. We may think of it as a moral action since it was commanded by someone with higher authority than us but the truth maybe different. We always have the choice to follow the command of someone with higher authority than us or not. This choice also determines if what we do is moral or not.

    We can say that actions are moral if someone of higher authority orders us to do it, however, it is always up to the doer if he wants to follow what is moral or not. If actions are moral because God commands it, it should follow that killing is moral because God commanded Isaac to kill his son. Though we all know that that scenario was only a test for Isaac, not all of the commands coming from a higher authority will always be a test. Just remember that the choice between doing moral and immoral depends on the choice if you want to follow someone with higher authority or not.

  28. An action is morally good because God commands it.

    Action means an act that one consciously wills and that may be characterized by physical or mental activity. Morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong. It is your own decision in everything that you do because you know what is right and wrong.

    Why did He created us if He will let the people killing each other. So the ten commandments were made for us to be safe and to be right. God knows what is right for us. These commandments will lead us in correct path. As a Christian, I will follow his commands to be guided in my own journey in life.

    We have our own free will so you can decide if you will follow the commandments or not. We can understand what is wrong and right. And you will know what is the best thing for you.

  29. An action is moral because God sees the beauty of action, not the state of being. Nevertheless, people are confused on the difference of morality and authority. Morality is the essence of doing something good in your own way to someone else despite Authority.

    In a sense, if there is a God, God commands an action that is morally good to let us know that an action CAN be morally good because He commanded it.

    There are a lot of opinions on this matter. Despite all of it, Morality is the urge in our conscience to do something good whether it is right or wrong.

    Therefore God made us to be morally independent by giving us our free will. But also given us an instinct to be moral otherwise. It may be strong on some while there might be none in others. God commands an action because it is moral AND also to enforce us that WE are moral ourselves for we are created from the image of God himself and God is the epitome of goodness…

    In the question, “Is there really a God?” I would rather live to know that there is a God. First and foremost, what is a “god”? Is it not someone you worship? Maybe a friend who always helps you? Maybe a professor who you find is easy to be with even if he/she is of higher authority than you? God is the nature of our minds to the thought, “Someone will always be there to help us.” We can have a god of our own and not be restricted of all the rules of the “status quo of religions”.

    Believing there is a God is a lie, but believing there is a God is comfortable. Now, it depends on whether one wants to know the truth or wants to be comfortable or even both.

    Good day ^^,

  30. Action means something done, Moral means concerned with the principles of right or wrong and God is a supernatural being.
    And it means to say that God abides all the laws of all human beings in this world, as long as we live the right from wrong cannot be change, thus we have all the rights of being a human as God says that “You love your neighbor as you love yourself”. In contrary the law existed with God, so, it is possible that God do not create or established a law or principle that every human has rights because people are humans and has the capability to create things, because we are superior, so it is possible that an God loves it because it is God.

  31. God commands it because its morally good.

    Morality is a code of conduct that is to be held to be authoritative in terms of what is right and wrong.It is our moral conduct, teachings, or practice; allegorical morality.

    From my own point of view, a person has the freedom to perform a specific action because every individual has his own mind, own conscience and own sense of judgement and not because it is commanded by an authority. God gave us the commandments as guidelines to have an eternal life but its all up to us to follow these commandments. Why would God give us such intelligence if we don’t use it? Whatever path we choose, we must know the consequences of our acts and be ready to face it.

    We should keep in mind that in the ordinary life, not all that is being commanded by an authority is good. An action is moral when we think it is, and if it will have a good effect not only to our life but also to the people that surrounds it.

  32. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    I agree with the statement “God commands it because it is morally good”

    God is the essence of good. What God does benefits us. He doesn`t do things that can harm us. so His commandments can be concluded to be all moral because His commands are only for the betterment of his creations. God created us, so I also believe He has the right to command us and as His people we should follow.

  33. God commands it because it is morally good.

    Morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong. Morals are created by and define society, philosophy, religion or individual science.

    God commands something because He knows that it can be good for us. He wouldn’t command such things if He knows that it will hurt us, or will be the reason for our mistakes or sins. God always thinks what is best for His sons/daughters, us, because He loves us.

    On the other hand, it is morally good becasue God commands it, for some people. Some people think that if it is commanded by God, they think that it is good for them. People think this because they know that God won’t fail them……

  34. In my opinion, morality is in itself, but still I believe that God will not command something that is not moral.

    God knows what is moral for he knows all, so what is moral, God promotes and what is not, he punishes.

    Bottom line, something is moral because it is, and God loves it so He commands it.

  35. An action is morally good because God commanded it.

    Morality, as we see, has so many different standards. It can be seen in too many ways. It is because we are situated in the world which caused this phenomenon to happen that is having many standards of morality. It is but right to have a concrete standard of morality in the society and in the whole world. Personally, I chose God’s (Christian’s) standard of morality that is why I have my conclusion very clear.

    As a Christian, I believe in a God who is perfect, absolute and just. Everything that he loves is right and just because he cannot be perfect if some of which He dears or loves is wrong and unjust. A perfect being also gives perfect commands and could never go wrong. If there is no perfect being that judge the morality of actions then it would be very hard for us to do so. We all know that human beings are not perfect. We are bound to commit mistakes which make us incapable of judging the morality of certain actions. So in short, if what God loves is right and just then the actions that He loves are right and just which we consider morally good.

    In the other hand, gods’ commandment in the story’s context is blurred. It is because there are many gods and each has different views and outlooks. As found in the story, there may be actions that are agreeable to Zeus but disagreeable to Cronos or Uranus. So you can not really consider an action moral by simply basing of what the gods love because some are contradicting each other. Hence, if I situate myself in the story’s god’s commandments, I would surely say that God commands action because it is moral because at any point, they know best or better than a human being.

  36. God is not needed for objective morality. But rather, He is the one who guides and invokes us to live by it.

    Morality itself is a philosophy. Morality speaks of a system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior.

    “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    If God commands it because it is morally good then the meaning of morality does not change. Its meaning is the same in all people. They would think of it as a postive thing and having it means you are a human being but if it is morally good because God commands it then it may no longer mean the positive way because God is commanding it to be moral.Authority is found in that sentence and it is related to the word “Power.” We all know God is powerful and whatever he commands we must do or else we might go to hell if we don’t. If that is true then God is abusing his power and not letting us choose what we think is right. Commanding something to be moral, what if that something is just plain bad or evi but God commanded it to be moral. Authority can be felt with negativity.

    On the other hand, there can’t be morality without God for the society wouldn’t be prosperous and ordered unless there’s someone with authority to command what is good from evil.

  37. God commands an action because it is morally good not because it is morally good for him.

    Morality is by having and showing moral goodness and righteousness to yourself and others as well. If we judge morality by what the Bible says (or what we interpret it to say), then morality loses any meaning for our lives other than trying to follow the rules. On the other hand, if we judge morality based upon our understanding of God’s perfect love for us, and respond with our own love for God and each other, then morality has a much richer meaning.

    God is all-loving. We understand morality because we see it modeled by God same way we understand love because we see it modeled by God through his son. So I can comfortably say that God commands things because they are moral, and things are moral because God created them that way.

    Conversely when you say that an action is morally good because God commanded it, it concerns about God being the Supreme Being in power. God does what God knows is best for us. God knows what is right and good for his children.

  38. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    i believe that the gods command it because it is morally good.
    because as taught to us by the church, GOD loves us-unconditionally, and will never do anything to harm us or is not for our own good.
    God commands it because it is morally good, because God loves us and want to follow his teachings by being good.

    para sakin lang po yan.. =p

  39. God commands it because it is morally good.

    The term “morality” has 2 different meanings namely the descriptive and normative meaning. Morality descriptively refers to a code of conduct put forward by a society or,(1.) some other group, such as a religion, or (2.) accepted by an individual for her own behavior or normatively to refer to a code of conduct that, given specified conditions, would be put forward by all rational persons. But the two also conveys one meaning in common and that is they refer to guides to behavior that involve, at least in part, avoiding and preventing harm to some others.

    In my own view and understanding about morality and its connection to God, an action is commanded by God because it is morally good. God loves us thus He will not command us things that will be bad for us or harm us or other people. God commands things because it is moral, in which God wanted us to have the right from the wrong.

    On the other hand, some people may say that an action is morally good because God commanded it. People that believe in this are the ones who does actions because they know that God commanded it thus making it moral on its sense.

  40. God commands an action for it is morally good.

    Authority of god is the power and/or rights to command our actions for its morality. An action’s morality may either be good or bad and can bring consequences depending on its outcome. Actions are commanded by gods and can be morally good or bad

    God commands all things but it will not necessary be morally good for god can command things that can we call a sin. But since God loves us, God commands an action for its morally good. He created us equally and with love therefore he wants only good for us

    If an action is morally good because god commanded it, some actions cannot be morally good for others. Actions such as rape, murder, etc can be made morally good by God and be a legal action to us humans. Actions that may bring injustice, inequality to others will be a common task and can bring chaos to human world. But he did not for God loves us and did not used his authority in the wrong way

  41. andaya bakit 1:33 am nkalagay 9 : 40 pm ako nagpasa 😛

  42. God commands an action because it is morally good.

    Morality characterizes the distinction between good and evil, usually bound by values and principles. We use it to judge the people around us or the events happening, in order to assess whether we should adhere to or stay away from it.

    God is good; He is the source of all goodness. Therefore, it follows that everything He commands us, by nature, will be morally good as well. The things God commands us to do are morally right, because even the people who do not believe in God, may see that those are the right things to do. For example, God commands us to not kill other people. Even an atheist in his right mind will still know that to take away another person’s life for no reason at all is not good.

    In the Bible, God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his own son. Abraham was hesitant because it was his only son he would offer to God; even if it was God who commanded him to do it, as a human being, he still had some inhibitions. But before Abraham killed his son, an angel appeared saying that he should not do it anymore, a proof that even God believes that it is not morally good to kill his own son, because if God believes that it is morally good then he should have left Abraham kill his own son.

  43. God knows what is right and what is wrong. If he would command us to do something, it is for our own good and it can never be a point against us. He is Omnipotent, therefor he knows all things. He wont command us to do something that would be bad for his eyes.

    Morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong, here is where a man’s freedom takes place. God gave us freedom to do what we know is right and wrong.

    I would prefer it as God commands it because it is morally good. It explains why God commands us to do certain things and that is because it is good and not just because he told us to do so.

    PS: Think of it as; God can do anything, so He can create a rock so heavy He cannot lift it..

    dumugo utak ko ser >.<

  44. 9:51 pm plang ser 😀 1:49 dun sa entry ko T_T

  45. God command it because it is morally good

    all of us are situated in this world.

    To say that God commands an action because it is morally good is to say that the action is moral independent of God’s command. Whether or not God commands the action is irrelevant to that action’s goodness or badness. It is good or bad before God’s command. There must be some independent standard of goodness and badness that does not depend on God’s will. The point here is that even if God were asked why he chose to command something the reasons would have to be independent of God’s will. This shows that morality is independen.

    If God commands the morally good because it is morally good, then he bases his decision what to command on what is already morally good. Moral goodness, then, must exist before God issues any commands, otherwise he wouldn’t command anything. If moral goodness exists before God issues any commands, though, then moral goodness is independent of God’s commands; God’s commands aren’t the source of morality, but merely a source of information about morality. Morality itself is not based in divine commands.
    If there is no standard of “being morally right” apart from God’s commands, then God could literally command us to do anything and it would be right for us to do it by definition.If moral is absolute, and God cannot do evil, then we don’t need the middle Man to figure out what is moral and what is not.

    The ten commandments were given to Moses to make evil known.

    thankYou..=]
    GOdspeed..

  46. God command it because it is morally good

    Morality is the quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct or a system of ideas that fall into those same categories. The quality of an action which renders it good; the conformity of an act to the accepted standard of right.

    To say that God commands an action because it is morally good is to say that the action is moral independent of God’s command. Whether or not God commands the action is irrelevant to that action’s goodness or badness. It is good or bad before God’s command. There must be some independent standard of goodness and badness that does not depend on God’s will. The point here is that even if God were asked why he chose to command something the reasons would have to be independent of God’s will. This shows that morality is independent.Since we are all situated in this world,we see or judge things or actions moral or immoral base on our own point of view not by how God sees it.God’s commands aren’t the source of morality, but merely a source of information about morality.

    By some,an action morally good because God commands it.They usually use God to define morality .Since G-od created the universe, and not the other way around, God is the arbiter of what is morally good. Moral good is defined however God defines it. Thus, good is as God commands.He also the give The ten commandments to Moses to make evil known.

    thankYou..=]
    GOdspeed..

    sir odchi..etoh po tlga yung comment ko..nagkamali lang po ako ng paste jan..inaaus ko po muna kc..tnx sir..=]

  47. Gods love it because it is moral.

    Something is moral when it is right but not necessarily good, or the other way around. Morality exists even if the gods didn’t said anything about it to us. Gods can’t change or defy something that is moral.

    Due to the fact that we are born as rational creatures, it follows that we can know when something is moral or not, because we have the knowledge to differentiate right from wrong without gods telling us.
    Since gods can’t change something moral, it follows that the best thing they can do is to love it, because they can’t change it even if they command or teach us the wrong things to do.

    On the other hand, something is moral because the gods love it. Since we know gods as creatures of good deeds, there’s a great possibility that they’ll love something because it is good, therefore, for them, it is moral. Also, suppose that there are moral things that are not the right thing to do, but still, the gods will love it because it’s the best thing to do, for the reason that it’s the gods decision to declare whether an act is moral or immoral.

  48. waaaaahhh…. tama sagot ko pero sa maling tanong!!! pano po yan sir?? aiszt nalibang po kasi ako sa conversation nina Socrates, ‘yan tuloy ibang tanong yung nasagutan ko… waaaahhh… sir, if i cannot make it on time sa pagrevise po ng answer ko, pwede po humingi ng extension? kahit hanggang 1am lang po? please….

  49. sigh.. hirap maghabol.. konti lang po yung narevise, kapos po sa time eh.. aizst nagulo ko pa po tuloy yung sagot ko.. waaahh.. dami ko po ata redundant terms..

    “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God commands it because it is morally good?”

    God commands it because it is morally good.

    An action is moral when it is right but not necessarily good, or the other way around in most of the cases these days. Morality is already there, existing, even if God didn’t said anything about it to us, but He have to command it, for us to avoid ignorance and to have reliable guidelines in decision-making in our daily lives. God commands something that is morally good because He thinks that it is not only the best for us, but also the right thing to do. Having God commanded actions that is morally good, is somewhat like a formality that the said act is morally good, and having the standards and limitations of the things we do.

    Due to the fact that we are born as rational creatures, it follows that we can know when something is moral or not, because we have the knowledge to differentiate right from wrong even without God’s order, and most of the times, with the help of our conscience. Yet, it’s still up to us if we will follow or do it. Without God’s commands, we, humans start to mess things up.Since God can’t change something moral, it follows that all He can do is to proclaim it to us.

    On the other hand, an action is morally good because God commands it. Since we know God as a creature of good deeds, there’s a great possibility that He’ll command something because it is good, therefore, for Him, it is moral. Also, suppose that there are moral things that are not the right thing to do, but still, God will command it because it’s the best thing to do, for the reason that it’s His decision to declare to us verbally whether an act is moral or immoral, which we, humans are relying on.

    uhm.. kahit papano may nadagdag naman po.. pasensya na po.. paki disregard na lang po yung nauna, konti lang naman po yung pinagkaiba..

  50. I know there’s a movie about this, but remember the name

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