2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—”

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–”

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

41 Responses

  1. Movie: Waking Life Informal Fallacies
    BJ Batistiana

    A blonde woman is talking in a house(the screenwriter)says:

    •Creation seems to come out of imperfection. It seems to come out of a striving and frustration.

    —Ad Veracundiam: Screenwriters are in no place to conclude this.—

    Man on Street who is about to commit suicide says:

    •The media tries to put a sad face on these things, painting them up as great human tragedies. But we all know the function of the media has never been to eliminate the evils of the world, no. Their job is to persuade us to accept those evils and get used to living with them. The powers that be want us to be passive observers.

    –Ad Verecundiam: A man on the street is not a reliable source —

    •A self-destructive man feels completely alienated.

    —Composition: not all self-destructive man feels COMPLETELY alienated.—

    •Man wants chaos. In fact, he’s gotta have it. Depression, strife, riots, murder, all this dread. We’re irresistibly drawn to that almost orgiastic state created out of death and destruction. It’s in all of us. We revel in it.—composition: Not all man wants chaos.—

    Bad guy in Jail says:

    •That old drunken fart of a judge! What a pompous ass!

    –Ad Hominem: Direct hit to the judge—

    •All of you pukes are gonna die the day I get out of this shithole! I guarantee you’ll regret the day you ever met me!

    –Ad Baculum: He threatens the people.—

    Old drunk guy in bar says:

    •The quest is to be liberated from the negative, which is really our own will to nothingness. And once having said yes to the instant, the affirmation is contagious. It bursts into a chain of affirmations that knows no limit.

    —Ad Verecundiam: An old guy is not a reliable source—

    •To say yes to one instant is to say yes to all of existence.

    —Converse Accident: it is not always the case—

    Guy with a bullhorn is driving through the city streets

    •What a bunch of garbage – liberal Democrat, conservative Republican. It’s all there to control you. Two sides of the same coin. Two management teams bidding for control! The C.E.O. job of Slavery, Incorporated! The truth is out there in front of you, but they lay out this buffet of lies.

    –Ad Hominem: Direct hit on Liberal Demorats—

    •You can’t fight city hall, death and taxes. Don’t talk about politics or religion. This is all the equivalent of enemy propaganda rolling across the picket line. “Lay down, G.I. Lay down, G.I.” We saw it all through the 20th Century. And now in the 21st Century, it’s time to stand up and realize that we should not allow ourselves to be crammed into this rat maze.

    —False Dilemma:there are other options than fighting.—

    •Resistance is not futile. We’re gonna win this thing. Humankind is too good! We’re not a bunch of underachievers! We’re gonna stand up and we’re gonna be human beings! We’re gonna get fired up about the real things, the things that matter: creativity and the dynamic human spirit that refuses to submit!

    —Argumentum Misericordiam: Human is too good, so they’re gonna win.—

    A rich woman (English professor) says:

    •Our cells are completely regenerating every seven years. We’ve already become completely different people several times over, and yet we always remain quintessentially ourselves.

    —Ad Verecundiam: English profs usually talk about languages.—

    Couples in bed said:

    •So then six to twelve minutes of brain activity, I mean, that could be your whole life. I mean, you are that woman looking back over everything.

    —ad verecundiam: Psychologist are more appropriate source—

    •There’s this whole telepathic thing going on that we’re all a part of, whether we’re conscious of it or not. That would explain why there are all these, you know, seemingly spontaneous, worldwide, innovative leaps in science, in the arts. You know, like the same results poppin’ up everywhere independent of each other.

    —Converse Accident: It’s not always the case.—
    Chemistry Teacher says:

    • The manifestations of this neo-human-type evolution, manifestations could be dramatically counter-intuitive. That’s the interesting part. The old evolution is cold. It’s sterile. It’s efficient, okay? And its manifestations of those social adaptations. We’re talking about parasitism, dominance, morality, okay?

    —Ad Verecundiam:not a reliable source—

    Manga: Hunter x Hunter

    Hina says: “For Women, their figure is serious business”

    —Composition: not all women does—

    Welfin says:“Your work is being recognized by the royal guard, so I value that. Well, it’s just give-and-take. It’ll be good for the both of us”

    —Ad Baculum: Bizef is threatened—

    Biscuit says: “your’e weak that’s why Im teaching you”

    –Ad Hominem: Direct hit on listener–

    tama po ba ito sir??

  2. sir! ang hirap naman po ng project…. T.T

  3. The following lines are inside the said mangas…

    1.) Abara
    Dicto Simpliciter- an argument based on as unqualified generalization.
    Kudou Denji: “‘Gaunas’ are the tastiest beings in this world, therefore, we must eat all of them at all cost!”

    2.) Hug!
    Hasty Generalization- The generalization is reached too hastily.
    Haruka: “If Sado and Minami kiss, If Lilim and Kitsuro kiss, then it’s ok for us to kiss right? We’re both humans right?”

    3.) Name of Love
    Post Hoc- You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame someone/something without connection in the said event.
    Kouhei: “That dumbass Tetsu always causes trouble. Im sure when he comes to school, nothing will change!”

    4.) One Piece
    Ad Misericordiam- Not answering a question directly, attacking sympathy and because of that, there is no argument.
    Luffy: “So you are willing to be my pirate eh? What can offer me as a pirate?”
    Kuma: “I have nowhere to stay. Our fridge is empty and i have no clothes to spare.”

    5.) Kingdom Hearts
    False Analogy- Making an analogy between two different situations.
    Sora: “Why do we always need to write and write? At the middle ages, warriors are engaged in fight! That’s what
    I want to have action!”
    Explanation- A writer has a completely different job of those who are soldiers… Incomparable…

    6.) Gacha Gacha (Love Me or Not)
    Hypothesis Contrary to Fact- You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable
    conclusions from it.
    Yuri: “Damn! If Motoka hasnt been born in this world, I could have all the girls I’ve wanted!”

    7.) Bleach
    Poisoning the well- Bringing up something false about the other person before he is judged.
    Byakuya: “Would you believe those good for nothing prisoners other than me? Your own brother?”

    8.) DNAngel
    Wrong direction- cause and effect are reversed. The cause is said to be the effect and vice versa.
    Daisuke: “Driving a wheelchair is dangerous, because most people who drive them have had an accident!”

    9.) Love Neko
    Genetic Fallacy- conclusion is suggested based solely on something or someone’s origin rather than its
    current meaning or context.
    Tsiro: “Her father is a cat! And you expect us to believe her? The Bull!”

    10.) Tenjou Tenge
    Two wrongs make a right- occurs when it is assumed that if one wrong is committed, another wrong will
    cancel it out.
    Aya: “Bob lied in his testimony to Congress. He should not do that.”
    Takayanagi: “But you are ignoring the fact that Nagi lied in his testimony!”

    11.) Air Gear
    Argumentum ad consequentiam- Argument that concludes a premise (typically a belief) to be either
    true or false based on whether the premise leads to desirable or undesirable consequences.
    Ikki: “Free will must exist: if it didn’t, we would all be machines.”

    12.) Inu Yasha
    Argumentum ad novitatem- Someone prematurely claims that an idea or proposal is correct or superior,
    exclusively because it is new and modern.
    Kagome- “If you want to lose weight, your best bet is to follow the latest diet.”

    13.) Code Geass
    Wishful thinking- Formation of beliefs and making decisions according to what might
    be pleasing to imagine instead of by appealing to evidence or rationality.
    Lelouch: “After ten years of this battle, when we win, Britannia will be glorious once again!”

    14.) Love Hina
    Appeal to flattery- A person uses flattery, excessive compliments, in an attempt to win support for their side.
    Keitaro: “I needed a beautiful woman to endorse my product, so naturally I thought of you.”
    Explanation- Failing to endorse the product a tacit rejection of being beautiful.

    15.) Cross Over
    Appeal to authority or argument by authority- bases the truth value of an assertion on the authority,
    knowledge, expertise, or position of the person asserting it.
    Ogata: “The play should work! If it came from the coach, I am certain it will work!”

    16.) Prince Of Tennis
    Ad hominem- Attacking the personal instead of the argument
    Echizen: “Sendoh says the umpire made the correct call, but this can’t be true, because Paula wasn’t even
    watching the game.”

    17.) Liar Game
    Fallacy of composition- When one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact
    that it is true of some part of the whole
    Tamura: “Atoms are not visible to the naked eye. Humans are made up of atoms, therefore, humans are not
    visible to the naked eye. Haha!”

    18.) I”S
    Association fallacy- Inductive formal fallacy of the type hasty generalization or red herring
    which asserts that qualities of one thing are inherently qualities of another, merely by
    an irrelevant association.
    Ichitaka: “Iori was a vegetarian. Iori was pure evil. So, we can safely say that vegetarians have evil ideals.”

    19.) Bitter Virgin
    Argumentum ad baculum, also known as appeal to force, is an argument where force, coercion,
    or the threat of force, is given as a justification for a conclusion.
    Daisuke: “Racism is wrong because it is against the law!”

    20.) Death Note
    Appeal to tradition- A thesis is deemed correct on the basis that it correlates with some past or present tradition.
    Light: “Your invention is a bad idea because it has no historical precedent.”
    Explanation- the fact that something has not been previously attempted does not guarantee it will fail.
    Moreover, there is a first time for everything.

  4. hehehe… good day sir e2 na po ung mga fallacies kuh…

    hehehe…

    ok game….

    I.Fallacies of Relevance…

    1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam- committed when the premises of an argument appeal to the judgment of some party or parties having no legitimate claim to authority in the matter at hand.

    “Manila was free from garbage because Mayor Gemiliano Lopez Jr. said so.”—The Daily Globe Nov 2,1987—

    -it is a fallacy because citing an authority does not warrant the truth of the conclusion. It is an intellectual laziness.

    2. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam- committed when it is argued that a proposition is true on the ground that it has not been proven false, or when it is argued that a proposition is false because it has not been proved to be true.

    “This man committed suicide because no proof of murder has been investigated so far.”–Inspector Megure Detective Conan–

    The inability of the police to prove the real cause of his death does not necessarily mean that He really did suicide. Maybe there are still possible evidences or proof that are lacking in the crime.

    3.Argumentation ad Hominem- This fallacy is committed when an attack is leveled not at the claims being made or the merits of the argument, but at the person of the opponent.

    “As an academic, Professor Benedict J. Kerkvliet has given himself away as based and unscientific…it is pathetic to see Professor Kerkvliet, a non-Filipino, deploring political and social conditions in a foreign country like the Phil. when his own country calls for social and moral regeneration.”–Vicente Romero Phil. Consul General–

    We see in the argument that the Professor was primarily the focus. He was being attacked by Romero. This case is circumstantial.

    4. Argumentum ad Populum- This fallacy is committed when one appeals to popularly held beliefs as premises to conclusion.

    “Everyone favors that Rodolfo Lozada’s testimony is true, so I believe and idolize him.”–The Manila Times Jan. 20 2008–

    It arouses mob mentality. Popularity is not guarantee for quality and work.

    5.Argumentum ad Baculum- committed when careful reasoning is replaced with insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.

    “You will die in seven days”–The Ring–

    In this, the speaker was forcing the audience to save himself within the next 7 days. She is forcing her to do something about it to save his/her life.

    6.Argumentum Misericordiam- This fallacy is committed when careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insulted threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.

    “The suspect will escape if you don’t trust me.”–Hattori Heiji Detective Conan–

    Here Heiji wants to be pitied so that the suspect will be insulted or caught by the authority.

    7. Ignorantio Elenchi- This fallacy is committed when the premises miss the point, purporting to support one conclusion while in fact supporting or establishing another.

    “I should not go to jail for not having a sufficient alibi. There are two more people that are present in the crime scene and the investigators must also consider them suspects, not harass an innocent civilian like me for if you’re investigation about me is wrong, I will file a case against all of you”–Ms. Yokomizo Detective Conan–

    Certainly, there are many criminals. That’s another issue when she diverts her argument to the two people that are present. She has been investigated and already considered as a major suspect.

    II. Fallacies of Presumption

    8. Complex question- when a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in that question.

    “Already a commercial giant, China is aiming to be the world’s next great power. Will that lead to a confrontation with the U.S?”–Michael Elliot TIME magazine

    He jumps into the conclusion without warrant. It is not necessarily that China will dominate against U.S. Maybe there are some other way around.

    9. False Cause- This fallacy is committed when one treats as the cause of thing what is not really its cause.

    “I have a twin sibling because I ate twin banana”–Superstitious belief–

    It is not necessarily meant that if you’ve eaten a twin banana, you will have a twin. It arises from a confusion of the casual with non-casual relationships.

    10. Petitio Principii- This fallacy is committed when the conclusion is restated in other terms and then used it as a premise to prove the very same conclusion.

    “Abortion is immoral because it is not moral”

    This arguments are “arguing in circle” or vicious circle”

    11. Accident- This fallacy is committed when one applies a generalization to an individual.

    “He is from La Salle. He is rich”

    Students from La Salle are well known for being a high class student; it is not true that all of the students of La Salle are not rich.

    12. Converse Accident- This fallacy is committed when one moves carelessly or too quickly from a single case to an indefensibly broad generalization.

    “There are many terrorists in Iraq. Iraq must be a country full of terrorism.”–NEWSWEEK Feb 2006

    In this argument, the speaker hasty generalized that Iraq is a terrorism country for there are many terrorist were caught there. This is not necessarily mean that only Iraq is a terrorism country.

    III.Fallacies of Ambiguity

    13. Equivocation- This fallacy is committed when the same word or phrase is used with two or more meanings, deliberately or accidentally.

    “Tzu-kung said, ‘The gentleman is judged wise by a single word he utters, equally, he is judged foolish by a single word he utters. That is why one really must be careful of what one says.””–Confucius The Analects–

    The word “single” was used differently with the other. It has a different meaning to the 1st sentence to the other sentence.

    14. Accent- This fallacy is committed when a shift of meaning arises within an argument as a consequence of changes in the emphasis given to its words or parts.

    “I have a broken typewriter today!”–Moose Archie Comics–

    It maybe meant that “the typewriter was broken yesterday” or “He bought a new typewriter today.” The meaning differs depending on the stress of the words.

    15. Composition- This fallacy is committed when arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part to the attributes of the whole or arguer reasons mistakenly of the attributes of an individual member of some collection to the attributes of the totality of that collection.

    “Melamine is a poisonous ingredient of milks in China. Therefore, all milks from China are poisonous.”–Sec. Francisco Duque III DOH(said before the testing of the products)

    It implies that this substance is poisonous. The speaker considers generally the other products of China as poisonous most of them have this kind of substance but, he must consider to the a testing first to really prove this argument to be true.

    16. Division-This fallacy is committed when arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes of one of its parts and when one reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a totality of some collection of entitles to the attributes oft he individual entitles within that collection.

    “We all know how intelligent Shinichi Kudo is. And since he is a great detective like me, I must be intelligent too!”–Mr. Mouri Detective Conan–

    There is a big difference between parts and wholes. In this argument, Mouri hastily generalized himself as a great detective by considering the part of Shinichi Kudo as an intelligent person.

    IV. Distraction Fallacies

    17. Red Herring- This fallacy is committed when one diverts the discussion from the real subject to a related but different one.

    “Is there really a God? If so, why there still war in the country?”–Josh Beckham TIME MAGAZINE Aug. 2007–

    It is faulty because it diverts the issue from the existence of god to a different one about war.

    18. Slippery Slope- This fallacy is committed when conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction.

    “You should not join politics because sooner or later you’d become a politician, you will be a corrupt one, you will be impeached, and you will be resigning from your term.”–Mr. Ikuta Detective Conan–

    Of course it does not really follow that joining politics will make you a corrupt politician.

    19. False Dilemma-This is committed when one claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable, so we should choose the other. But in reality, there are more alternatives that the two sited.

    “If we are going to fire him in the company, the company will suffer because it will not run better under the control of his son. Thus, let us just forgive his mistakes.”–Mr. Kogoru Detective Conan–

    As if there are no more other than to accept him. He must be punished if he have done a crime or something else that is bad or immoral.

    20. Straw man- Is committed when the arguer makes a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than itreally is.

    “Erap is the 13th President. Number 13 is a bad luck . Therefore, Erap’s term was a bad luck so he was resigned immediately.”–Feng-shui—

    It diverts attention to the presidency of Erap. That is by believing in feng-shui that number 13 is a bad luck is the same as believing in the Friday the 13th. We all know that number 13th is a bad luck but we must not jump to conclusion that it is really the cause of his shorted term.

    WEEEE!!!!!! tapus na sir…

    hehehe kakapagod mag type…

    ghe sir mamimis kuh kau sa sembreak…

    salamat po sa lahat lahat…

    hehehehe..

    🙂

  5. pede un? galing sa news????

  6. 1. <Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    *It’s useless to tell the truth beacuse even the teacher don’t believe me!”
    -school rumble-
    (it is an example of intellectual laziness, he don’t trust himself)

    2. Argumentum ad Hominen
    *”Harima always make pranks to others in school!”
    -school rumble-
    (here, his classmate attacks Harima by saying what negative things he had done.)

    3. Argumentum ad Populum
    *”Misty said that green tea is delicious, so I ordered one.”* -pokemon-
    (He based his findings to what Misty said to him)

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum
    *”Surrender now Gokou or else I will kill Bulma and Gohan”* -dragonball z-
    (here, freeze gives two options two Gokou)

    5. Argumentatum Misericordiam
    *please,I will lose Gohan if he will accompany you*
    -dragonball z-
    (here, bulma is begging to gokou not to bring gohan or else he will lose him)

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi
    * Don’t chase me, he’s the mastermind*
    – Bad Boys-
    (he tells the police not to chase because he’s only a part of the group.

    7. Complex Question
    *You’re great. Are you the impostor?*
    – Inu Yasha-
    (he asks him if he is the impostor even he knows it already)

    8. False Cause
    * It will rain beacuse you sang*
    -school rumble-
    (here, it shows that it’s like an idiomatic expression)

    9. Petitio Principii
    *Being a gangster is bad because I’m not a memeber* -forbidden writings-
    (he showed bad meaning to a gang)

    10.Accident
    *He is from Ryonan Highschool, maybe he’s a good rebounder* -slamdunk-
    (it states that a highschool famous in rebounding means that all their players are good rebounders.)

    11. Converse Accident
    *Sakuragi is a red haired player. he is from Shohoku. therefore, all players from Shohoku are red haired*
    -slamdunk-
    (here, he makes the totality of all)
    12. Amphiboly
    *Go to the island and you will find it*
    -one piece-
    (the treasure is found at the island)

    13. Accent
    *Sakuragi played well today!*
    -slamdunk-
    (it is not clear what is the true feeling of the speaker)

    14.Composition
    *Coach Anzai showed what he can do to Shohoku so Sakuragi can improve a lot to him.*
    -slamdunk-
    (it is not quite true because it not implies to all.)

    15. Division
    *Shohoku is great! I’m a freshman form that school so I must be great too!
    -slamdunk-
    (he makes himself part of the school because it has a good reputation)

    16.Slippery Slope
    *Now, the earth is at peace, but the androids will conquer the Earth, then Gokou will try ti defend it but they are all powerful so the Earth will later be conquered.*
    -dragonball z-
    (he tells that none will happen even Gokou tries his best)

    17.False Analogy
    *The sword is a deadly weapon but it’s good if you use it , it will be a source*
    -samurai x-
    (they say the sword is bad but depending on the situation)

    18.Straw Man
    *Those who kill innocent people are bad. and those who have swords kill people. Therefore those who have swords are bad.
    -samurai x-
    (ir is true but not all the times)

    19.False Dilemma
    *If Sakuragi will not play, we will lose*
    -slamdunk-
    (it shows that they need sakuragi a lot)

    20.Sufficient Conditions
    *If you kill a person, you’re bad. If you kill many people you are also bad.*
    -samurai x-
    (it is just the same but differ in quantity)

  7. 1. COMPLEX QUESTION
    • “Not eaten lately?” He unclipped the case and took out a bar of chocolate. “Here, have a bit of nutty.”
    *It is a complex question. The question at hand “have not eaten lately?” presupposes that there is the admitted assumption on the hearer of such question that he had already eaten in the past.
    2Argumentum Ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Authority)┼
    “Christianity honored the Jewish Sabbath of Saturday, but Constantine shifted it to coincide with the pagan’s veneration day of the sun”
    ─Source─
    Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code, 1st ed. Doubleday. p. 232-33.
    ─Explanation─
    The earliest Christians were Jewish and did celebrate the Sabbath on Saturday, but “the Lord’s day” has always been Sunday to commemorate the resurrection. Consider the words of Justin Martyr, 200 years before Constantine, “On the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits.” Hence, Dan Brown’s statement is false.
    3┼Argumentum Ad Populum (Appeal to Popular Prejudice)┼
    “Reader’s Digest survey shows that more Filipinos are really happy with Enervon, thus there really must be true to the line ”More Energy, Mas Happy”. The multivitamin was recently recognized by Reader’s Digest as a “Trusted Brand” in the Vitamins category. Reader’s Digest Trusted Brands is an annual survey of brand performance across Asia. Enervon’s high scores on these attributes reveal the brand’s positive effect on consumers. By taking Enervon, consumers acquire more energy. This allows them to do more, making them more fulfilled, and therefore making them happy.”
    4. petition principii (begging the question)
    This isn’t flying. This is falling, with style!(Toy story)
    -because the conclusion is restated in other terms and then used it as a premise to prove the very same conclusion.
    5. accent
    This is where you fall down (Mortal combat)
    -because the tone of the voice Is uncertain
    6. equivocation
    God creates dinosaurs, God destroys dinosaurs, God creates man, man destroys God, man creates dinosaurs.(Jurassic park)
    -because the same word is used in different meanings
    7. false cause
    Every month at the quarter moon, there will be a monsoon in your lagoon.(Jumanji)
    -because it treats the cause of a thing what is not really its cause.
    8. argumentum ad baculum (appeal to force)
    Back off man. I’m a scientist.(Ghost buster)
    -because the reason is replaced with direct or insinuated threats.
    9 P3 Petitio Principii ( Begging the Question)
    For example: Boxing is not a Murder, It is a test of Strength. Said Miyata
    Explanation: It is said there that Boxing is not a sin because it is something to do with testing your capability in doing those action in the ring!

    0.Appeal to ignorance.
    “Seems like that kid is always in dreamland.”
    Explanation:this is committed when one is not proven false or true,like this sentence, we cannot say exactly that the boy is in dreamland, maybe he’s just thinking some stuff.
    11.argumentum ad hominem.
    “Your lipgloss just smell like our bathroom.”
    Explanation:an attack is leveled at a person so this is a fallcay. dohoon is attacking jinny with hurtful words like this one to bring her feelings down or just simply teasing her.
    12.composition.
    “that tall kid over there, really good, she’s worth a hundred of the others and she’s more reliable than most guys. i like her.”
    Explanation:this sentence consists of words or phrases as a unit when they should be taken seperately.
    13.division.
    “Our mothers were friends so we ended up being friends too.”
    Explanation:this fallacy is committed when one arguer mistakes an attribute to another, like this sentence dohoon said that since taejun and his mothers are friends they became friends too.
    14. Accent
    “I’m not dating him.”
    -Laurie Collins, Blind Date
    Laurie might have said the statement with a heavy inflection of tone on the last word. We might assume she’s trying to tell that she isn’t just clearing the fact that she’s not dating him, but she might also be hinting that she’s dating someone but not him.
    15. Red Herring
    “Harry Potter is dead because he’s not fighting.”
    -Daily Prophet, Harry Potter
    The Prophet is misleading the readers that Potter is a coward. The real case is whether he’s alive or dead, not whether he’s fighting or hiding.
    16. Appeal to Pity
    “Please don’t kill me. I only did it because the Dark Lord will kill me if I don’t.”
    -Peter Pettigrew, Harry Potter
    Harry is begged here by Pettigrew to have mercy on him because he only chose that decision because he’s life is at stake. However, Harry’s desire to hurt Peter on that occasion has nothing to do with his parent’s death in the past.
    17. Attack on the Person
    “I heard he’s from downtown. Why did you even considered dating him? He’s not your class. You should dump him.”
    -Meg Albert, The Boyfriend
    It is not fair for the guy to be judged by someone who haven’t even met him. He hasn’t yet proven that he’s worthy with the speaker’s friend.
    18. False Cause
    “God, why is it that I always fail an exam everytime I break a nail?”
    -Ashley Woods, Sweet Sixteen
    Breaking a nail hasn’t had anything to do with the results of an exam. It’s either the topics she reviewed didn’t come out or she wasn’t prepared at all.
    19. Equivocation
    “I am nobody; and nobody is perfect; Therefore, I am perfect.”
    -Marlon Manalo, Professor
    ‘Nobody’ in the first statement refers to the perception of the speaker to himself, while in the second one, it tells that every one of us have our own faults. Its conclusion is not valid for it tells of two different things.
    20. False Dilemma
    “War involves casualties. We must sacrifice the few to save many.”
    -William Pickering, Deception Point
    It is stated here that it is either only a few will die or more. The options were narrowed to two choices only. Both will result to terrible outcomes and it seems that the only choice is to choose the one that won’t affect the majority of people.

  8. 1.) “Whither goest thou young rogue? Can yet there remain some villany thou hast not committed?”
    -Calvin and Hobbes; Complex question: though the rogue in the story is about to go away, it does not necessarily mean that they would create some villainous act.

    2.) “Noah, don’t question me, I can f***ing kill you….”
    -Messed up Bible Stories; Ad Baculum: A person must give a reason for anything and should not just resort to violence.

    3.) “You know how dad said I could use his binoculars as long as I was extra careful with the? well, I just broke them by accident! Now I need some advice, should I run away or commit suicide?”
    -Calvin and Hobbes; False dilemma: In such situations, there can be ore alternatives than two; the situation can be improved by those other alternatives.

    4.) On the account when Henry Jackson was found guilty in smoking pot, he said: “What? everyone in hollywood does it!”
    -American Idiots by Dopelgy; Ad Populum: Just because many people does a certain act means that it is actually safe/good for you.

    5.) “A lot of people didn’t get into college, just look at Albert Einstein or…or Cleopatra!”
    -Accepted; Ad Verecundiam: just because some famous individual didn’t get into college means that you have to follow in their footsteps… citing them out as a fact where they are unworthy is fallacious

    6.) A man shows his car to a youth and explains life from there. He reasons that his car is like life and life is like a flowing river that we just need to hang onto. He says: “The ride does not require explanation”
    -Waking Life; Amphiboly: To what ride does he refer? To his car or to the river?

    7.) “… that sissy psychiatrist? what unmitigated ignorance!”
    -Waking Life; Ad Hominem: reason out with yourself and give premises on what made the psychiatrist wrong and not on name calling.

    8.) Man: “What happens when you die?”
    Antonio Banderas: “When you die, it’s over.”
    -Zorro; Petitio Principii: When you die your life is also over (duh).

    9.)Hobbes: “Number 1, what are bats?”
    Calvin: “They’re bugs aren’t they? yeah, put that down.
    Hobbes: “Are you sure?”
    Calvin: “They fly, right? They’re ugly and hairy, right? C’mon this is taking all day!”
    -Calvin and Hobbes; Equivocation: Just because both creatures are ugly and hairy doesn’t mean they are of the same type.

    10.) Phoebe to Monica, when Monica told Phoebe that she just wanted to call her ex-bf: “No, it’s not okay. It’s like you’re telling me, ‘oh, I don’t want the whole cake, I just want to smell the icing,’ then, ‘maybe I’ll just get a sliver of it… Oh what the hell, I’ll just get the whole damn box!”
    -Friends; Slippery slope (also strawman fallacy): This is a fallacy because the argument slopes down to an undesirable consequence. It is just merely attacking Monica’s simplified argument.

    11.) “…She’s a porn star, this is what they do! Just go out there and bang her…”
    -Girl Next Door; Division: arguer reasons the attributes of porn models to the attributes of one girl.

    12.) TV: “Are you tired of fad diets and fad excercise devises?
    Ratbert: “Yes I am!”
    TV: “Then buy my book and get the revolutionary Joggerobic Carpet Patch for only 19.95 plus shipping and handling.”
    TV: To prove it works, we photographed an actual athlete”
    Ratbert: “Pictures don’t lie”
    -Dilbert; Strawman fallacy: Pictures don’t actually tell the efficiency of the product, only that people use them.

    13.) Ratbert: “Sometimes I think I’m not reaching my full potential as a rat.”
    Dilbert: “You’re right. In the Middle Ages, disease carrying rats wiped out half of the human population in Europe.”
    Ratbert: “I think I got a little temperature. Feel my forehead.”
    -Dilbert; Composition: Just because rats caused the plague during the middle ages in Europe means that a rat’s full potential is causing sickness.

    14.) “I hate all the organizations and teams and ranks in sports. Somebody’s always yelling at you, telling you where to be, what to do, and when to do it. I figure when I want THAT I’ll join the army and at least get paid.”
    -Calvin and Hobbes; False Analogy: Sports and Military are two different things; besides being yelled at and being under the saya is what some wives do… (”,)

    15.) “Son, there is always hope. You are big enough and intelligent enough to know that nobody has succeeded in disproving the existence of Miracles; so therefore, miracles DO happen. you should not deny your Uncle Fred his miracle of life.”
    -A. Andresito, PA 6th; Ad Ignorantiam: a fact that cannot be claimed to be true does not necessarily mean that it is false and vice versa.

    16.) Dilbert: “Then, ratbert, the weight of the universe collapsed on itself until all of existence could fit into a thimble.”
    Ratbert: “Why would there be a thimble in space?”
    Dilbert: “Uh…there wouldn’t…”
    Ratbert: “Boy, it didn’t take long to spot the gaping logical flaw in that theory”
    -Dilbert; Red Herring: Ratbert either intentionally or unintentionally shifted the topic from the big bang theory to the thimble.

    17.) “Judge lest ye be judged!”
    -Waking Life; Ignorantio Elenchi: the point of having judges is to punish the outlaws.

    18.) Dilbert’s Log: “Day one of the bioworld experiment is off to a rocky start. the volunteers have no edible plants and the oxygen level is dropping. Fortunately, most of the volunteers are ex-car sales people, so we remain emotionally uninvolved.”
    -Dilbert; Accident: to generalize that all car sales person are unworthy of emotional attachment doesn’t govern because it is possible to have ex-car sales person to be worthy of emotional involvement.

    19.) “princess alissatissaprinsissa came last night and it rained! the next night too and the next… It must be raining wherever the princess went!”
    -Princess Tales; False Cause: Just because a person came during a coincidental rainfall means that that person causes the rainfall. the cock caws at daybreak but that doesn’t mean that the cock causes daybreak (ehem, the avian cock po yung sinasabi dito… : ))

    Situational:
    20.) According to Piers Anthony, a true story (daw), a principal of a school situated in Florida condemned all of his [Piers’] books on the account of his novel, Virtual Mode,
    which he had found to be too mature for children.
    This is a fallacy under Converse Accident. A single case does not necessarily mean that all of Piers’ books are of the same case. The principal instantly condemned all of the written works of one author because he based the book, Virtual Mode, as Piers’ collection.
    -Author’s Note from Chaos Mode, sequel to the Virtual Mode

  9. Sir, ok lang naman siguro kung puro Twilight ek-ek yung fallacies ko ‘no? XD

    1. Converse Accident
    “You don’t like the game, because you suck at it.”
    – Monica Geller, F.R.I.E.N.D.S
    *Speaker assumed too quickly that he/she sucks at the game without defense.

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem
    “I have killed a hundred times more often than you have, you disgusting beast. Don’t forget that.”
    – Rosalie Hale, Breaking Dawn, Chapter 16, p.324
    *Arguer verbally abuses other arguer.

    3. Accident
    “She’s my friend; she sits with us.”
    – Mike Newton, Twilight, Chapter 6, p.112
    *A generalization is applied to an individual case that it does not properly govern.

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “I don’t want any fighting, do you understand? I can go put my badge on if that makes my request more official.”
    – Charlie Swan, Eclipse, Chapter 15, p.338
    *Careful reasoning was replaced by threat.

    5. False Cause
    “You still fight for the weak! That is why you lose!”
    – Megatron, Transformers
    *What is not the cause is being assumed the cause or reason.

    6. False Dilemma
    “That’s how it’s supposed to happen. How it should happen. How it would have happened if I didn’t exist — and I shouldn’t exist.”
    – Edward Cullen, Twilight, Chapter 24, p.476
    *There are two alternatives and one is assumed unacceptable (in this case, to exist or not to exist).

    7. Slippery Slope
    “Well, I wasn’t going to live without you. But I wasn’t sure how to do it—I knew Emmett and Jasper would never help… so I was thinking maybe I would go to Italy and do something to provoke the Volturi.”
    – Edward Cullen, New Moon, Chapter 1, p.19
    *The conclusion depended on unlikely chain reaction.

    8. Accent
    “You’re greedy tonight.”
    – Edward Cullen, New Moon, Chapter 2, p.51
    *A shift in meaning rose within the argument.

    9. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “Since the class is noisy, I think everyone is done with the test.”
    – Various teachers/professors
    *The proposition is simply true on the basis that it has not been proven false.

    10. Complex Question
    “How many times has this happened to you?”
    – Spishak Spokesman, Mad TV
    *Speaker jumped into a conclusion without appropriate proof.

    11. Ignorantio Elenchi
    “Well, he seems very nice, and, my goodness, he’s incredibly good-looking, but you’re so young, Bella…”
    – Renée Dwyer, Twilight, Chapter 24, p.468
    *The premises missed the point.

    12. Red Herring
    “What I enjoy the very most is when my… enhanced abilities let me save someone who would otherwise have been lost. It’s pleasant knowing that, thanks to what I can do, some people’s lives are better because I exist. Even the sense of smell is a useful diagnostic tool at times.”
    – Carlisle Cullen, New Moon, Chapter 2, p. 34
    *Arguer leads reader off track with the statement: “Even the sense of smell is a useful diagnostic at times”.

    13. False Analogy
    “The universe is like an intricate watch. A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker. Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.”
    – The Watchmaker Analogy
    *The two things in the argument are presumed to be more similar than they really are.

    14. Straw Man
    Person A: “We should liberalize the laws on marijuana.”
    Person B: “No. Any society with unrestricted access to drugs loses its work ethic and goes only for immediate gratification.”
    – Hypothetical Marijuana debate
    *The proposal was to relax laws on marijuana. Person B has exaggerated this to a position harder to defend: “unrestricted access to drugs”.

    15. Composition
    “Did you seriously just stomp your foot? I thought girls only did that on TV.”
    – Jacob Black, Eclipse
    *He reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a totality of some collextion of entities to the attributes of the individual.

    16. Amphiboly
    “I didn’t think you’d mind me lying. That’s all part of the game, right?”
    – Jacob Black, Breaking Dawn, Chapter 25, p.498
    *The word “lying” can mean “lying down” or it could mean “telling a lie”.

    17. Equivocation
    “A feather is light.
    What is light cannot be dark.
    Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.”
    – Scientific Terms and Laws
    *The same word used to form the argument had different meanings.

    18. Petitio Principii
    “I wondered if he was really going crazy. Could vampires lose their minds?”
    – Jacob Black, Breaking Dawn, Chapter 9, p.180
    *Jacob simply restated his first statement.

    19. Argumentum Misericordiam
    “I’m in love with you, Bella. Bella, I love you. And I want you to pick me instead of him. I know you don’t feel that way, but I need the truth out there so that you know your options. I wouldn’t want a miscommunication to stand in our way.”
    – Jacob Black, Eclipse, Chapter 14, p.327
    *Jacob replaced reasoning with a hinted threat to put together some conclusion, or to get what he
    wants.

    20. Division
    “Just because she went to Yale drama, she thinks she’s like the greatest actress since, since, sliced bread!”
    – Joey Tribianni, F.R.I.E.N.D.S
    *Joey is not considering the difference between parts and wholes.

  10. 1.)Argumentum ad Ignorantiam :
    “I’m afraid Gohan is dead… We can’t sense his life force”
    -Dragonball Z
    It has not yet proven if the person is dead. No proof has been given yet.

    2.)Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “But my momma said that… My momma is never wrong”
    -Waterboy
    The individual thinks that his mother is right because his feelings of trust and respect for his mother.

    3.)Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Saiyans won’t stop until they destroy the whole world. They are so horrible.”
    -Dragonball Z
    Attack on the persons, to discredit them.

    4.)Argumentum ad Populum
    “They got a remote so we’ll get one too. I’m sick of this…”
    -Click
    The individual appeals to popularity

    5.)Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Surrender now and give the dragonballs, and maybe I’ll let you live.”
    -Dragonball Z
    Threatening the other person to achieve his/her goal. Appealing to force or fear.

    6.)False Cause
    “Well I got good because of this devil juice that dad gave me”
    -Little Nicky
    Treating one as the cause of a thing when it is not really the cause.

    7.) Petitio Principii
    “Leorio can open almost all of those gates because he’s so strong”
    -Hunter X Hunter
    The conclusion is restated in other terms and then used it as premise to prove the very same conclusion.

    8.) Accident
    “Token is gonna be our bass player, black people knows how to play bass.”
    -Southpark
    One applies generalization to the race

    9.) Converse Accident
    “So you’re a son of Goku too right? So you’re strong too.”
    -Dragonball Z
    One applies a quick generalization to the other without any proof.

    10.) Equivocation
    “Master Roshi is old and a real pervert…Hey your Bulma, your dad’s old too right? So he’s a pervert too ?”
    -Dragonball Z
    A description was used accidentally, the individual makes an irrelevant conclusion

    11.)Amphiboly
    “I forgot where it is. Just go to the capsule corp. and you’ll probably find it.”
    -Dragonball Z
    Find what? There is more than one plausible meaning.

    12.)Accent
    “Wow, you’re not wasted today.”
    -40 Days and 40 Nights
    A shift of meaning arises within.

    13.) Composition
    “So you guys are from Detroit? Detroit must be full of rockers like you guys.”
    -Detroit Rock City
    Arguer reasons mistakenly from the attribute of the part to the attribute of the whole.

    14.)Division
    “Hmm… that house looks really messed up. Maybe the owner is really sad and lonely.”
    -Monster House
    Arguer reasons mistakenly from the attribute of the whole to the attributes of the part.

    15.)Red Herring
    “That boy is not moving anymore, his dead”
    -Hunter X Hunter
    One diverts the discussion from the real subject to a related but different one.

    16.)Slippery Slope
    “Don’t listen to that music, it’s the devil’s music. Sooner or later you’ll act like a devil.”
    -Detroit Rock City
    The conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction. Just because you listen to that music doesn’t mean you’ll be a bad person.

    17.)False Analogy
    “Come on man, crack ain’t bad for you, if you smoke a lot , now that is bad for you… Just take a little each day, and you’ll be fine.”
    -Tenacious D : Pick of Destiny
    Two things are presumed to be more similar than they really are.

    18.)Straw Man
    “Goku, I know you’ll fight again to save the world but please stop fighting… It’s bad for you and Gohan. Gohan will end up to be a barbarian like you.”
    -Dragonball Z
    The speaker’s point seems to be that saving the world is bad. The arguer makes a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than it really is.

    19.)False Dillema
    “Either you’ll let me go to the band concert or force to here the one you call devil’s music here.”
    -Detroit Rock City
    One calims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable, so they should choose the other.

    20.)Ignorantio Elenchi
    “Why do you hate the music I’m listening to? There are a lot of worse music than this. This is far more decent than those.”
    -Detroit Rock City
    The arguer draws conclusion different from that supported premises.

    Submitted by : Jonathan S. Cruz 1CS-4

  11. (1) Slippery Slope
    ~The acceptance of abortion does not end with the killing of unborn human life. It continues on to affect our attitude toward all aspects of human life. This is most obvious in how quickly, following the acceptance of abortion, comes the acceptance of infanticide―the killing of babies who after birth do not come up to someone’s standard of life worthy to be lived―and then on to euthanasia of the aged. If human life can be taken before birth, there is no logical reason why human life cannot be taken after birth.
    * If abortion happens, then by a gradual series of small steps through infanticide then euthanasia will happen, too.
    euthanasia should not happen.
    Therefore, abortion should not happen, either.
    Source: Francis A. Schaeffer, “It is Your Life that is Involved”, Who is For Life? (1984) , p. 39.
    (2) Red Herring
    ~The most telling moment in last night’s [State of the Union] speech came after the president noted that “key provisions of the Patriot Act are set to expire next year.” In response, notes the New York Times, “some critics in Congress applauded enthusiastically.” If Osama bin Laden watched the speech, one imagines him applauding too.
    *That Osama bin Laden might approve of the expiration of provisions of the Patriot Act does not show that American critics are wrong to also approve, since the reasons for their approval are different. Some Americans oppose parts of the Patriot Act because they believe that it infringes upon the rights of Americans without significantly helping to prevent terrorism. They may be wrong, but that doesn’t make them an al Qaeda cheering squad.
    Source: James Taranto, “The al Qaeda Cheering Section”, Best of the Web Today, 1/21/2004
    (3) Argumentum ad Hominem
    ~I wish it were possible for men to get really emotionally involved in this question [abortion]. It is really impossible for the man, for whom it is impossible to be in this situation, to really see it from the woman’s point of view. That is why I am concerned that there are not more women in this House available to speak about this from the woman’s point of view.
    *This is a common type of circumstantial poisoning of the well, which claims that men should either not make a judgment about abortion, or should keep it to themselves if they do. This illustrates the effect that poisoning the well tends to have, which is to forestall opposition in debate. It also shows the mistake underlying all poisoning of the well, since the sex of the arguer is irrelevant to the merits of the argument. No doubt one could always find a woman to advance the argument, whatever it is.
    Source: House of Commons Debates of Canada, Volume 2, November 30, 1979, p. 1920
    (4) Begging the question
    ~To cast abortion as a solely private moral question,…is to lose touch with common sense: How human beings treat one another is practically the definition of a public moral matter. Of course, there are many private aspects of human relations, but the question whether one human being should be allowed fatally to harm another is not one of them. Abortion is an inescapably public matter.
    *This argument begs the question because it assumes that abortion involves one human being fatally harming another. However, those who argue that abortion is a private matter reject this very premiss. In contrast, they believe that only one human being is involved in abortion—the woman—and it is, therefore, her private decision.
    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy, Greenhaven, 1995, p. 23.
    (5) Quoting out of context
    ~Have the various fossil candidates for a place in our human ancestry stood the test of time?
    Answer: One by one, various fossil man finds have flashed across the front pages of the newspapers and been the subject of many scientific studies and reports, only to be at last either discredited or just forgotten, replaced by newer finds which also eventually fade away. In 1981 British scientist John Reader commented on this Hollywood character of some of our former alleged ancestors:
    “Not many (if any) [fossil hominids] have held the stage for long; by now laymen could be forgiven for regarding each new arrival as no less ephemeral than the weather forecast.…”
    *Kofahl quotes Reader as evidence of his claim that “fossil hominids” are discredited, but Reader’s previous sentence makes it clear that he is saying only that it is the title to “oldest evidence of mankind’s existence” that is ephemeral. In other words, still older evidence is discovered with sufficient frequency to make the title of “oldest” short-lived. This is no evidence at all supporting Kofahl’s contention, in fact it is contrary evidence. By omitting the first sentence, the impression is created that Reader is talking about all “fossil hominids”, instead of just the oldest ones. This false impression is reinforced by Kofahl’s misleading editorial insertion in brackets of the phrase “fossil hominids”.
    Source: Robert Kofahl, Handy Dandy Evolution Refuter, Chapter 8, Question 4.
    (6) Equivocation
    ~The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.
    *This argument equivocates on the word “humanity”—”the condition of being human”—which means “of, … or characteristic of mankind” (The Random House College Dictionary, Revised Edition, 1975). The two relevant meanings here are:
    1. “of…mankind”, meaning being a member of the human species.
    2. “characteristic of mankind”. For instance, the “human heart” is “human” in this sense, since it is not a human being, but is the kind of heart characteristic of human beings.
    Applying this to Alvaré’s argument, it is true that the “humanity” of an embryo or fetus is medically undeniable, in the second sense of “human”—that is, it is a “human embryo or fetus”. It is, however, an equivocation on “human” to conclude, as Alvaré did, that it “has a right not to be killed”. Parts of the human body are “human” in this sense, but it is only a whole human being who has a right to life.
    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24.
    (7) Appeal to ignorance
    ~[Joe McCarthy] announced that he had penetrated “Truman’s iron curtain of secrecy” and that he proposed forthwith to present 81 cases… Cases of exactly what? “I am only giving the Senate,” he said, “cases in which it is clear there is a definite Communist connection…persons whom I consider to be Communists in the State Department.” … Of Case 40, he said, “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”
    *An appeal to ignorance is an argument for or against a proposition on the basis of a lack of evidence against or for it. If there is positive evidence for the conclusion, then of course we have other reasons for accepting it, but a lack of evidence by itself is no evidence.
    Source: Richard H. Rovere, Senator Joe McCarthy (Methuen, 1960), pp. 106-107. Cited in: Irving M. Copi, Introduction to Logic (Fourth Edition) (1972), p. 88.
    (8) False dilemma
    ~Gerda Reith is convinced that superstition can be a positive force. “It gives you a sense of control by making you think you can work out what’s going to happen next,” she says. “And it also makes you feel lucky. And to take a risk or to enter into a chancy situation, you really have to believe in your own luck. In that sense, it’s a very useful way of thinking, because the alternative is fatalism, which is to say, ‘Oh, there’s nothing I can do.’ At least superstition makes people do things.”
    *Fatalism is not the alternative to superstition; it is an alternative. Superstition involves acting in ways that are ineffective, whereas fatalism involves failing to act even in situations in which our efforts can be effective. Fortunately, there are other alternatives, such as recognizing that there are some things we can control and other things we cannot, and only acting in the first case.
    Source: David Newnham, “Hostages to Fortune”
    (9) Composition
    ~Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?
    *The function of an organ is definable in terms of what the organ does to help the whole organism to live, however, one cannot define a function for the organism as a whole in this way. For this reason, “function” is not expansive. If it were true that human beings as a whole have a function, this would be a very different notion of function than that of the function of a human organ. So, even in this case, Aristotle’s argument would commit a fallacy, though a different one, namely, Equivocation.
    Source: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Martin Ostwald, translator (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962), p. 16.
    (10) Appeal to force
    ~Students stormed the stage at Columbia University’s Roone auditorium yesterday, knocking over chairs and tables and attacking Jim Gilchrist, the founder of the Minutemen, a group that patrols the border between America and Mexico. Mr. Gilchrist and Marvin Stewart, another member of his group, were in the process of giving a speech at the invitation of the Columbia College Republicans. They were escorted off the stage unharmed and exited the auditorium by a back door. … The student protesters…booed and shouted the speakers down throughout. They interrupted Mr. Stewart…. A student’s demand that Mr. Stewart speak in Spanish elicited thundering applause and brought the protesters to their feet. The protesters remained standing, turned their backs on Mr. Stewart for the remainder of his remarks, and drowned him out by chanting, “Wrap it up, wrap it up!” … On campus, the Republicans’ flyers advertising the event were defaced and torn down.
    *The example is an instance of the second type of ad baculum, that is, the use of force and the threat of it to prevent the other side of a debate from being heard.
    Source: Eliana Johnson, “At Columbia, Students Attack Minuteman Founder”, The New York Sun, 10/5/2006
    (11) Special pleading
    ~The law requires everyone to follow the speed limit and other traffic regulations, but in Suffolk County, exceptions should be made for cops and their families, police union officials say.
    Police Benevolent Association president Jeff Frayler said Thursday it has been union policy to discourage Suffolk police officers from issuing tickets to fellow officers, regardless of where they work.
    “Police officers have discretion whenever they stop anyone, but they should particularly extend that courtesy in the case of other police officers and their families,” Frayler said in a brief telephone interview Thursday. “It is a professional courtesy.”
    *The rule in this example is the speed limit, which has exceptions. For instance, it is legally permissible for on-duty police officers, driving their official vehicles, to break the speed limit in pursuit of criminals or to answer emergency calls. However, off-duty officers driving private cars have no more reason to break the speed limit than do other citizens.The mere fact of being a police officer is an irrelevant characteristic rather than an exception to the law. A fortiori, it is an irrelevant characteristic to be a family member of a police officer. So, it is a case of special pleading to argue that off-duty police officers and their families should not be ticketed in circumstances in which a civilian would be.
    Source: J. Jioni Palmer, “PBA: Don’t ticket cops”, Newsday, 2004. (This links to Google’s cache of the article which appears to be no longer available from Newsday’s site.)
    (12) Tu quoque
    ~Q: Now, the United States government says that you are still funding military training camps here in Afghanistan for militant, Islamic fighters and that you’re a sponsor of international terrorism.… Are these accusations true? …
    Osama Bin Laden: …At the time that they condemn any Muslim who calls for his right, they receive the highest top official of the Irish Republican Army at the White House as a political leader, while woe, all woe is the Muslims if they cry out for their rights. Wherever we look, we find the US as the leader of terrorism and crime in the world. The US does not consider it a terrorist act to throw atomic bombs at nations thousands of miles away, when it would not be possible for those bombs to hit military troops only. These bombs were rather thrown at entire nations, including women, children and elderly people and up to this day the traces of those bombs remain in Japan. The US does not consider it terrorism when hundreds of thousands of our sons and brothers in Iraq died for lack of food or medicine. So, there is no base for what the US says and this saying does not affect us.…
    *A perfect example of the fallacy of Tu Quoque. Notice that Bin Laden never addresses the question of whether he sponsors terrorism, instead simply turning the accusation back against the accuser. This is an irrelevancy designed to distract the audience from the question at issue, that is, it is a Red Herring. Even if all of Bin Laden’s accusations are true, they have nothing to do with the question, and thus are irrelevant.
    Source: “CNN March 1997 Interview with Osama bin Laden” (PDF)
    (13) Denying the antecedent
    ~…I want to list seventeen summary statements which, if true, provide abundant reason why the reader should reject evolution and accept special creation as his basic world-view. …
    14. Belief in evolution is a necessary component of atheism, pantheism, and all other systems that reject the sovereign authority of an omnipotent personal God.
    *To say that q is a “necessary component” of p is to mean that if one has p one must also have q, that is: “if p then q”. For example, “an engine is a necessary component of a functioning automobile” means that if one has a functioning car then one has an engine, rather than if one has an engine then one has a functioning car. So, Morris’ argument is as follows:
    If atheism/pantheism is true then evolution is true.
    Atheism/pantheism is false.
    Therefore, evolution is false.
    Even if the first premiss were true—which it is not—it doesn’t follow from a rejection of atheism or pantheism that one must reject evolution. There are many theistic religions which accept evolution as an historical fact.
    Source: Henry M. Morris, The Remarkable Birth of Planet Earth, (Creation-Life Publishers, 1972), pp. vi-vii.
    (14) Complex question
    ~Why should merely cracking down on terrorism help to stop it, when that method hasn’t worked in any other country? Why are we so hated in the Muslim world? What did our government do there to bring this horror home to all those innocent Americans? And why don’t we learn anything, from our free press, about the gross ineptitude of our state agencies? about what’s really happening in Afghanistan? about the pertinence of Central Asia’s huge reserves of oil and natural gas? about the links between the Bush and the bin Laden families?
    *This is a series of loaded questions and it illustrates one of the common uses of the loaded question as a rhetorical device, namely, innuendo. The questions come at the end of the article, and presuppose the following controversial claims:
    • The American government did something to bring about the terrorist attacks.
    • The public doesn’t learn anything from the press about that government’s mistakes.
    • The public is not learning about what’s happening in Afghanistan.
    • Central Asia’s oil reserves are somehow pertinent.
    • There are some unspecified links between the Bush and bin Laden families.
    No evidence is given in the article for any of these claims. Loaded questions are used in this way to slip claims into rhetoric without the burden of proving them, or the necessity of taking responsibility for unproven assertions.
    Source: Mark Crispin Miller, “Brain Drain”, Context, No. 9
    (15) Post hoc
    ~Evidence shows that even state and local handgun control laws work. For example, in 1974 Massachusetts passed the Bartley-Fox Law, which requires a special license to carry a handgun outside the home or business. The law is supported by a mandatory prison sentence. Studies by Glenn Pierce and William Bowers of Northeastern University documented that after the law was passed handgun homicides in Massachusetts fell 50% and the number of armed robberies dropped 35%.
    *this shows how the same fallacy is often exploited by opposite sides in a debate, in this case, the gun control debate. There are clear claims of causal relationships in these arguments. In the anti-gun control example, it is claimed that so-called “right-to-carry” laws “effectively reduce” public shootings and violent crime. This claim is supported by statistics on falling crime rates since the mid-1980s in states that have passed such laws. In the pro-gun control example, it is claimed that state and local gun control laws “work”, presumably meaning that the laws play a causal role in lowering handgun crime. Again, the claim is supported by statistics on falling crime rates in one state. However, the evidence in neither case is sufficient to support the causal conclusion.
    Similarly, the pro-gun control argument does not make it clear when Massachusett’s drop in crime occurred, except that it was “after”—”post hoc”—the handgun control law was passed. Also, comparative evidence of crime rates over the same period in states that did not pass such a law is missing. The very fact that comparative information is not supplied in each argument is suspicious, since it suggests that it would have weakened the case.
    Source: “Fact Card”, Handgun Control, Inc.
    (16) Straw man
    ~Some of you may have seen the 90-minute ABC network television show…entitled “Growing Up in the Age of AIDS”.… I was one of nine guests on that live program.… …A single 45-second sound bite cost me a long journey and two hectic days in New York City.
    Why…did I travel to The Big Apple for such an insignificant role? …I felt a responsibility to express the abstinence position on national television.… How sad that adolescents hear only the dangerous “safe sex” message from adults who should know better.
    What follows, then, is what I would have said on television.…
    Why, apart from moral considerations, do you think teenagers should be taught to abstain from sex until marriage?
    …Not one of 800 sexologists at a recent conference raised a hand when asked if they would trust a thin rubber sheath to protect them during intercourse with a known HIV infected person. … And yet they’re perfectly willing to tell our kids that “safe sex” is within reach and that they can sleep around with impunity.
    *Dobson is arguing against the “safe sex” idea of promoting condom usage as a way to limit the spread of HIV. In order to more easily knock down his target, Dobson portrays the sexologists he’s criticizing as telling kids “that they can sleep around with impunity”. The most prominent proponent of condom usage was Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, who testified before Congress to the following:
    Scientific evidence indicates that abstinence is the only completely safe way to avoid acquiring AIDS sexually. Except for mutually faithful monogamous relationships with uninfected partners, the use of a condom is the best method of reducing or preventing HIV infection known at this time for those who for one reason or another will not practice abstinence or monogamy.
    Dobson chose to attack a straw man rather than the Surgeon General.
    Source: James C. Dobson, in a fund-raising letter for “Focus on the Family”.
    (17) False analogy
    ~Efforts to ban chlordane assailed
    WASHINGTON (AP)–The only exterminator in Congress told his colleagues Wednesday that it would be a short-sighted move to ban use of chlordane and related termiticides that cause cancer in laboratory animals.
    Supporters of the bill, however, claimed that the Environmental Protection Agency was “dragging its feet” on a chemical that could cause 300,000 cancers in the American population in 70 years.
    “This bill reminds me of legislation that ought to be introduced to outlaw automobiles” on the grounds that cars kill people, said Rep. Tom DeLay, R-Texas, who owns an exterminating business.
    EPA banned use of the chemicals on crops in 1974, but permitted use against termites because the agency did not believe humans were exposed. Chlordane does not kill termites but rather drives them away.
    *Representative DeLay attempts to argue against a bill banning chlordane by comparing it to a bill banning automobiles, but this analogy is very weak. Here are some of the relevant differences:
    • Banning automobiles would be economically and socially disruptive in a way that banning a single pesticide would not.
    • There are many alternative pesticides available to replace a banned one, but there are few modes of transportation available which could replace cars.
    • Automobiles play a significant role in our society, whereas chlordane was used only to prevent termite damage to houses, which is of comparatively minor importance.
    Source: Associated Press, June 25th, 1987
    (18) Suppressed Evidence
    ~You’ve spoke about having seen the children’s prisons in Iraq. Can you describe what you saw there?
    The prison in question is at the General Security Services headquarters, which was inspected by my team in Jan. 1998. It appeared to be a prison for children—toddlers up to pre-adolescents—whose only crime was to be the offspring of those who have spoken out politically against the regime of Saddam Hussein. It was a horrific scene. Actually I’m not going to describe what I saw there because what I saw was so horrible that it can be used by those who would want to promote war with Iraq, and right now I’m waging peace.
    *The fallacy of suppressed evidence occurs when an arguer intentionally omits relevant data. This is a difficult fallacy to detect because we often have no way of knowing that we haven’t been told the whole truth.
    Source: Massimo Calabresi, “Scott Ritter in His Own Words”, Time, 9/14/2002
    (19) Affirming the consequent
    ~Never has a book been subjected to such pitiless search for error as the Holy Bible. Both reverent and agnostic critics have ploughed and harrowed its passages; but through it all God’s word has stood supreme…. This is proof…that here we have a revelation from God; for…if God reveals himself to man…, he will preserve a record of that revelation in order that men who follow may know his way and will.
    *The phrase “this is proof that” is an argument indicator, indicating that this passage contains an argument. Specifically, “this is proof that” is a conclusion indicator, which means that the proposition it occurs in is a conclusion: “here [in the Bible] we have a revelation from God”. Moreover, the use of the word “proof” also means that the author is claiming that the argument is deductive, that is, that it is the strongest type of reasoning. The word “this” in the conclusion indicator refers back to the preceding proposition, so it is a premiss supporting the conclusion: “Both reverent and agnostic critics have ploughed and harrowed [the Bible’s] passages; but through it all God’s word has stood supreme.” In other words, the author is claiming that the Bible has withstood all criticism. Finally, the word “for” following the conclusion is a premiss indicator, meaning that the proposition it occurs in is a further premiss: “if God reveals himself to man, he will preserve a record of that revelation in order that men who follow may know his way and will.” Putting these together and simplifying their wording produces the following argument:
    Premiss: If God reveals himself in the Bible, he will preserve a record of that revelation.
    Premiss: God has preserved a record of his revelation.
    Conclusion: God has revealed himself in the Bible.
    Therefore, the second premiss affirms the consequent of the first premiss, and the conclusion is the antecedent of the first premiss, which means that the argument commits the fallacy of affirming the consequent.
    Source: Hillyer Straton, Baptists: Their Message and Mission (1941), p. 49
    (20) Appeal to misleading authority
    ~Cheating by the Soviets
    Barry Schweid of the Associated Press, in his efforts to criticize President Reagan’s space-based defense against Soviet missiles, came up with a report from some Stanford University group that claimed to find little evidence of cheating by the Soviet Union on arms-control treaties.
    Where were they when Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and George Shultz, secretary of state, and several members of our military forces went on TV and described and enumerated the different times and ways that the Soviet Union has cheated on the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty?
    Does Schweid really believe that the group at Stanford is more knowledgeable about U.S. arms-control policy than all our military experts, with Congress thrown in for good measure? If I thought that was true, I wouldn’t sleep much tonight. And I doubt if he would either.
    *The example commits the fallacy of Ad Verecundiam because most of the authorities cited are not disinterested (problem 3). Weinberger and Shultz were members of Reagan’s cabinet, and could be counted on to support his proposals. Similarly, members of the armed forces are not encouraged to disagree with the Commander-In-Chief, especially when the services stand to benefit from the proposal. The one exception in this letter is Congress, which was controlled by the opposition party, but this evidence is added as an afterthought and is difficult to assess. In contrast, the Stanford University group cited by Schweid was disinterested, so far as we can tell from the letter.
    Some readers have suggested that the Stanford University group might be ideologically biased against a space-based missile defense. However, even if true—and there is no evidence from the letter that it is—members of the administration were likely to be ideologically biased in favor of such a system. So, ideological bias is a tie between the two sources. The problem with the administration authorities is not ideological bias, but institutional bias in favor of an employer. The Stanford University group lacks that kind of bias.
    Source: Middleton B. Freeman, Louisville, “Letters From Readers”, The Courier-Journal, April 1, 1987.
    (21) Appeal to nature
    ~TASTE NATURE.
    AND NOTHING ELSE.
    You’ll never find any additives in our tobacco. What you see is what you get. Simply 100% whole-leaf natural tobacco. True authentic tobacco taste. It’s only natural.
    *American Spirit uses the slogan “it’s only natural” and claims that its cigarettes are “100% natural tobacco”. Some smokers may buy American Spirit cigarettes because they believe that “natural” tobacco is in some way safer or healthier than tobacco that contains additives. However, the carcinogens in cigarettes that cause cancer are natural components of tobacco.
    Source: Ad for American Spirit cigarettes, Discover Magazine, 5/2007, p. 5

    — James Abellanosa :]

  12. 1.Argumentum Ad Verecundiam- Star Wars Episode 4 Han Solo
    “He doesn’t like you. I don’t like you either.”
    His premise appeals to the judgment of someone having no legitimate claim to authority.
    2.Converse Accident- The One Yu-Law
    “In the end, there can be only one.”
    He presumes that because others die he will also die.
    3.Slippery Slope- Star Wars Episode 3 Yoda
    “Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.”
    It depends on an unlikely chain reaction.
    4.False Cause- Star Wars Episode 5 Luke
    “I don’t believe it.” Vader “That is why you fail.”
    He failed not because of not believing it.
    5.Accident- Star Wars Episode 3 Darth Sideous
    “All who gain power are afraid to lose it.”
    He applied a generalization to an individual case that it did not properly govern.
    6.Amphiboly- Star Wars Episode 3 Anakin Skywalker “If you’re not with me, then you’re my enemy.”
    He did not say if he should be standing close to him or be his ally.
    7.Complex Question- Spiderman 3 Aunt May
    “I never heard from you. Did you ever propose?”
    She assumed that he proposed.
    8.Argumentum ad Baculum- Spiderman 3 Green Goblin “If you want Peter to live, you’re going to do something for me.”
    He threatened her to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.
    9.Argumentum ad Hominem- Star Wars Episode 3 Anakin Skywalker “The Sith rely on their passion for their strength. They think inward, only about themselves.”
    There is an attack made not at the claims but at the Sith.
    10. Division- Spiderman 3 Maître d’
    ” I love romance. I am French.”
    He reasoned mistakenly from the attributes of the whole to one of it’s parts.
    11. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam- The Matrix Cypher
    ” I disagree, Trinity. I think that the Matrix can be more real than this world”
    The Matrix has not been proven real.
    12.False Dilemma – The Matrix Morpheus
    “This is your last chance. After this, there is no turning back. You take the blue pill – the story ends, you wake up in your bed and believe whatever you want to believe. You take the red pill – you stay in Wonderland and I show you how deep the rabbit-hole goes.”
    There are more alternatives than the 2 stated.
    13.Accent-Ironman Christine Everheart
    “After all these years, Tony still has you picking up the dry cleaning.”
    It is not certain if she is happy or sad about it because of tone.
    14.Argumentum ad Populum- Star Wars Episode 2 Yoda “But for certain, Senator, in grave danger you are.”
    He thinks the senator is in danger because all of the Jedi think he’s in danger.
    15.Argumentum Misericordiam- Star Wars Episode 2 Yoda” Until caught this killer is, our judgment she must respect.”
    She must respect their judgment or they will all die.
    16.Ignorantio Elenchi- Star Wars Episode 2 Anakin
    ” I’ve heard this lesson before.” Obi-Wan” You haven’t learned anything, Anakin.”
    Anakin missed the point that hearing is not the same as learning.
    17.Petitio Principii – Star Wars Episode 2 Princess “He must not die” Mace Windu ”Protect the senator at all costs.”
    He is reasoning in a circle.
    18.Composition – Star Wars Episode 2 Dooku
    “The force is with us, Master Sidious.”
    He thinks that the force is with them but it is only a part of it.
    19.Red Herring- Star Wars Episode 2 Anakin
    “You will not die because someday I will be the most powerful Jedi ever.”
    He diverted the subject to a related but different one.
    20.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam – Star Wars Epsiode 2 Anakin” Anything is possible, Padme, listen to me.” He thinks that anything is possible because it hasn’t been proven false.

  13. 1. Argumentum ad populum (appeal to the people)
    Vanessa: “I need to get dutchess for what she’s doing to Nate”
    Dan: “Google revenge and you get BlairWaldorf.com”
    -Quoted from Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Since Blair is well known for being mean and nasty. Dan believes that Vanessa should approach Blair to resolve her problem but that doesn’t mean that Blair really is that evil. It’s just her reputation.

    2. Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    London: “I like the sticky stuff that holds the sandwich together”
    Maddie: “That’s peanutbutter”
    London: “What’s Peanutbutter?”
    -Quoted from The suite life of Zac and Cody
    Explanation:
    -London’s last question is inappropriate and the answer to her question is quite obvious.

    3. Argumentum ad hominem (attack on the person)
    Blair: “There’s a reason you’re always out here alone.”
    Chuck: “Nate just happens to be away at his grandparents.”
    Blair: “Nate is only friends with you out of habit! The only person with fewer friends than you is Dan Humphrey and even his lame, ’90s dad likes him.And that’s because he’s something you’ll never be. A human being.”
    -Quoted from Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Blair didn’t consider that Chuck’s friend Nate was just out of town and she automatically attacked Chuck with an argument that degraded his dignity. Telling him that he has practically no friends.

    4. Argumentum ad misericordiam(appeal to pity)
    Jenny: “Dad I want this job. This is what I want to do.”
    Rufus: “Yes, And I’ll support you.AFTER you finish school.”
    Jenny: “You pursued you music when you we’re my age.”
    -Quoted from Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Jenny appealed to her dad’s feeling of guilt when she said the last line.

    5. Complex Question
    Blair(to Nate): “What are you doing right now? How about me?”
    -Quoted from Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -The question implies a double meaning making it a trick question. And whether or not Nate answers the question it would be embarassing. It also assumes right away that Nate isn’t doing anything.

    6. Accent
    Serena: “You win B, Can you please just stop this.”
    -Quoted from Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -It could mean that Blair destryed Serena’s Social life for good or it could mean that She won for the meantime.

    7. Red Herring(Missing the Point)
    Easy: “I always thought that love is that shiny sparkly feeling, But I dont have that now with Callie. Maybe Love doen’t exist?”
    -Quoted from It girl book 2:Notorious
    Explanation:
    -If Easy think that love is that kind of feeling and Callie is his girlfriend and he know that he loves Callie but he doesn’t experience that feeling it doesnt mean that love doesn’t exist.

    8. Slippery Slope
    Jenny is Dan’s sister.
    Dan has no friends.
    Therefore, Jenny has no friends.
    -From Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Just because Jenny and Dan are brother and sister that doesn’t mean Jenny doesn’t have friends.

    9. Straw Man
    Lily: “You should go to the Kiss on the Lips party so that everyone will know your here.”
    Serena: “Why, everyone know I’m here already.”
    Lily: “I mean just formally announce it.I’m just saying Blair is throwing it You should at least go.”
    -Quoted from Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -This is a fallacy because Lily didn’t acknowledge her daughter’s argument and just stated that Serena should go because it was Blair’s Party.

    10. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    Tinsley Carmichael is mean and nasty.
    Tinsley is from Dumbarton
    Therefore girls from Dumbarton are mean and nasty.
    -From It girl book3:Reckless
    Explanation:
    -Just because Tinsley is mean and nasty doesn’t mean that all the girls in Dumbarton are mean and Nasty. The speaker is generalizing all the girls that’s why it is a fallacy.

    11.Argumentum ad Bacalum (appeal to force)
    Blair: If you don’t stop messing with Nate!
    Serena: what?
    Blair: Well, I was thinking COMPLETE SOCIAL DESTURCTION!
    -Quoted from Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Blair forced Serena to stop sleeping with her boyfriend Nate.

    12. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    Blair is a Waldorf
    Serena Van Der Woodsen belittles Blair
    Therefore, A Van Der Woodsen is higher than a Waldorf
    -From Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -This is wrong to think that just because Serena is mean to Blair that she is higher than her.

    13. Amphiboly
    Come to the Hamptons for Fun
    -Quoted Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -We can understand fun as the scandalous lives of Manhattan’s Elite or just plain fun.

    14. Composition
    Blair lost her friends to Serena and she tried to get them back but she failed so she stopped trying.
    -Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Blair assumed that she would always fail but she should not assume this. She should always try her best to win them back.

    15. False dilemma
    Chuck: You have two options Humphrey, Drink it all or stay a coward.
    -Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Dan really has more choices than to drink what Chuck gave him. He really doesn’t have a dilemma because he could just leave.

    16. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    Nate: Did your mom just say Serena is back?
    Blair: NO!! Serena isn’t back she’s at school
    -Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Blair believes that Serena isn’t back beacuse she hasen’t seen her.

    17. Argumentum ad Verecondiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    Blair: Well Dorotha said I shouldn’t sleep with my bestfriend’s boyfriend!
    Serena: So you listen to Dorotha now?
    -Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    – Dorotha is Blair’s handmaid and she is not an appopriate authority to listen to or follow her advice.

    18. False Cause (non Causa pro Causa)
    Blair always does good when her mother is in France, When her mother was in New York Blair failed her SATs. For Blair to pass her mother must be in France.
    -Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    – Just because of one incident it should not mean that Blair’s mother is the reason for her failure.

    19. Division
    We know that Gossiping is Bad. Serena might be gossip girl so she must be bad.
    -Gossip Girl
    Explanation:
    -Just because we know that Gossiping is bad and Serena might be gossip girl it does not mean Serena is bad.

    20. False Analogy
    Silas: How can you be all into Jesus and still smoke weed?
    Tara: Because pot is natural, it’s not processed; it’s made by God, Himself. So it’s spiritual, it elevates you, opens your mind…and that’s what God’s love is all about.
    -Weeds
    Explanation:
    -This is a fallacy because they are relating Jesus with drugs and it is just false reasoning.

  14. Appeal to Ignorance
    “You are the last airbender because I have not seen airbenders for a century”
    Movie: AVATAR

    This is an appeal to ignorance because he is not sure if Aang is the last of his kind.

    Red Herring
    “There is no God! Everyone out there turn into your darkest nightmares”
    Movie: I AM LEGEND

    What is the connection of God to turning to your darkest nightmares?

    Appeal to Force
    “Your life or your limb? Your Choice.”
    Movie:SAW

    Simple because you are force to choose one and the one you will choose is deadly.

    False Cause
    “I will meet my future husband if I will have sex with Chuck”
    Movie” GOOD LUCK CHUCK

    The girls are assuming that if they will have sex with Chuck, they will find their future husbands.

    Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    “Wait Spongebob, Mr.Crabs said that we should not go near to those hooks”
    Movie:SPONGEBOB

    Mr.Crabs has no authority to tell Spongebob and Patrick what to do.

    Hasty Generalization
    “We cannot trust him, he is one of them. He will also kill us.”
    Movie:THE HILLS HAVE EYES 2

    They are not sure if the person is bad or not.

    Accident
    “He is one of the Suna ninja’s, then he is also our enemy”
    Anime:NARUTO

    They do not know if he is an enemy or not.

    Attack on the Person
    “How can he become the seeker? He is just a kid. And he is not even Chinese”
    Movie:THE FORBIDDEN KINGDOM

    They are just looking at the appearance of the person.

    Appeal to Popular Prejudice
    “Dad I think you should buy a universal remote because everyone has”
    MOVIE:CLICK

    Everyone has a universal remote so Adam Sandler bought too.

    Division
    “He is one of the Admiral of the marines! Then he must be powerful”
    Anime:ONE PIECE

    First being an admiral then he is also powerful.

    Complex Question
    “Have you quit killing people?”
    Movie:SO CLOSE

    Two question asked in one premise

    Begging the Question
    “Sharkboy and Lava girl is not a fiction because they are real”
    Movie:THE ADVENTURES OF SHARKBOY AND LAVA GIRL

    The meaning of not a fiction is the same as the meaning of real.

    Appeal to Pity
    “You will break my heart if you don’t believe in me”
    Movie:YOU ME AND DUPREE

    There is a pity in the premise. If you dont believe you will break my heart.

    False Analogy
    “If we dont kill that witch, all of us will suffer”
    MOVIE:SILENT HILL

    They are just assuming that the kid is a witch

    Amphiboly
    “Come over here for your package”
    Movie:OCEANS ELEVEN

    The package there does not mean a package only but money they stole

    Appeal to Tradition
    “Go ahead and eat your dinner! You know we’ve always eaten people.”
    Movie:WRONG TURN 2

    Their tradition is to eat people

    Non-Support
    “The reason I spare your life because you keep smiling”
    Anime:SAMURAI X

    In this premise he just said that because he dont want to kill.

    False Dilemma
    “Its either we kill them or they kill us”
    Movie:VACANCY

    They have no choice but to have lesser evil by killing other people

    Ignorantio Elenchi
    “You should not kill me, I can give you money, I have many bank accounts in US and in England”
    Movie:HOSTEL 2

    That is not the point here. She was bid to a certain amount and the person who bought her should kill her

    Accent
    “Hey! You are not drunk today”
    Movie:WHEELS ON MEALS

    The speaker may mean you are not drunk today but you are drunk yesterday

  15. eto sir.. ng marathon ako for this ;P

    1) Appeal to Ignorance———–

    Mamoru Hanagasa: “What are you talking about?
    Daisuke Iwashita: “You Know what I am talking about!
    Muroi died!”
    Hanagasa-senpai: “So it seems…”
    Iwashita: “It’s your fault.” (refering to Hanagasa being a bully)
    Hanagasa-senpai: “My fault? Do you have any proof?”
    Iwashita: “Proof? ….I don’t….”
    Hanagasa-senpai: “Then, It wasn’t my fault”
    -Jigoku Shoujo

    Iwahita assumes that Muroi died because of Hanagasa’s bullying even without

    any proof of it, and Hanagasa assumes he is innocence because Iwashita cannot

    prove he did it.

    —————————————-

    2) Appeal to force —————

    Kamishiro-sensei: “Will you help me or not?”
    Kamishiro pinned down Maki and threatened to pour Acid on Maki’s face if she

    refuses.
    – Jigoku Shoujo Futakomori

    ——————————————

    3) Missing the Point —————

    (Showcasing MY WAY detergent and another brand)
    Megumi Kobayashi: “When washing we take advantage of the running force of

    running water and the friction of the rubbing clothe, but this (the other brand is

    foamy while MY WAY was clear) would make those meaningless.”
    “Yes! So it’s clear that MY WAY’s detergent is superior”
    – NHK ni Youkusso!

    The real question is why MY WAY’s detergent is more superior and not what we

    are taking advantage of, and how it is meaningless otherwise (or maybe vice

    versa?).
    ———————————————

    4) False Cause ————————-

    Guy: “…but don’t you have Akiyama?”
    Chihiro: “Tokino’s different.
    Guy: “Is she the trouble maker?”
    Chihiro: “Maybe she’s sucking all the luck out of me.” (referring to his bad luck

    with women)
    – Kujibiki Unbalance

    ————————————————

    5) Hasty Generalization——————-

    Yamazaki: “Girls in real life are all just bitches! … As soon as they open their

    mouthes they say ‘freak’ and ‘sicko'”
    – NHK ni Youkusso!

    Women around his neighborhood treat him badly, therefore he assumes that all

    women are bitches.
    —————————————————

    6) Amphiboly ———————————

    Saki Kusakabe: “So? how was your little romp in the woods?”
    Kanako Oono: “Quit saying it like that.”
    – Genshiken

    Saki meant Kanako and her boyfriend’s photoshoot, but Kanako understood it

    differently.
    Romp could mean a lively or boisterous frolic, or having sexual activity.
    ——————————————————

    7) Division —————————————-

    Tatsuhiro Satou: “People with Lolita Comples aren’t human… they are beasts…

    Therefore you are too”
    – NHK ni Youkosso!

    ———————————————————

    8) Attack on the Person ————————–

    Mamoru Akasaka : “Don’t tell me this girl is my guide? But, she’s such a cute girl…

    elementary school? no… maybe kindergarden.”
    – Higurashi no naku koro ni – Himatsubushi-hen

    Doesn’t mean that the girl being referred to is young, that she can’t be a guide or

    atleast be knowledgable of the area (plus, she is a local of the area).

    ————————————————————

    9) False Dilemma ————————————

    Kamishiro-sensei: “If you don’t like being bullied, you should do the bullying”
    – Jigoku Shoujo Futakomori

    It doesn’t mean that you don’t bully that you are getting bullied.

    ————————————————————-

    10) Begging the Question ————————–

    Fuuko Nabuki: “I like starfish because they are animals that are shaped like stars”
    – CLANNAD

    ————————————————————

    11) Accent ———————————————

    Karen Ayanokouji: “I see miss transfer student is with Junichi today.”
    – Akane-iro ni Somaru Saka

    Karen’s way of saying it is ambiguous, it is either implying that ‘miss transfer

    student’ wasn’t with Yuuji yesterday, or that something else.

    ————————————————————

    12) Complex Question ——————————

    Karen Ayanokouji: “You seem to always go along with Nagase, Junichi. How is it

    between you two?”
    – Akane-iro ni Somaru Saka

    Karen jumps to the conclusion that the person she’s referring to has a relationship

    with Junichi just because they meet up often.

    ————————————————————

    13) Appeal to pity ————————————

    Nagi: “Please help me save this village from these impurities! If not I would wither

    away along with this land’s life force.”
    – Kannagi

    ————————————————————-

    14) Appeal to popular prejudice ——————-

    Maggie: “Well… many reviewers praised your work, Nenene, so I decided to buy

    one as well.”
    – R.O.D. the TV (Read or Dream the animation)

    ————————————————————-

    15) False Analogy —————————————

    Misaki Nakahara: “Hikkimoris are just like trash. They should just be disposed of in

    this world, they just make it dirty!”
    – NHK ni Youkusso!

    ————————————————————-

    16) Equivocation —————————————-

    Shingo’s little sister: “So big bro is only scared of one thing, well mom’s pretty

    scary. I guess big bro is scared of mom.”
    – Girls Saurus DX

    —————————————————————

    17) Sweeping Generalization ————————-

    Class Rep: “Have you heard? There is an exhange student from America! I heard

    she’s a real beauty”
    Kouhei: “I guess she’s a blonde or maybe a brunette?”
    – Gacha Gacha

    It doesn’t mean that some one was from America that they areblonde or brunette,

    red head even. They could be asian or something else.

    —————————————————————–

    18) Appeal to Innapropriate Authority —————-

    Nozumi: ” I watched in the TV about my fortune today! And they said that I today is

    a great day for confessions! If I confess today, I would definately get a yes!”
    – Girls Saurus DX

    Not everything said in the TV is true, and that fortune telling isn’t that accurate in

    making predictions.
    ————————————————————–

    19) Composition —————————————–

    Haruka’s sister: “Why is it that you aren’t aroused by me? All men want to be with

    me, and there you are just trying to get away from me and all the others! I guess

    your not into women… maybe you prefer men?”
    – Girls Saurus DX

    —————————————————————-

    20) Straw Man ——————————————–

    Atoli: ” Player-killing means killing your character right? But isn’t killing somebody

    else murder!? Then Player-killers should be stopped for they are murderers!!”
    – dotHack//GU+

    —————————————————————-

    wa sana tama pinaglalagay ko >_<

  16. 1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    “ I don’t believe you!” I exclaimed. “ Justice is poorly served when you speak ill of your betters. And this was a phrase I had heard my father use many times.”

    The authority of the father does not make the statement a truth because we all have different perspective when we speak of justice. Therefore, the speaker has no right to question the one to whom she is speaking to because she was just relying on the statement of his father.

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    “ Miss Doyle, though it’s not my business or place to tell you this, some of the others here, Jack Tars like myself, have deputized me to say that you shouldn’t be on this ship. Not alone as you are. Not this ship. Not this voyage, miss.”

    We all know that in this world, we should be treated fairly but in this case, the girl was not given a chance to explain herself why she must stay in the voyage and the speaker also attempted to question the strength and the personality of the girl.

    3. Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular prejudice)

    “Your ships are best buy says that team huh? That’s why I want to buy some.”

    It was stated in the book that popularity is not guarantee for quality of work This is the best explanation with this.

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)

    “ In my world, judgments as to rights and wrongs are left to my Creator, not to children. Now, be so good as to board the Seahawk. At once!”

    The captain (speaker) threatens the girl in order for his directions to be followed. These directions are for his desire so this emotional appeal is a wrong one.

    5. Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)

    “Being upon a ship with the full complement of captain and crew could hardly be construed as traveling alone. But . . . but that would be all men. And . . . I am a girl. It would be wrong.”

    Reading this lines would make us feel a pity on the case of the speaker. Maybe, in this situation, she experienced an abuse by the captain of the ship. This is irrelevant because, rather than this reason, she can point out some like she had a trauma before with a group of boys who abused him to make the captain believe that she should not be staying in that ship.

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)

    “ I should not be treated this way! I’m just like a bird an a cage! I’m seventeen so my parents should know the best way to treat teenagers like me! They should really understand! I wish I were in the place of my friends. They have freedom!”

    This teenager seemed to be insecure by his friends but he should be aware of the reasons why he was treated that way by his parents. Maybe he was just not trying to open such conversations with his parents so he misunderstood them.

    7. Complex Questions

    “ Hi, my name is Oliver.” The guy said.
    “ Are you trying to ask me out?” The girl said.

    This statement is unproven so the person involved have no right to jump with such conclusion unless the girl has an evidence to support her phrases.

    8. False Cause

    “The only reason why my daughter got pregnant was because of your son.”

    “It was one thing for Rico to make Jackson cook chicken wings. It was another thing for Rico to make him wear a chicken suit and sing a song. A really lame song. This was definitely Cooper’s fault.”

    In statement 1, it is wrong to say that being pregnant is just the mistake of the guy. Rather, it is the fault of both persons involved, the guy and the girl.

    In statement 2, it is a mistake to put all the blame to a person who didn’t even try to dictate something. We didn’t even know if he just suggested or recommended such things.

    9. Petitio Principii

    “It’s true, miss. He is abusing us because as of now, we are experiencing a mistreatment.”

    “ Rebellion is not a good thing because it may lead to a misfortune.”
    It is obvious that these phrases are arguing in a circle. They would mean the same thing and would give the same outcome.

    10. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)

    “ Your friends are from exclusive schools. Stay away from them. They would be a bad influence to you.”

    “ If your friends are members of the fraternity. Then you must be a member too.”

    It is not right to consider only the group as the basis of the personality of an individual. Rather, be able to give sometime to know that person. Don’t take them as a whole.

    11. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    “ You are a sports lover. Therefore, you take exercise as a routine.”

    “ If music is your passion then you have a pleasant voice to hear.”

    It is clearly stated that the speaker jumped with a conclusion considering small things as bases. In case 1, not all sports lover take exercise as a routine and in case 2, not all people whom their passion is in music has a great voice.

    12. Accent

    “ My son answers back his father every time he’s high tempered.”

    “ When the battle is over, we feel guilty and resolve never to lose our temper.”

    Considering these statements, we will notice a shift of meaning arising within the arguments. In statement 1, who is high tempered, the son or the father? In statement 2, is there an instance that we would only feel the guilt if the battle is over? There might be instances that even during the battle we can feel the guilt but because we are fighting for something, we still insisted to continue the battle.
    13. Red Herring

    “ My captain is not responding anymore. He’s dead.”

    In this case, there might be other reasons why the captain was not responding but the speaker derived with a wrong point.

    14. Equivocation
    “ I don’t know where the place of Miss Doyle is. That’s why I don’t know where she had place the documents for inquiry.”

    The words place in this statement have different meanings.

    15. Sufficient Conditions

    “ If you submit your project, you’ll have a grade. If you submit it earlier, you’ll have a higher grade.”

    This has two conditions but they differ in the quantity of the outcome.

    16. Composition

    “My friend seems to be so competitive. She challenges me all the time. I think all of my buddies are just like her! I don’t want to be with them anymore!”

    This statement is fallacious because if a part is a truth it does not mean that it would also be true when it pertains to the whole. In this case, one of her friends is competitive but she should not come up with a criticism that all of her friends are also competitive.

    17. Division

    “Her sisters’ party were really lovely and so as her cousins’. I think she will also have a lovely one.”

    The explanation here is just the converse of the one above. If in that case a part was taken as a whole, here, we should not based on the attribute of the whole rather, we must know how to know their distinctions.

    18. False Dilemma

    “It is either you marry my daughter, or we will be forced to see you in court.”

    The person involved in this situation was given two alternatives. One of which could bring him a misfortunate while the other could also bring him a burden since if he married the girl, he will be handling many responsibilities but if only the speaker considered the reality, there are still other options rather than the two.

    sources : Good Charlotte, Truth or Dare, The Tempest, Parent-child Relationship, Girl’s Guide To Collage, Sweet Valley.

  17. graaabee.. ang hirap ng proj. sir! haha..

    anyways,, here are my answer:

    ——————————————————————————–

    INFORMAL FALLACIES

    1. ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM (Appeal to Force)

    ~~from the movie “MIRRORS”

    man: “If you don’t go with me, you’ll die!”

    >> this is a fallacy because he is threatening the other character with a gun when he is saying that statement. As the effect, the “other character” was forced to go with the man.

    2. CONVERSE ACCIDENT (Hasty Generalization)

    ~~form the manga series “ABSOLUTE BOYFRIEND”

    a.) grandfather : “Listen, Satouri, you might have troubles in the future because of that burn. To prepare for that time, you should steadily save money now.””

    >> it’s a fallacy because he cannot say that Satouri will be troubled in the future because of her burn. Many thing which may happen in the future and he can’t foresee it.

    b.) satouri: “No guy would sleep with a girl who has this kind of burn. So I think I can’t actually get married. Love is impossible for me.”

    >> saying it like that is a fallacy. She might found a guy that’ll love her despite the burn in her body.

    3. TU QUOQUE (“you too fallcy”)

    ~~from the manga series “ABSOLUTE BOYFRIEND”

    Soushi: “I’ll live here with you.”
    Rikko: “W-why?”
    Soushi: “Tenjou lived here with you too right? ”

    >> this is a fallacy because living together even though you’re not married is not right, but the character says that Tenjou lived with the girl so he thinks maybe they can also live together. (waah????)

    4. COMPOSITION

    ~~from the magazine “W.I.T.C.H”

    Taranee: “He doesn’t talk to me anymore, he doesn’t answer my calls… & now this! (she’s referring to their vandalized car). Boys really are monsters!”

    >> this is fallacious because she is concluding that all boys are monsters because off what her ex-boyfriend had done to her.

    5. AMPHIBOLY

    ~~from the magazine “W.I.T.C.H”

    HIMERISH: “Phobos would have become the new oracle and he would have destroyed this fortress!”

    >> He commit a fallacy because he did not state clearly which fortress he is referring to.

    6. CONVERSE ACCIDENT (Hasty Generalization)

    ~~from the magazine “W.I.T.C.H”

    Taranee: “He’s just a no-good punk! Anybody who hangs out with that creep must be brainless too!”

    >> Even if she thinks that the man was actually a no-good punk, it doesn’t not necessarily means that anyone who hangs out with that man has the same personality.

    7. COMPLEX QUESTION

    ~~from the magazine “W.I.T.C.H”

    Will: “Go on! Gather the guts to tel me the truth! You chose Orube, didn’t you? I don’t blame you but atleast admit it!”

    >> She is imposing that the guy really did chose another girl over him even if she doesn’t have enough evidences.

    8. ARGUMENTUM MISERICORDIAM (Appeal to Pity)

    ~~from the manga series “Absolute Boyfriend”

    Toshiki: (Kneeling) “Please let the type 01 go back with us to the Kronos Heaven’s Company! . We will be fired if we failed to bring the Type 01 back! ”

    9. ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM (Attack o the Person)

    ~~from the teleserye “DYOSA” (Channel 2-ABSCBN)

    Woman 1: “Ano ka ba naman?!? Bakit mo kinakausap si Clarisse!? Eh maldita yang batang yan eh!”

    Woman 2: “Mabait naman siya sakin.”

    Woman 1: Anong mabaet , masama siyang tao! Hindi mo na ba naaalala yung ginawa niya sa anak natin?

    **the woman here has multiple identities. (pwede naman Filipino diba sir? hehe)

    10. PETITIO PRINCIPII (Begging the Question)

    ~~from the manga series “REAL FAKE PRINCESS”

    man: “B-but i really love you!”
    woman : “why me?”
    man: “it’s because….because. uhmm.. BECAUSE I DON”T HATE YOU.. well i think that’s it…>.> the woman was right. Her question was not answered because the man just paraphrased what he said earlier. Saying you love a girl because you don’t hate her may also complicate things. It doesn’t mean that if you don’t love the person, you automatically hate him or her, because LOVE AND HATE are not contradictory terms. 🙂

    … wala na kong makitang fallacy sir, waah.. ok na po tong 10.. hehe.. :))

  18. 1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam:
    “The house beyond yours is empty because, as far as I know, no one lives there.”
    – This statement was said by Polly, one of the main characters in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Magician’s Nephew by C.S. Lewis. What she concluded here was not yet been proven to be true because she go no proofs for it. It was merely from her instinct that is why it falls under the fallacy of relevance.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam:
    “…it is the empty one. Daddy says it’s always empty ever since we came here.”
    – The statement above was again said by Polly. She did believed and concluded such thing because it was assumed by the one who is superior to her who is her father.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem:
    “Lies. Grown-ups are always thinking of interesting explanations.”
    – This dialogue was Digory’s, another main character in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Magician’s Nephew by C.S. Lewis. Digory doesn’t believe what was told to him by his uncle because he tends to create walls, by believing such assumptions about grown-ups, between his uncle’s statement and his opinions.

    4. Argumentum ad Populum:
    “In those days, if you were a boy, you had to wear a stiff Eton collar everyday because others do.”
    – This statement was from narrative part of the story in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Magician’s Nephew by C.S. Lewis. The rule is applied because of its popularity.

    5. Argumentum Misericordiam:
    “…supposing I got killed, what would become of my life’s work?”
    – This dialogue came from Mr. Ketterley, Digory’s Uncle. This was when he and Digory were arguing about the evil things done by Mr. Ketterley. In the way Mr. Ketterley said this statement to Digory, he makes Digory pity him, when he would die without anyone believing his works, so that Digory would eventually believe his intuitions.

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum:
    “At the first sight of disobedience, I will lay such spells on you!”
    – This dialogue was from Jadis, the evil Witch/sorceress in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Magician’s Nephew by C.S. Lewis. She wants Mr. Ketterley to follow what ever she commands and so, she forces him by chastising him for his disobedience.

    7. Ignorantio Elenchi:
    “Knowledge is happiness because to have knowledge is to know the ends from false and lofty things from low.”
    – This statement was taken from the book The Story of My Life, a biography by Hellen Keller. Knowledge here was assumed to be the same as happiness but it is not clearly stated how or in what way they have been the same.

    8. Complex question:
    “Was that when you yelled?”
    – This question was asked by Digory to his uncle. It was when his uncle told him that the night before their conversation, his experimentations on the rings and the guinea pigs were ongoing. Here, Digory already assumed that his uncle was the one who yelled and concluded that his uncle’s experimentations were the reasons why his uncle yelled. I considered that question to be a fallacy because there were lots of unproven ideas hidden in Digory’s question.

    9. False Cause:
    “He really yelled last night. He might have been a pirate, like the man at the beginning of Treasure Island, and be always hiding from his old shipmates.”
    – These statements were Digory’s, when he was having a conversation with Polly. Digory considered some implausible reasons of his assumption about the yell he heard. Well, it was obviously seen that these reasons of Digory were improbable to happen on the settings of the story.

    10. Petitio Principii:
    “She certainly got very foolish in later life. Did very unwise things….”
    – This descriptive statement was done by Mr. Ketterley to tell something about his godmother. Here, he describes her in a way that would conclude you that he didn’t explained well how foolish her godmother had been because what he stated was in a vicious circle. Wherein, the word foolish is synonymous to the word unwise.

    11. Accident:
    “Magic always goes with the royal blood. Your Uncle is the great King & the Great Enchanter of your world. By his art, he has made a potent spell.”
    – This dialogue was again from Jadis. And these statements were told to Digory. Jadis presumed that Mr. Ketterley was a royal-blooded one because he possesses such magic. Assuming this general rule, that was only applicable in Jadis’ world, to be pertinent also to the real world was my reason of taking into consideration that the statement of Jadis was a fallacy.

    12. Converse Accident:
    “The people in the cafeteria act weird and most probably the people in town were the same.”
    – This statement was taken from the children’s book Pepper’s Dream. It was said by the boy who hurtled into a world of magic and confusion. In his adventure to the place, he had loads of conversations with some people in town that he thinks were crazy and hence, he concluded that all the people in town were all like the ones he had spoke to. His reason doesn’t really support his conclusion because he only done his observations to some specific people.

    13. Amphiboly:
    “…you had to come and live with an Aunt and Uncle who is mad.”
    – The statement above was stated by Digory to Polly in his short narration about his life. What Digory meant to say here was not fully understood by a reader. It is because I, myself, as a reader, could not really distinguish Mr. Ketterley’s being mad. The word mad here would give you confusion, because it could mean that Mr. Ketterley would always aptly be angry or crazy and wild.

    14. Accent:
    “London isn’t a Hole.”
    – This was stated by Polly. In this statement, shift of meaning arises. And so, I considered it one of the fallacies of ambiguity. Polly might want to start an argument by negating such statement of the one she is conversing to. Or perhaps, she might want to add a more insulting word to describe London by saying such account sarcastically.

    15. Composition:
    “Those people would probably be cruel ones…because the cruel and evil witch was once lived together with them. Good thing we didn’t waste our time lurking in that hall! ”
    – This conclusion was assumed by Digory when they had hurtled into the world of ruins where Jadis came from. He supposed that the waxwork-liked people they’ve seen were as evil as the evil sorceress they encountered because of the fact that they came from the same place and Jadis was once became a part of that assembly (waxwork-liked people).

    16. Division:
    “That’s all you know, it is because you’re a girl. Girls never want to know anything but gossip and rot about people getting engaged.”
    – The dialogue above came from Digory. He told this to Polly when they were having an argument. Here, Digory, believing such assumptions about girls, had created a fallacy because he assumed Polly, being a girl, to have such attributes coming from these assumptions.

    17. Red Herring:
    “You really must learn to control that temper of yours, my boy, otherwise you’ll grow up to be just like your aunt Letty”
    – This dialogue came from Mr. Ketterley. It was when he was conversing with Digory and Digory have gone mad towards his uncle because of such rudeness. I considered his statement to be a Red Herring fallacy because I supposed that his reason for Digory to control his temper diverts the topic to his sister who is the aunt of Digory and misses something to interconnect his conclusion from his reason.

    18. Slippery Slope:
    “Had this state of affairs been allowed to continue, she would never have grown into the person she became and the world would have been a poorer place.”
    – The above statement was taken from the book The Story of My Life, a biography by Hellen Keller. The author had made a chain reaction whereas from the grant of state of affairs continued up to the aftermath of having a poorer place.

    19. False Analogy:
    “Like us, they came when Aslan started to create great things, perhaps they were the Second Joke.”
    – The statement was still taken from The Chronicles of Narnia: The Magician’s Nephew by C.S. Lewis and was uttered by one of the creations of Aslan. The animal concluded Digory’s group to be just like other creations of Aslan, being Jokes, because of their slight similarity when it comes to their time of existence in such world.

    20. False dilemma:
    “In order to go home, they need to touch the homeward rings. But doing this would bring such disaster if they didn’t tell this to the witch. They have options, it’s either they run from her and face their trouble that would probably happen, or just take her to the real world and let the people there to suffer from such catastrophe the witch would bring.”
    – This was a part of narration in the trouble they (Digory and Polly) encountered when they were with Jadis. The author only assumed that they (Digory and Polly) only have two alternatives of keeping themselves safe. And only one of the options was what would one’s preference be because it has been obviously the appropriate one.
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    END^^
    .
    .
    .
    [.whew! hrap mghnap ah. hahaha!]

  19. Items 1-11 are from the movie My Sassy Girl (American Version)

    1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam-Appeal to in appropriate authority

    Jordan Roark: Why kill yourself? It’s not gonna make her come back to you.
    Soldier:But it’ll put me out of my misery And it’ll hurt her.She’ll never be the same.
    Jordan Roark: You’re wrong, ’cause time will pass, and she’ll be fine.
    Soldier: How do you know?
    Jordan Roark: Because that’s the way it works.

    “It” meaning life is the false authority here. Life doesn’t have the right reasons why time will pass and she’ll be fine.

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem-Attack on the Person

    Jordan Roark: You’re not a professional script writer. You’re only studying business. Why would I want to know what you think about my script.

    She is treating him like he doesn’t know anything about script writing only because he is not a professional script writer.

    3. Argumentum ad Populum- Appeal to popular prejudice

    Charlie Below: A lot of couples have dogs; I think we should get one.

    He is convinced that a lot of couples have dogs. The popular prejudice here is “a lot of couples have dogs.” That’s why he thought of having one as well.

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum-Appeal to Force

    Jordan Roark: Pick up that cigarette or I’ll hit you!

    She saw man ice skating while smoking and threw his cigarette in the middle of the ice skating ring and she approached the man and threatened him to pick up the cigarette or she will hit him with his own ice puck.

    5. Argumetum Misericodiam- Appeal to pity

    Leo: I need to live too, I got to a have a girl companion. Could you be my girl companion? I don’t have a girl companion. I’m so lonely at my apartment. I don’t have anyone to talk to.

    The appeal to pity here is he is trying to convince her to be his female companion by telling his pitiful and pathetic situation.

    6. Ignoratio Elenchi-Missing the Point

    Jordan: You’re girlfriend, she broke your heart, didn’t she?
    Soldier: Yes!
    Jordan: She left you. She broke her promise and betrayed you.
    Soldier: Yes! Yes, she did!
    Jordan: Some of us are meant to suffer! Some of us are led to believe that we have this certain destiny, and then it just gets snatched away.But we have to stay alive. Because we have to see how the story ends.

    It is true that some of us are meant to suffer maybe because we did something bad and the suffering is a punishment we deserve but the point here is the soldier pointed the gun at innocent civillians and has the intention of murder, if he lives he must be court martialed.

    7. Complex Question

    Leo: You two are seeing each other a lot at night, is she good in bed?

    Like the example in the book, this is jumping into conclusion that they are sleeping with each other just by seeing each other every night.

    8. False Cause

    After parting a long time from Jordan Roark,
    Charlie Below: Seeing her again only means its destiny.

    It is not destiny. It is only a coincidence for them to see each other. That’s why the false cause here is assuming destiny has made them see each other again.

    9. Petitio Principii-Begging the Question

    Charlie is talking to the soldier,
    Charlie Below: Killing yourself is a stupid plan because you’ll be dead…

    The argument is arguing in a circle.

    10. Accident( sweeping generalization)

    Leo together with the security guard looking at the television camera where they see the soldier
    Leo: He has a gun! I think he is a maniac killer!

    He has a gun because he is a soldier and he might be pointing it at innocent civilians but he is far from being a maniac and a killer because he is only broken hearted.

    11. Amphiboly

    Charlie Below: I was born in French Lick, Indiana.

    It means he is telling them that “French Lick” is scandalous place to come from.

    Other meaning is he really did came from French Lick, Indiana and he is telling them without maliciousness.

    Items 12-20 are from the cartoon Avatar The Last Air Bender

    12. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    Katara: The fire nation killed my mother. That means all fire benders are bad!

    Since the fire nation killed Katara’s mother, she assumed that all fire benders are bad. But not all are bad or evil. At earlier times, fire benders are friends with other nations.

    13. Accent

    Aang: Appa(Aang’s flying bison) eats with Momo(Aang’s pet) when his hungry.

    Who is hungry, Appa or Momo?

    14. Composition

    Sokka: Earth benders are strong and muscular. I know an earth bender when I see one and she doesn’t look like one. She’s small and puny. She looks more like a helpless girl to me.

    The girl was capable of earth bending and she is really quite good at it. Composing the evidence that earth benders are strong and muscular, Sokka assumed that she is not.

    15. Division

    Aang: Airl ball is popular to all air nomads. I thought its also known in water tribes like you.

    Aang is talking to Sokka and Aang assumed that air ball is known in all nations because it is a popular game for air nomads.

    16. Red Herring ( Missing the point)

    Suffering people from the fire nation: The avatar abandoned us because the whole world is terrorized by the fire nation.

    What the people said is faulty because it diverts the issue from the abandoning of the avatar to a different issue about the terrorizing of the fire nation.

    17. Slippery Slope

    Sokka: You mustn’t fire bend! If you do your going to become a fire bender and fire benders are bad and you may become the next fire lord and you’ll start conquering other nations!

    It doesn’t necessarily follow that being a fire bender can turn you to an evil persona and become the next fire lord.

    18. False Analogy

    Aang: Riding on a giant dragon snake is not dangerous. Fighting the fire bender is dangerous when there are innocent people in the way. So riding on a giant dragon snake is dangerous when there are innocent people nearby.

    Riding on a giant dragon snake is dangerous. Comparing it to fighting fire benders with innocent people is wrong. The fight is different from horsing around with wild animals.

    19. Straw Man

    Fire bending is evil because fire benders used it to kill Katara’s mother. Killing an innocent civilian is considered a murder. Therefore, fire benders are murderers.

    Not all fire benders are murderers. In earlier times, fire benders used fire bending as a tool to help other nations and fellow fire benders.

    20. False Dilemma

    Sokka: If we tell the earth king what his advisor is lying to him and let everyone know that he has been fooled by his advisors, no one will respect him anymore and Ba Sing Se(The earth kingdom capital) will fall apart and the fire nation will now conquer it. Let’s just go and let the dai lee( advisors of the earth king) handle the earth kingdom.

    It’s a false dilemma because there is no other choice but to accept a lesser evil.

  20. 1. Argumentum Ad Populum
    -Due to the popular belief of the adults about having no future in drawing the character stopped pursuing that course.
    “The grown-ups’ response, this time was to advise me to lay aside my drawings of boa constrictors…That is why, at the age of six, I gave up what might have been a magnificent career as a painter.”
    -The Little Prince by: Antoine de Saint-Exupery
    ———————————————————————————
    2. Non Causa Pro Causa
    –The fact that everything is small in the little prince’s home is not the cause of the first statement.
    “Do you think that this sheep will have to have a great deal of grass?”
    “Why?”
    “Because where I live everything is very small…”
    -The Little Prince by: Antoine de Saint-Exupery
    ———————————————————————————
    3. Argumentum Ad Vercundiam
    – The person who identified the name of the planet is not an astronomer. Therefore, he has illegitimate authority on the matter.
    “I have reason to believe that the planet from which the little prince came is the asteroid known as B-612”
    -The Little Prince by: Antoine de Saint-Exupery
    ———————————————————————————
    4. Argumentum Ad Hominem
    – The garments of the Turkish astronomer made his findings unbelievable, but the clothes have nothing to do with his discovery.
    “The asteroid has only once been seen through the telescope. That was by a Turkish astronomer, in 1909. On making his discovery, the astronomer had presented it to the International Astronomical Congress, in a great demonstration. But he was in Turkish costume, and so nobody would believe what he said.”
    -The Little Prince by: Antoine de Saint-Exupery
    ———————————————————————————
    5. Ignorantio Elenchi
    – The idea of the premise establishes another apt conclusion.
    But then I remembered how my studies had been concentrated on geography, history, arithmetic and grammar, and I told the little chap (a little crossly, too) that I did not know how to draw.
    -The Little Prince by: Antoine de Saint-Exupery
    ———————————————————————————
    6. Argumentum Misericordiam
    – Lyndon Johnson is fighting for the equality of African Americans with the use of “for the cries of pain” and “protests of the oppressed.” Therefore, he is appealing to the pity of the people.
    “There is no cause for pride in what has happened in Selma. There is no cause for self-satisfaction in the long denial of equal rights of millions of Americans. For the cries of pain and the hymns and protests of oppressed people have summoned into convocation all the majesty of this great government — the government of the greatest nation on earth.”
    -We Shall Overcome (Address to Joint Session of Congress — March 15, 1965) by: Lyndon Johnson
    ———————————————————————————
    7. Accident
    – The character generalized a separate case that it was not intended to cover.
    Clark: “Everyone needs a friend.”
    Kyle: “No they don’t. Because they’ll always betray you in the end.”
    -Smallville
    ———————————————————————————
    8. Amphiboly
    – The statement have more than one possible meaning.
    Lionel Luthor: “We don’t need to play games, son.”
    Lex Luthor; “Dad, games are all we got.”
    -Smallville
    ———————————————————————————
    9. Red Herring
    – The character sidetracks the conversation from the real topic.
    Clark: “Chloe, you can’t just go snooping around someone’s house.”
    Chloe: “It’s a mansion. It’s designed for snooping.”
    -Smallville
    ———————————————————————————
    10. Converse Accident
    – The character generalized carelessly.
    Dr. House: “Men are pigs. [They will] pretty much have sex with anyone, fat, skinny, married, single, complete strangers, relatives.”
    -House M.D.
    ———————————————————————————
    11. False Dilemma
    – The character claims that there are only two alternatives, but there are more plausible choices. Furthermore, one of the two alternatives is ludicrous that it is unacceptable, which results to the selection of the other choice.
    Lionel: “You know, Lex, I’m tired of your constant attempts at mutiny.
    Lex: “Yeah, well, you didn’t leave me too many options. It was either that or the plank.”
    -Smallville
    ———————————————————————————
    12. Straw Man
    – The arguer makes it appear that his argument is strong, when in fact, it is weak.
    Foreman: “Occam’s Razor. The simplest explanation is always the best.”
    House: “And you think one is simpler than two.”
    Cameron: “Pretty sure it is, yeah.”
    House: “Baby shows up. Chase tells you that two people exchanged fluids to create this being. I tell you that one stork dropped the little tyke off in a diaper. You going to go with the two or the one?”
    Foreman: “I think your argument is specious.”
    House: “I think your tie is ugly. Why is one simpler than two? It’s lower, lonelier… is it simpler?”
    -House M.D.
    ———————————————————————————
    13. Accent
    – Depending on the emphasis when reading the statement, it might be an expression of mockery or deep concern.
    Wilson: “The rat is actually sick? That thing could infect the entire hospital!”
    -House M.D.
    ———————————————————————————
    14. Slippery Slope
    – The final conclusion results from a chain reaction.
    Jerry: “No, not hey. I meant hey! And when you’re mom said to put on a jacket she meant go get one, not pop one on.”
    Alex: “What’s the big deal? It’s just a jacket.”
    Theresa: “The big deal is today it’s just a jacket. How long is it gonna be before you’re popping a calculator into your math test?”
    Jerry: “First it’s cheating on math, then it’s cheating on everything, then this happens, then that happens, then you’re in jail.”
    -Wizards of Waverly Place
    ———————————————————————————
    15. False Analogy
    – Two cases are compared but they are not really similar to each other.
    Cuddy: “I need you to wear your lab coat.”
    House: “I need two days of outrageous sex with someone obscenely younger than you. Like half your age.”
    -House M.D.
    ———————————————————————————
    16. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    – The statement is assumed to be true because it has not been proven false.
    Rebecca: “Is he a good man?”
    Wilson: “He’s a good doctor.”
    -House M.D.
    ———————————————————————————
    17. Complex Question
    – There is a concealed assumption aside from the obvious sought information.
    Pete Ross: “But aren’t you married to Lana in your imagination?”
    -Smallville

  21. 1. Equivocation

    THE FIGHT CLUB (movie)
    Tyler: “Our generation has had no Great Depression, no Great War. Our war is spiritual. Our depression is our lives.”
    —In the first instance the word “depression” refers to “economic crisis”, In the second occurrence, it refers to “personal problem”.

    2. Argumentum ad Baculum

    HANCOCK (movie)
    “You’re gonna carry it for me. Yor’re gonna take me safely away from here with the money, or else I’ll be cleaning up these hostages with the bomb.”
    —He treats to kill the hostages if Hancock will not accept his orders.

    3. False Dilemma

    JUST LIKE HEAVEN (movie)
    Elizabeth: “Look, you have two realities to chose from: first one, being that a woman has come to your life in a very unconventional way and she happens to need your assistance, the second one is, that you’re an insane person and you’re sitting in a park now talking to yourself.”
    —In this scenario, Elizabeth claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable to Dave’s situation, so he would choose to help her. But in reality, there are more alternatives than the two stated. He could have refused both options.

    4. Argumentum Misericordiam

    ONE TREE HILL (tv series)
    Dan: “I took it as a sign that I wasn’t finish on this earth; that my life wasn’t complete… so you see?… I need to fix it. I need to fix all of it; you, us. I need that piece before I die. Son, let me help you with what little time I have left. Nathan, please… son, don’t deny a dying man’s last wish.”
    —Dan is trying to persuade Nathan by arousing pity

    5. False Cause

    HARRY POTTER AND THE ORDER OF THE PHEONIX (book)
    Harry: “She’s taken points off Gryffindor because I’m having my hand sliced open every night!”
    —He treats as the cause of a thing what is not really its cause. The real cause is because of his behaviour.

    6. Petito Pricipii

    HOUSE (tv series)
    Dr. House: “Yes, the fact that it didn’t prove anything didn’t confirm anything… excellent point.”
    —The words “didn’t prove” is restated to “didn’t confirm” and then used it as a premise to prove the very same conclusion

    7. Accent

    JUST LIKE HEAVEN (movie)
    Dave: “I’ve been seeing someone.”
    —it is ambiguous because:
    1. Its intended tone of voice is uncertain.
    2. Its stress is unclear.
    3. It is torn from context.
    What Dave said was not clear. Was he dating someone or was literally seeing someone, a ghost.

    8. Red Herring

    PUSHING DAISIES (tv series)
    Ned: “I asked you to not to use the word zombie, it’s disrespectful. Stumbling around squaking for brains, it’s not how they do. And undead? Nobody wants to be un anything. Why begin a statement with a negative? It’s like say I don’t disagree. Just say you agree.”
    —Diverts the discussion from the real subject to a related but negative one.

    9.Complex Question

    HANCOCK
    “Are you crack pot?”
    —It was asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in that question. It is jumping into conclusion without warrant.

    10. Argumentum ad Hominem

    THE O.C. (tv series)
    Summer: “Eeww… He’s a drop out. He’s poor and dirty. Stay away from him.”
    — The attack is directly against a person, seeking to defame or discredit him. This fallacy is called “poisoning the well”.

    11. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    HOUSE (tv series)
    “It can’t be cancer, ‘coz you still have to see the other results to be sure”
    —It argued that it can’t be true that it is cancer because it has not been proven yet.

    12. Accident

    SOUTH PARK (cartoon/series)
    Cartman: “You’re a Jew, you’re a shit that must be chambered to death!”
    —One applies a generalization to an individual case that it does not properly govern

    13. Converse Accident

    NAPOLEON DYNAMITE (movie)
    “You know… there’s like a butt-load of gangs at this school. This one gang kept wanting me to join because I’m pretty good with a bo-staff”
    —Committed when one moves carelessly or too quickly from a single case to an indefensibly broad generalization. It presumes that what is true of a few things is true of everything of that kind.

    14. Slipery Slope

    HOUSE (tv series)
    Dr. House: “Lab shows that our patient is healthier, she’s gonna get sicker, then she’s gonna die.”
    —Conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction. If the patient is getting healthier then it is unlikely that she will get sicker and die.

    15. Division

    SOUTH PARK (cartoon/series)
    Cartman : “Its the jews who killed Jesus Kyle, Youre a jew, so you’re a shitty murderer.”
    —Arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its parts

    16. Argumentum ad Populum

    SOUTH PARK
    Cartman: “Haven’t you heard? This is the latest fad in town. Everyone has it, so I bought it”
    —Appeals to popularity held beliefs as premises to a conclusion. Cartman arouses “mob mentality”.

  22. One Piece
    1. Argumentum ad Hominem-abusive ad hominem
    Crescent Moon Gyari: Bastard! Just who do you think you are?! Don’t think you’ll get away with this!
    -he defames Luffy, even from just saying “bastard”

    2. Accent
    Crescent Moon Gyari: But this time you picked the wrong enemy! You have angered a person no one in the world wants to make an enemy of – the man who will enter the “Best 3,” Gyari…
    -its unclear if he is pertaining to himself all the time he was talking

    3. Converse Accident
    (in a conversation with Luffy regarding “good” pirates and the bad ones)
    Shiruku:Either one will just wind up plundering in the end, won’t they?
    -she assumes every pirate will just turn out bad in the end

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Luffy: Step on it and I’ll kill you.
    -fear replaces the reason why the thing he was talking about should not be stepped on

    5. Red Herring
    Boa Hancock: No matter what i do I will always be forgiven. Why, you ask? It is because I’m beautiful!
    -it diverts the issue from how she will always be forgiven to her being beautiful

    6. Complex Question
    Zoro: Did you finish the fight?
    -he asked if Luffy finished the fight without even asking if there had been a fight

    Eyeshield 21
    7. Slippery Slope
    School Official: Yes, getting complaints isn’t good. Troublesome problems aren’t good. Anyway, something dangerous like American Football isn’t good.
    -the conclusion is simply not related to the premises

    Bourne Ultimatum
    8. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    As far as I’m concerned Bourne is a serious threat until proven otherwise.
    -they consider Boune dangerous because they cannot prove that he is not

    Meet Joe Black
    9. Accident
    Parrish: Allison, I trust you. This is your thing.
    Allison: But this is your birthday.
    -it’s not necessary that Parrish chose what is to be done just because it is his birthday

    Amphiboly
    10. Susan: …here comes our boy now–shall we?
    -the ‘boy’ may be taken as a male but in this situation it’s actually a helicopter

    Spongebob Squarepants
    11. Argumentum ad verecundiam
    Spongebob: Squidward said I could help by burying myself!
    -Squidward just wants to make a fool of Spongebob, he’s in no place to tell what to do

    ugh. T.T

  23. From the book “MERCY” by Julie Garwood..(#1-12)

    1. “Sounds like love to me. I’ll bet he’s married. A ll the good-looking men are married. This one’s sure built.”
    -A nurse told Annie- (Composition)

    2. “Doing family practice out in the boonies,” Cooper said. “Mike will be doing a little cutting, but not much. It’s a waste, all right.”
    -Cooper talking to Theo- (Slippery Slope)

    3. “A kicker. Mr.Freeland, a music teacher, says that ought to be my position on the team. I can kick a football forty yards without breaking a sweat.
    -Kevin talking to Theo- (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    4. “He’s wooing her is what he’s doing.
    -Big Daddy Jake speaking to Theo- (Accent)

    5. Theo winked at her and said, “If I play my cards right, you’ll come to me.”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Amphiboly)

    6. “Doctors aren’t allowed to eat anything that tastes good?”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Accent)

    7. “I’m slow and easy with everything I do.”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Accent)

    8. “Reason number one,” she muttered, “he’ll break my heart.”
    -Michelle talking to herself- (Begging the Question)

    9. “If theo stays another couple of weeks, he’ll have to have a bypass,” she said. “You’re killing the man with kindness.”
    -Michelle to Daddy Jake- (Accident)

    10. Daddy Jake was thinking of Noah to be a better fisherman.
    “He did mention he’s done a whole deck of a lot more fishing in the past four years.”
    -Daddy Jake explaining to Michelle- (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    11. “I dated Rebecca for a year before we got married, and you know what?—I didn’t know her as well as I already know you. Life’s too short, Michelle. I want to be with you. I want to grow old with you.”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Composition)

    12. “I love you.”
    -Michelle honestly told Theo- (Accent)

    *Came from the book “Taste of Innocence” by Stephanie Laurens (#13-20)

    13. “Just say the words.” Impatiently colored his tone. “This will be my last act before I leave- for once a purely altruistic gesture.But…”—–his gaze sharpened—-“don’t pray, try to stretch that uncharacteristic emotion too far.” He paused then said, “It’s time to start talking.”
    -Malcolm Sinclair to Lord Charlie Morwellan- (Appeal to Force)

    14. “I love you. You know I do. I’ve been searching for the right words, but these are the only ones I know. You are everything to me. My sun, my moon, my stars—my life. Without you, I could no longer be me—the me I need to,a nd want to be. I would give my life for yours, at any timeof any day, without hesitation. But I’d much rather live my life alongside you—and care for you and love you for as long as fate allows. That’s the only reality I now know. A
    15.
    16.
    17.
    18.
    19.
    20.

  24. 1. Appeal to Pity
    [Mean Girls]
    ” Some of us shouldn’t have to take this workshop because some of us are just victims in this situation.”
    –by stating that some are just victims of the situation, the speaker is asking to be exempted from participating in the activity.

    2. Complex Question
    [Nothing Lasts Forever-Sidney Sheldon]
    “Dr Taylor, was John Cronin the first patient you murdered at Embarcadero County Hospital?”
    –the statement is considered to be a fallacy because it assumed that the doctor had, in fact, killed her patient.

    3. Begging the Question
    [I Am Sam]
    Lucy: Why are men bald?
    Sam: Sometimes they’re bald because their head is shiny and they don’t have hair on it. So their head is just more of their face.
    –it is a fallacy in which the premises include the claim that the conclusion is true.

    4. Appela to Inappropriate Authority
    [Mean Girls]
    ” I know it’s wrong to skip class, but Janis said we were friends, and I was in no position to pass up friends.”

    5. Attack on the Person
    [Mean Girls]
    “So why are you still messing with Regina, Cady? I’ll tell you why. Because you’re a mean girl.”

    6. Appeal to Popular Prejudice
    [Playdates and Permission Slips]
    “ Don’t get him William Regal, because everyone thinks he’s a doodie head.”

    7. Appeal to Force
    [Genuine Lies-Nora Roberts]
    ” If I ever hear of you doing business with him again, I’ll kill you myself – in a way that even Delrickio would respect and admire”

    8. Missing the Point
    [Charlie and the Chocolate Factory-Roald Dahl]
    ” I was never as short as you when I was a child. Know why? Because I distinctly remember putting a hat on top of my head”

    9. Slippery Slope
    [Mean Girls]
    “Don’t have sex, because you’ll get pregnant and die.”

    10. Converse Accident
    [The Name of the Game – Nora Roberts]
    “I’ve been around actors all my life. I understand the impossibility, especially for a talented actor, of maintaining a private life that keeps anything truly private. And I know that even with the best of intentions and effort, relationships suffer. If I believed in marriage – which I don’t – I still wouldn’t believe in marriage to an actor.”

    11. False Cause
    [Pride and Prejudice – Jane Austen]
    ” If every man does does not end the evening in love with you, then I am no judge of beauty.”

    12. Amphiboly
    [Genuine Lies – Nora Roberts]
    Brandon: She hardly ever yells. But she worries all the time. Like I might run out in the street and get hit by a car, or eat too much candy, or forget my homework. And I hardly ever.
    Eve: Get hit by a car?
    Brandon: no, forget my homework.
    –the speaker was not able to clearly say the meaning of his statement ‘I hardly ever’, which confused his listener.

    13. Accent
    [Playdates and Permission Slips]
    “He reminded her that Mrs. Munroe was already bringing her a replacement doll, but only if she behaved in the meantime.”

    14. Red Herring
    [X-Men]
    “I’m afraid it’s unfair to call mutants dangerous, Senator Kelly. After all, the wrong person behind the wheel of a car can be dangerous.”

    15. False Analogy
    [Titanic]
    Rose: I am not a foreman in one of your mills that you can command. I am your fiancée.
    Cal Hockley: My fian… my fiancée! Yes, you are, and my wife. My wife in practice if not yet by law, so you will honor me. You will honor me the way a wife is required to honor a husband.

    16. Appeal to Ignorance
    [Titanic]
    Ruth: So this is the ship they say is unsinkable.
    Cal Hockley: It is unsinkable. God himself could not sink this ship.

    17. Equivocation
    [Death Note]
    “I am justice! I am the god of the new world, saving it from evil and ridding it of fear. Those who betray God are the evil ones.”

  25. 1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Bruce Wayne: “These people believe anything they can’t explain is magic.”
    In this statement, Bruce Wayne was annoyed by the people because after seeing unexplainable things they immediately jumped into a conclusion that it is magic. In other terms, it is unexplainable therefore it is magic.
    2. Argumentum Misericordiam
    Mary Jane: “Please Peter, even if my life would be in danger if I am with you I would stay by your side and I will never leave you because if you leave me I don’t know how could I live, don’t leave me”
    Mary Jane is begging for Peter to never leave his side. He is making arguments for Peter to accept these facts in order for them to be together.
    3.Argumentum ad hominem consists of replying to an argument or factual claim by attacking or appealing to a characteristic or belief of the person making the argument or claim, rather than by addressing the substance of the argument or producing evidence against the claim. The process of proving or disproving the claim is thereby subverted, and the argumentum ad hominem works to change the subject.
    Daisuke’s sister: “I’m sorry I know that it is foolish to trouble you with all of this”
    Aikawa: “Not at all it’s okay I understand”
    Daisuke’s sister: “There is no way you would understand! What would a high school girl like you who would be happy just to get her period understand?!”
    In this part of the manga series entitled Bitter Virgin a girl named Aikawa transferred to a new university where Daisuke studies. He discovered by accident the secret his classmate kept to herself. It is the fact that she gave birth to a child and decided to transfer to another location in order for her to forget this terrible incident in her life. Daisuke’s sister immediately concluded that Aikawa is impossible to give birth because she was just a high school student. It is because most of us think that pregnancy comes after marriage.
    4. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Daisuke: “What are you talking about we are not in a relationship?!”
    Kazuki: “But you hugged me then that meant you love me”
    One part of the Bitter Virgin manga series is where Daisuke hugged Kazuki just to differentiate his feelings for other girls than with Aikawa. Kazuki then thought that that meant love of Daisuke towards her. The fallacy of Ignorantio Elenchi is violated because the premises miss the point, purporting to support one conclusion while the fact supporting or establishing another. When you hug a person it does not mean that you are already in a relationship.
    5. Argumentum ad Populum
    Sir Guy: “Naruto, for your special training I would give you a special suit to improve your training and skills. It is so flexible you should try this one! Do you want to have it? Everybody likes it. Look at how Lee loves it”
    Lee: “You should try this one Naruto.”
    Naruto: “That ninja suit is so cool”
    This fallacy is committed when one appeals to popularly held beliefs as premises to a conclusion. In this part before Naruto leaves Konoha for his special training with Jaraiya. They met Guy on their way out of the land and so Sir Guy gave him the suit, and just because Lee thinks it is trendy because he idolizes Sir Guy, he concluded that he should wear one because of the suits popularity, which is only according to Lee and Guy.
    6. Argumentum ad Baculum
    This fallacy is committed when careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insinuated threats to bring acceptance of some conclusion.
    Pain: “Where is the nine-tail beast? Spit it out. If you don’t, I will kill you”
    Pains statement towards Iruka-sensei threatened his life. It is an “appeal to force” because he is forcing Iruka sensei to do his wish and if he disobeys he will have it in his own way.
    7. False Cause
    Hiruma: “Cena will lead us in winning the Christmas Bowl because he runs fast and because of it we win lots of games”
    The fallacy is committed when one treats as the cause of a thing what is not really its cause. In this part of Eyeshield, Hiruma immediately concluded because of the reason that Cena was fast and because they one on the same event last time because he was there.
    8. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    Bella: “Do you get burn under the sun because you are a vampire?”
    Edward Cullen: “Of course, not.”
    Bella: “But isn’t it what the televisions and editorials were summarizing about vampires?”
    This fallacy is committed when the premises of an argument appeal to the judgment of some party or parties having no legitimate claim to authority in the matter of hand. In this part of the book twilight Bella discovered that Edward Cullen was a vampire and due to the influences of media made she believe that a vampire is burned under the sunlight which was proven wrong by Edward.
    9. Petitio Principii
    Peter Parker: “Great power comes with great responsibility.”
    It is said that the decision that he made is because of the great power he got so he had the great responsibility. He is reasoning in circles because he restated the term by another term and use it to prove the same term.
    10. Composition
    Joker: “We are here because batman is here”
    When in argument one reasons fallaciously from the properties of the part or parts to the properties of the whole itself. In this part joker consider himself as the conclusion because of Batman’s existence.
    11. Complex
    Sae: “Have you quit making love with your girls?”
    In the manga D-ash a Japanese sprinter had a dream of accomplishing 9 seconds in a 100 meter sprint. He is a womanizer that had sex with a lot of girls until he met her childhood friend Sae. Sae confirmed if he quit doing his womanizing act. Her question has a double meaning and that she was assuming that he is still making fool out of girls.
    12. False Analogy
    Kyuubi: “I am powerful, I will help you become powerful. Just remove the seal and you will be powerful too.”
    In this part of the series Naruto, the nine-tailed fox tempts Naruto to remove the seal so that he could be released. He makes a bad analogy making Naruto that if he removes the seal he would become powerful.
    13. False Dilemma
    Morpheus: This is your last chance. After this, there is no turning back. You take the blue pill – the story ends, you wake up in your bed and believe whatever you want to believe. You take the red pill – you stay in Wonderland and I show you how deep the rabbit-hole goes.
    In this statement in the movie matrix, Neo was only given two choices but actually there were a lot of choices left for him like the others who didn’t take the pill but ended up being devoured by the agents.
    14. Straw Man
    Ichigo: “Our companions are our greatest allies it is where we draw our strength. Leaving our friends in times of trouble is bad. Therefore, how could one be strong if you can’t even help your companion?”
    In the anime bleach, Ichigo is always helping out and carrying the burden by himself. In his belief he becomes strong whenever he helps others. He committed a fallacy because he made a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than it really is.
    15. Amphiboly
    Sibyll: “The boy who will be born by the end of July shall bring forth the Dark Lord’s descend.”
    In this statement, Sibyll prophecy talked about the one who would defeat Voldemort that would be born by the end of July. Unfortunately there were two great magicians namely Harry Potter and Neville Longbottom that were born on the same day. Sibyll did not say who, but it was clear that he would be killed.
    16. Accent
    Edward Cullen: “Seventeen. *A while*”
    In this statement, Bella asked Edward how old is he. Edward then answered 17 then followed by another statement that changed his tone there could be another meaning for this.
    17. Accident
    “Haruka is a violent lady so all ladies are violent”
    While Haruka was known as a violent woman, this is not true for some of Haruka’s friend because actually she is kind hearted.
    18. Converse Accident
    Sakuragi: “All geniuses can do the dunk because they are tall and skillful. Since I am Genius I can do the dunk while Rukawa is a small fox who is a failure which means he cannot accomplish a dunk”
    In Sakuragi’s statement he is making a conclusion that only geniuses could do the dunk. From being a genius to being able to accomplish a dunk is a careless transformation from genius to being able to accomplish a dunk.
    19. Division
    Bella: “Edward is a vampire, Vampires are dangerous. Then I couldn’t stay with Edward because he is dangerous for me but I love him”
    The term vampire separated the ideas for Edward as a dangerous individual. It should be taken as a unit.
    20. Slippery Slope
    Bella: “Stop the car Edward!”
    Edward: “We must go away he is following us. If I leave you he would definitely kill you. He is a tracker. Trackers will never be satisfied as long as he does not kill his target. I must take you away. Take you away somewhere safe. Maybe you must return to your mom. You will be safe there. “
    Bella: “Stop it Edward we must think first!”
    In this argument, Edward continuously states the conclusion to different arguments down to the slippery slope to a final consequence that is clearly undesirable.

  26. From the book “MERCY” by Julie Garwood..(#1-12)

    1. “Sounds like love to me. I’ll bet he’s married. A ll the good-looking men are married. This one’s sure built.”
    -A nurse told Annie- (Composition)

    2. “Doing family practice out in the boonies,” Cooper said. “Mike will be doing a little cutting, but not much. It’s a waste, all right.”
    -Cooper talking to Theo- (Slippery Slope)

    3. “A kicker. Mr.Freeland, a music teacher, says that ought to be my position on the team. I can kick a football forty yards without breaking a sweat.
    -Kevin talking to Theo- (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    4. “He’s wooing her is what he’s doing.
    -Big Daddy Jake speaking to Theo- (Accent)

    5. Theo winked at her and said, “If I play my cards right, you’ll come to me.”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Amphiboly)

    6. “Doctors aren’t allowed to eat anything that tastes good?”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Accent)

    7. “I’m slow and easy with everything I do.”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Accent)

    8. “Reason number one,” she muttered, “he’ll break my heart.”
    -Michelle talking to herself- (Begging the Question)

    9. “If theo stays another couple of weeks, he’ll have to have a bypass,” she said. “You’re killing the man with kindness.”
    -Michelle to Daddy Jake- (Accident)

    10. Daddy Jake was thinking of Noah to be a better fisherman.
    “He did mention he’s done a whole deck of a lot more fishing in the past four years.”
    -Daddy Jake explaining to Michelle- (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    11. “I dated Rebecca for a year before we got married, and you know what?—I didn’t know her as well as I already know you. Life’s too short, Michelle. I want to be with you. I want to grow old with you.”
    -Theo to Michelle- (Composition)

    12. “I love you.”
    -Michelle honestly told Theo- (Accent)

    *Came from the book “Taste of Innocence” by Stephanie Laurens (#13-20)

    13. “Just say the words.” Impatiently colored his tone. “This will be my last act before I leave- for once a purely altruistic gesture.But…”—–his gaze sharpened—-”don’t pray, try to stretch that uncharacteristic emotion too far.” He paused then said, “It’s time to start talking.”
    -Malcolm Sinclair to Lord Charlie Morwellan- (Appeal to Force)

    14. “I love you. You know I do. I’ve been searching for the right words, but these are the only ones I know. You are everything to me. My sun, my moon, my stars—my life. Without you, I could no longer be me—the me I need to,a nd want to be. I would give my life for yours, at any timeof any day, without hesitation. But I’d much rather live my life alongside you—and care for you and love you for as long as fate allows. That’s the only reality I now know. And if I haven’t had the courage to say the words before, then I intend to say them to you everyday for the rest of our lives.” He lifted her hand to his lips, and kissed their linked fingers. “Never doubt it.”
    -Charlie to his wife Sarah- (Appeal to pity)

    15. “I suspect you recall that in agreein to marry you I insisted our marriage be a passionate one. If I remember aright, your answer was that you saw no impediment to that. Fool that I was, I believed you. I honestly believed that our marriage–all of it would be a more than a hollow shell.”
    -Sarah arguing with Charlie- (Converse Accident)

    16. “All you see,” he murmured, “is now part of your domain. Yours to rule.”
    – Charlie to Sarah- (Accent)

    17. “You’re a goddess and an offering, both at onece. You’re the woman I worship, and the woman I must have. The woman I will take, but in the taking…I, too, willingly yield.”
    -Charlie to Sarah- (Division)

    18.His eyes blazed. “Why didn’t you tell me?”
    -Charlie to Sarah- (Accent)

    19. “Why?” With an effort, she kept her tone even , her eyes locked on the raging fury in his. “Because you made it clear that the orphanage ws solely my concern, no responsibilty of yours, that matters pertaining to it held no interest whatever for you. You made it very clear that the orphanage was a part of my personal life, and not in any way a part of yours.”
    -Sarah admitted to Charlie- (Accent and Division)

    20. “He was a strange man.”
    “A man who’d never known love.”
    -Sarah to Charlie; Charlie to Sarah- (Attack on the person)

    _Ser, inulit ko ulit ung pgsesend kc naghang po ung pc kaya kulang ung nasend sa una…_

  27. *I order you to go back to our master or else I will use my powers over you. After all only one gardener would not be a bother to master. – Souseiseki(Rozen Maiden)

    Argumentum ad baculum souseiseki appeals to the threat of force instead of reasons to cause acceptance of Suiseiseki’s running away from their master.

    * Either we furlough all federal employees, or the Country will go bankrupt by the end of October.

    False dilemma The reason this argument is valid, yet not sound is that there are some other options which can be used to prevent national bankruptcy.

    * If the Congress and the President cannot solve the Budget problems, then the Stock market will take a nose dive. Yesterday the market dropped 100 points. This means that the Congress and the President will not solve the Budget crisis in time.

    Affirming the Consequent This argument is fallacious, even though all of the premises might be true, since it is possible that the market dropped for reasons other than the budget crisis.

    * If he denies that he knows her, then he’s been cheating on me. He admitted that he knows her. So he hasn’t been cheating on me.

    Denying the Antecedent this argument is often persuasive because we tend to assume that if the statement is the case, then the statement is also the case.

    * God exists because the bible says that he does. We all know that the bible is accurate because it was written by inspired men, men inspired by God to write down his words.

    Begging the Question in order to take this as evidence for the existence of God, you already have to believe in God. So the argument really doesn’t prove anything, it just repeats one of the premises as the conclusion. The problem is that the premise needs independent support, which is hard to find in this case.

    *You came here too so you will play with me right Shinku? – HinaIchigo(Rozen Maiden)

    False Clause HinaIchigo infers that because Shinku came after they start playing, Shinku will play with them.

    *Rozen Mysticas choose their masters with same souls as the dolls, you are my master so we stand on the same sea of soul – Shinku(Rozen Maiden)

    Accident it is argued that what is true in general is true universally and without qualification.

    *Tsuramai Shiori is dangerous and violent, and so as Nishiharu Haruka. So all girls are like dinosaurs – Shingo(Girls Saurus)

    Hasty Generalization in the argument, Shingo consider only exceptional or too few cases and generalizes to a rule that fits them alone.

    *All girls are scary and violent – Shingo(Girls Saurus)

    Composition in the argument, Shingo reasons fallaciously from the properties of some of the girls he was with of the whole itself.

    *Get lost you piece of junk – Shinku(Rozen Maiden)

    Argumentum ad Hominem Shinku attacks Suiginto with some unpleasant words.

    * Elyse is not dirty a while ago – My balls

    Accent in the argument, being not dirty is emphasized or stressed producing quite different meanings from the original.

    *Toujo don’t have a boyfriend because she haven’t tell me about it yet – Manaka Junpei(Strawberry 100%)

    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam it is argued that Toujo don’t have boyfriend on the basis that it has not been proved false, or that it is false because it has not been proved true.

    *Everyone is going to make a movie right? I would like to go with you – Nishino Tsukasa(Strawberry 100%)

    Argumentum ad Populum Nishino attempts to gain popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the feelings and enthusiasms of the multitude.

    *HinaIchigo, you can’t use your powers because you’re, you’re, you’re small – Suiseiseki(Rozen Maiden)

    Amphibology in the argument, a statement’s meaning is unclear because of the loose or awkward way in which the words are combined.

    *All those things you bought are expensive so this doll must be expensive too – Naomi(Rozen Maiden)

    Division in the argument, all the things Jun bought is expensive but it does not need that the doll must be expensive too.

    *Asking a question makes you look smart in class, but cheating is like asking a question so cheating makes you look smart – Komiyama(Strawberry 100%)

    Equivocation Komiyama confuses different meanings in a single word or phrase.

    *If you don’t give me some attention, I’ll cry out loud – HinaIchigo(Rozen Maiden)

    Argumentum ad Misericordiam HinaIchigo appeals to pity instead of sound reasoning to gain acceptance of a conclusion.

    *We will follow all Shiori-sempai tells us – School Madonna’s bodyguards(Girls Saurus)

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam nstead of sound argument the school madonna’s bodyguards appeal to the feeling of respect for Shiori to win assent to a conclusion.

    *Can a person quit smoking? Of course — as long as he has sufficient willpower and really wants to quit. – n obvious non-smoker

    Circular Reasoning The intended argument simply repeats itself, disguised as a logical statement. The warrant is simple: “A person can quit because he can.” True, any smoker can quit, but the task is not as obvious or as easy to accomplish as the statement suggests. The arguer must provide reasons to suggest how a person can overcome an addiction, not to simply identify the obvious use of will power. This example also falls into distortion and the only reason fallacies.

    *No, I will lose to you; I am a high class assassin – Scarface(Full Metal Panic)

    Complex Question in the argument, Scarface insist that he can’t lose to sergeant Sagara because of faulty reason.
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    practice makes perfect but nobody is perfect so why practice?

  28. Informal Fallacies

    1.) I saw Cady Heron wearing army pants and flip-flops, so I bought army pants and flip-flops. [Appeal to popular prejudice]
    –wannabe girl, Mean Girls (movie)

    *She only wanted to buy the clothes because the popular girl wore them*

    2.) Janis: And evil takes a human form in Regina George. Don’t be fooled because she may seem like your typical selfish, back-stabbing slut faced ho-bag, but in reality, she’s so much more than that.
    Damian: She’s the queen bee – the star, those other two are just her little workers.
    Damian: She’s fabulous, but she’s evil.
    [Attack on the person]
    –Janis and Damian, Mean Girls

    *The attack is amied directly at Regina, seeking to defame her*

    3.) J anis: We gotta crack Gretchen Wieners. We crack Gretchen, and then we crack the lock on Regina’s whole dirty history.

    Damian: Say crack again.
    Janis: Crack.
    [Amphiboly]
    –Janis and Damian, Mean Girls

    *crack has more than one plausible meaning-it could be drugs or it ould mean break/destroy*

    4.) Unlike other guys, Brandon always keeps his room clean, dresses nice and uses facial moisturizer before he sleeps. He must be gay.
    [Composition]
    –The It Girl by Cecily von Ziegesar (novel)

    *Brandon is being judged based on what they thing is the acceptable way for guys to act*

    5.) Silas: How can you be all into Jesus and still smoke weed?
    Tara: Because pot is natural, it’s not processed; it’s made by God, Himself. So it’s spiritual, it elevates you, opens your mind…and that’s what God’s love is all about.
    [False Analogy]
    –Silas and Tara, Weeds (TV series)

    *two incomparable things are being compared to make them seem more similar than they really are. Those two things being God and weed*

    6.) Go have sex, so you’ll get pregnant…and DIE! Ok now everybody take some condoms!
    [False Dilemma]
    –Coach Kar, Mean Girls (movie)

    *it is being presented that the only choices you have is to not have sex or die.*

    7.) Gretchen: You know I’m not allowed to wear hoop earrings, right? Yeah. 3 years ago, Regina told me that hoop earrings were her thing and I wasn’t allowed to wear them anymore. It was so sad!
    [Appeal to inappropriate authority]
    –Gretchen Weeners, Mean Girls (movie)

    *Gretchen listens to Regina because she is the “leader” of their group. In which case, she does not have complete authority over the other members.*

    8.) Jane F.: *That* is where corn chips come from. Hmm… Maybe ol’ Professor Hardwood is onto something. He probably really loves corn. And all corn-related products. I mean, isn’t that what you’re supposed to put in a frame? Things you love? I’m gonna do that. When I’m get home, I’m gonna frame a bunch of stuff I love. Like lasagna. I *love* lasagna. It’s SO good. And cheesy. You know who else loves lasagna? Garfield. Man, that cat really loves lasagna. Maybe I should put a picture of Garfield in a frame. You know, as a kind of shorthand way of saying ‘I love lasagna.’ That would be so f*cking inside. Or how ’bout a photo of *President* Garfield? Oh shit, that would be totally meta! People would be all like: Jane, why do you have a photo of President Garfield on your mantle? And I’d be like: Because I like lasagna, of course.
    [Missing the point]
    –Jane F., Smiley Face (movie)

    *jane discusses so many topics in her argument that she does not have a point at all and the argument becomes illogical.*

    9.) Courtney: Listen bitch, one word and you’re over, I mean that.
    Julie: I’m not scared of you anymore Courtney.
    Courtney: We saw you, we all know you did it.
    Julie: No one will ever believe you!
    Courtney: Ask Fern, ask Marcie… We saw everything.
    Julie: You fucking liar.
    Courtney: One word, and you perish, I promise you that… Toodles!
    [Appeal to force]
    –Courtney and Julie, Jawbreaker (movie)

    *Courtney threatens Julie so she won’t tell on her.*

    10.) Ella: If we go, I just know something is gonna go wrong. I’m gonna die, and my parents are gonna find out.
    [Slippery Slope}
    — Ella, Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen (movie)

    *This chain reaction is unlikely to happen. Ella is just being paranoid.*

    11.) Simon: I wasn’t really going anywhere.
    Rachel: That’s where I’m going.
    Simon: Where?
    Rachel: Anywhere.
    Simon: Well, I was going there alone.
    Rachel: Well, now you’re not. Consider yourself very lucky.
    Simon: I would if you weren’t here.
    Rachel: Consider yourself stuck.
    [Begging the question]
    –Simon and Rachel, Georgia Rule (movie)

    *Rachel gives Simon a circular argument on where she is going.*

    12.) Jenny: Dad…I can explain, I swear.
    Rufus: We are going home right now, jenny.
    Jenny: Dad, please! Its fashion week and I told Laurel I would fix this hem. I’ve been working really hard on this and I’m really good. Just please let me finish this, dad. I promise that I’ll focus on my studies after fashion week. Please!
    [Appeal to pity]
    –Rufus and Jenny Humphrey, Gossip Girl (TV series)

    *Jenny reasons with her dad by means of looking pitiful. She is stating that she would get hurt if he does not agree with her request.*

    13.) Melody: Everyone used to wear pink. Now everyone’s wearing orange. Orange is the new Pink!
    [Hasty generalization]
    –Melody, Josie and the pussycats (movie)

    *It does not follow that if everyone wears orange now, it is the new pink.*

    14.) Blair (to Nate): “What are you doing right now? How about me?”
    [Complex Question]
    –Blair Waldorff, Gossip Girl (TV series)

    *it is a question within a question. Blair presents Nate with a double meaning. Instead of asking him directly if he would sleep with her.*

    15.) Natalie Hegalhuzen: [upon hearing an explosion outside] When did they start attacking inside the Emerald City?
    Brand Hauser: I wouldn’t call that an attack.
    [explosion goes off right outside office]
    Brand Hauser: Technically, that was a bombing. At least it sounded like it was. Not an attack, which would imply something else.
    [Appeal to ignorance]
    –Natalie Hegalhuzen and Brand hauser, War, Inc. (movie)

    *Hauser denies the fact that there was attacking in the city by referring to the happening as a bombing and not an attack.*

    16.) Yonica Babyyeah: Nobody cares for my beautiful soul. They care for my ass.
    Brand Hauser: Please, you sound like a tramp.
    Yonica Babyyeah: Bitches rule. Yonica rules. Virgins are good for getting fucked. Right? That is what I’m good for. Right? That’s what everybody knows. Hmm?
    [Equivocation]
    –Yonica and Hauser, War, Inc. (movie)

    *Yonica makes conclusions based on What she thinks of virgins and bitches, two words which present a different meaning in the times she used them.*

    17.) Karen Smith: If you’re from Africa, then why are you white??
    [Division]
    –Karen Smith, Mean Girls (movie)

    *Karen asks why Cady, who came from Africa, is white because of the preconceived notion that all Africans must be black.*

    18.) Elle: I just don’t think that Brooke could’ve done this. Exercise gives you endorphins. Endorphins make you happy. Happy people just don’t shoot their husbands, they just don’t.
    [False Cause]
    –Elle Woods, Legally Blonde (movie)

    *Just because Brooke is an exercise instructor, it does not mean that she is happy all the time and she did not kill her husband.*

    19.) Ms. Norbury: You should think about joining the Mathletes, Cady.
    Cady: Yeah, I think I’m gonna do it!
    Damien: You can’t join the Mathletes, that’s social suicide!
    Ms. Norbury: Thanks, Damien.
    [Straw Man]
    –Mean Girls (movie)

    *when Cady decides to join the Mathletes, Damien implies that all of the Mathletes are losers and if Cady joins, her social life will be over. By saying this, Damien weakens the opposition, making not joining the Mathletes seem like the more acceptable choice.*

    20.) Guy: That Sydney girl is kinda hot. She might make it on the hot list this year.
    Rachel Witchburn: fat chance. She’s a fresman! Freshmen never make it on the hot list!
    [Sweeping Generalization]
    –Sydney White (movie)

    *the generalization does not properly govern the case because it is not really stated that freshmen are not allowed to be voted into the hot list.*

    >>OMGosh sir! todo Hemorrhage nako sa kakahanap ng mga fallacy! @_@ I hope they’re all right! ^^,

    XOXO

  29. Phirap tong proj na to

  30. hi SIR ODCHI.! waa. anhirap . grabe. XD

    ————————————————–

    1. “Attention is never a good thing, as any other accident-prone klutz would agree. No one wants a spotlight when they’re likely to fall on their face.” ( Bella Swan )
    — from the book NEW MOON.

    It is a Fallacy of FALSE DILEMMA because not everybody wants a spotlight fall straight on their face.

    2. “How extraordinarily like your father, you are, Potter. Wandering in a corridor at night, strutting about the castle.” ( Snape )
    — from the movie HARRY POTTER AND THE PRISONER OF AZKHABAN.

    It is a Fallacy of HASTY GENERALIZATION or CONVERSE ACCIDENT because if his father wander in the corridor at night, it doesn’t mean that he would also do the same thing.

    3. “But you see, just because we’ve been… dealt a certain hand… it doesn’t mean that we can’t choose to rise above — to conquer the boundaries of a destiny that none of us wanted. To try to retain whatever essential humanity we can.” ( Edward Cullen )
    — from the book TWILIGHT.

    It is a Fallacy of FALSE ANALOGY because not everybody should set boundaries and have fate to do good or bad.

    4. “Do you think I’ll ever get better at this? That my heart might someday stop trying to jump out of my chest whenever you touch me?” ( Bella Swan )
    — from the book NEW MOON.

    It is a Fallacy of PETITIO PRINCIPII or BEGGING THE QUESTION beacuse it does not necessarily mean that every time he touches her, she would feel different and not to be herself.

    5. “You will die in seven days”
    — from the movie THE RING.

    It is a Fallacy of ARGEMENTUM AD BACULUM or APPEAL TO FORCE/FEAR because in this line, you are threatening the person you are talking to and it develops a feeling of fear.

    6. “…madami ang bumili ng 16 in 1 na pliers na may cutter na, ruler, screw driver at may free pang ballpen sa halagang 99.50 pesos kaya nakumbinsi ako ng sales lady bumili…” ( Bob Ong )
    — from the book ANG PABORITONG LIBRO NI HUDAS.

    It is a Fallacy of ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM or APPEAL TO THE POPULAR PREJUDICEbecause the speaker was convinced by the saleslady to buy the product because of its quality and its cheap price.

    7. “You still fight for the weak! That is why you lose!” ( MEGATRON )
    — from the movie TRANSFORMERS.

    It isa Fallacy of FALSE CAUSE or NON CAUSA PRO CAUSA because what is not a cause or reason is assumed to be its cause or reason. It doesn’t mean that if you fight fot the weak, you’re a loser.

    8. “Please believe in me, I am not crazy. If you dont believe in me, many will suffer.” ( Halle Berry)
    — from GOTHIKA.

    It is a Fallacy of ARGUMENTUM AD MISERICORDIAM or APPEAL TO PITY because there is a threat for the person if he or she would not believe. There is an unwanted outcome when this action is taken for granted.

    9. ”Formula for success: rise early, work hard, strike oil.”
    — PAUL GETTY.

    It is a Fallacy of PRESUMPTION because it does not mean that you need to wake up early do to something in order to be successful.

    10. “If you are really sorry, you should have said I love you!”
    — Diego Odchimar III

    It is a Fallacy of AMPHIBOLY because this argument has different interpretations; it differs from Sir Odchimar’s point of view to the other peron’s point of view.

    11. “I don’t think she will die; she’s so good, and we all love her so much, I don’t believe God will take her away yet.” ( Laurie )
    — from LITTLE WOMEN.

    It is a Fallacy of RED HERRING or MISSING THE POINT because the subject diverts to new-not-related or different one.

    12. ”I am nobody and nobody is perfect”
    — from the movie COACH CARTER

    It is a Fallacy of EQUIVOCATION because the conclusion is not supported because of a shift in meaning of a word.

    13. “When you use your imagination you can do anything!” ( Spongebob )
    — from the cartoon SPONGEBOB SQUARE PANTS.

    It is a Fallacy of ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIUM or APPEAL TO IGNORANCE because it is not proven that if you have imagination, you can do anything.

    14. “…pwede na ngayon mag-asawa ang pari basta ang mapapangasawa nila ay madre” ( Bob Ong )
    — from the book ANG PABORITONG LIBRO NI HUDAS.

    It is a Fallacy of ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM or APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY because it is a well-known fact that priest cannot be married.

    15. “Life’s a bitch. Now so am I.” ( Selina Kyle )
    — CATWOMAN.

    It is a Fallacy of CONVERSE ACCIDENT or HASTY GENERALIZATION because it doesn’t mean that if her life’s a bitch, she’s also a bitch.

    16. Lola: mahal mo pa ba ako?
    Lolo: oo naman.
    Lola: wow! loyal! pa-cheese burger ka naman. burger! burger!

    It is a Fallacy of IGNORANTIO ELENCHI or MISSING THE POINT because the arguer draws conclusion different from that supported by premises. In short, does the statement follow? NO!

    17. “How many times have you been a senior?” ( Bella )

    It is a Fallacy of ACCENT because if you change the emphasis on every word, the statement could mean “How many times have you repeated?” or “How many times have you been back as a senior student?”, there will be a change in meaning.

    18. “Poor man wanna be rich, rich man
    wanna be king, king’s dissatisfied
    ’cause he rules everything…” ( GOD )
    — from the movie BRUCE ALMIGHTY.

    It is a Fallacy of SLIPPERY SLOPE because the conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction.

    19. “She loved me at my worst. She had me at my best. And you chose to break my heart.” ( Popoy )
    — from the movie ONE MORE CHANCE.

    It is a Fallacy of ACCIDENT or SWEEPING GENERALIZATION because the arguer applies a genralization to an individual case thatb it does not properly govern.

    20. “The only sensible way to live in this world is without rules!” ( joker )
    — from the movie THE DARK KNIGHT.

    It is a Fallacy of IRRELEVANT REASON because even if there are rules, it is also sensible to live.

    ——————————————————-
    wala na akong maisip na iba. sana maapreciate niyo po ‘to ng bonggang-bongga. haha. XD

  31. 1. Argumentum ad Baculum [Appeal to Force]
    Shinku said to Jun[Rozen Maiden]::
    “If you don’t want to die, then promise that you’ll take my rozemistaker.”
    >>Shinku told Jun to make a promise or else he will die. It is fallacious because she threatened Jun to do something against his will.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam[Appeal to Inappropriate Authority]
    Souseiseki said[Rozen Maiden]::
    “If you come back quietly and cooperate, he will forgive you because the master said so.”
    >>Souseiseki said that their master will forgive those who will come back quietly and cooperate. This is fallacious because Souseiseki cited her master to make up for a mistake which her subordinates have done.

    3. Converse Accident[Hasty Generalization]
    Jun said to himself[Rozen Maiden]::
    “Shinku have powers of immortality, also Suigintou.They are both rozen maidens.Therefore, all rozen maidens are immortal.”
    >>Jun concluded that all rozen maidens were immortal because the two of them were immortal. This is fallacious because Jun was jumping to conclusions which is not a valid one.

    4. Argumentum Misericodiam[Appeal to Pity]
    Tsuramai shiori said to Shingo Chiryuu[Girls Saurus]::
    “Student Shingo Chiryuu, please come to school entrance at 4 o’clock! if you don’t come, then i’ll weep in sorrow.”
    >>Shiori said that she will weep in sorrow if Chiryuu didn’t come. This is fallacious because she gave Chiryuu an obligation to come for her not to weep in sorrow and if he didn’t came, he will felt a pang of guilt in his chest.

    5. Argumentum Ad Populum[ Appeal to Popular Prejudice]::
    Nishino Tsukasa exclaimed to herself[Ichigo 100%]
    “Everybody will go to watch the movie so I am.”
    >>Tsukasa decided that she will watch the movie becasuse everyone will. This is fallacious because there were no right reasons for her to watch the movie and the popularity of the said movie to everyone was not enough to decide wether to watch it or not.

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi[Missing the Point]
    [Ichigo 100%]::
    “Amachi is cool and handsome and he likes Aya a lot too so he will end up with her.”
    >>Being cool and handsome are not the only qualifications to make Aya fall for him. This is fallacious because there was no connection of Amachi being cool and handsome and he ending up with Aya.

    7. Petitio Principii[Begging the question]
    Manaka said Amachi[Ichigo 100%]::
    I’ve known Toujo since the 9th grade. She has a serious and honest personality.
    >>Manaka already knew Toujo since their 9th grade. This is fallacious because he just restatedhis first statement by describing Toujo ehich proves that she really knew her. This Arguement will just contineu in a circle.

    8. False Cause[Non Causa Pro causa]
    Kaname Chidori exclaimed[Full metal Panic]”::
    “Whenever Sagara is with us, we always get in trouble.”
    >>Kaname blame Sagara whenever they encounter danger. This is fallacious because the trouble they met has nothing to do with Sagara.

    9. False Dilemma
    Sagara said to everyone in the submarine[Full Metal Panic]::
    “We cannot escape the missiles. Our captain is unconcious. No one will command the this submarine!”
    >>Sagara declared that they have no escape from the missiles which will hit their submarine any moment. This is fallacious because even the captain is unconcious and cannot command the submarine, the vice captain is still there and the other crew.

    10. Complex Question
    Edward said to Alphonse[Full Metal Alchemist]::
    “Your appointmenttook some time. Did you enjoy the view?”
    >>Edward assumed that Alphonse peeked someone. This is fallacious because Edward jumped to conclusions. It doesn’t mean that Alphonse peeked because he so called appointment took so long.

    11. Accident[Sweeping Generalization]
    An old man said to Edward and Alphonse[Full Metal Alchemist]::
    “You are alchemists. All alchemists are greedy. You two are also greedy!”
    >>The old man told them that they are greedy. This is fallacious because not all alchemist are greedy and even they are alchemists doesn’t mean they share the same attitudes.

    12. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam[Appeal to Ignorance]
    Hikaru said to Umi and Fuu[Magic Knight Rayearth]::
    “I will tell you! that white round object there is a stuffed toy! That is a stuffed toy, I’m sure of it.”
    >> Hikaru is oushing the matter that Mokona, the white round object, is a stuffed toy. This is a fallacy because she pushed it that what she said is true even they have not yet proven it to be true.

    13. Argumentum ad Hominem[Attack on the Person]
    Ferio said to the Magic Knights[Magic Knight Rayearth]::
    “That Zagato was evil! He only thinks of himself. He even kidnapped the princess of Cephiro.”
    >>Ferio stated that agato is a bad man. This is a fallacy because he already attack the person wnd he didn’t even gave Zagato a chance to defend himself.

    14. Slippery Slope
    Goku exclaimed[Saiyuki Reload Gunlock]::
    “Another town. Another problem. More enemies.”
    >>Goku is thinking about their journey towards the another town. But that doesn’t mean that when they move to another town, they will encounter another problem. And it also doesn’t mean that when they have problems, they will face more enemies.

    15. Straw Man
    Hakkai said to Sanzo[Saiyuki Reload Gunlock]::
    “You should stop smoking Sanzo. Smoking is bad to your health and when you smoke, its like killing youself. Killing yourself will not help us. Therfore, you should stop smoking if you want to help us.”
    >>Hakkai bulid a straw man along his argue to Sanzo then kill that straw man to show that Sanzo was beaten.

    16. Red Herring[MIssing the Point]
    Orihime explained to Tatsuki[Bleach]::
    “Shinigamis always wear black. That man always wear black.I think he is a shinigami.”
    >>This is a fallacy because Orihime missed the point of her argue. The main point was that man is always wearing black and then she insert the idea of that man being a shinigami.

    17. Division
    Ishida exclaimed[Bleach]::
    “We all know that quincies are better than shinigamis. Since I’m a quinxy and you are a shinigami, I’m better than you.”
    >>This is a fallcy because even Ishida is a quincy and Ichigo is a shinigami and tha fact that quincy are better than shinigami doesn’t mean that Ishida is better than Ichigo.

    18. False Analogy
    Ichigo Exclaimed[Bleach]::
    “Vizards are shinigamis that became hollows just like arrancars which were hollows that became shinigamis. Whatever transformation they have, they are all the same.”
    >>This is a fallacy because vizards and arrancars are different type of life forms but Ichigo take them as one and similar to one another.

    19. Accent
    Sakuno exclaimed[Prince of Tennis]::
    “The umpire she was wrong.”
    >>This is a fallcy because we do not know who commited the mistake. Was it the umpire or another girl who’m Sakuno was pertaining.

    20. Composition
    Atobe said to his members[Prince of Tennis]::
    “Members of Seigaku are weak. Therfore, The team Seigaku is weak. We can defeat them in no time.”
    >>This is a fallacy because it doesn’t mean that the team Seigaku was weak if its members is weak. There may be members of the team that when combine will make the team a strong one.

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    grabe sir! nosebleed! ang hirap po, sobra… XD

  32. DEZA, Jaun Iyah Caryl R.
    1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    I gave birth to a boy, and put him up for abortion. I am very immoral because this act, abortion, is against the official laws of the Japanese government. –Lovely★Complex

    [The woman thinks that abortion is an immoral act since it wasn’t approved by the Japanese government, and since the Japanese government is a bigger group and influential, the claim that abortion is immoral is true even if the Japanese government said so, because it depends on what do you believe.]

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Koizumi: What now shorty? Why do I need to hear you, you idiot?
    Otani: Look at you! Not only are you tall, you don’t even have the slightest sense of feminity at all. Suzuki will never like you!
    Koizumi: What did you just say?! Oh, I forgot that Otani is an idiot. How pitiful if I believe explanations from somebody who is an idiot! –Lovely★Complex

    [Koizumi didn’t actually pay attention to Otani’s statement, sticking to the fact that idiocy makes his statements pathetic and false.]

    3. Argumentum ad Populum
    Oh, this is horrible. Now I have to give 5 bars of chocolates to a guy since every other girl here is giving theirs to a guy. –Lovely★Complex

    [She does it because everyone seems to do it too, and she thinks that if the majority does the same, then it is the only right act to do and ignores actual evidence and facts.]

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum
    You better shut up or you want me to hit you again! –Lovely★Complex

    [The arguer uses emotions like fear on his argument, and it says that using emotions in an argument will be wrong if the emotional appeal is used in place of definite reasons.]

    5. Argumentum Misericordiam
    Ruka, you stay away from here now, or you’ll regret being here. I can handle myself. Persona is just around. Because if you do not scram, you will never see me again. –Gakuen Arisu

    [The person talking to Ruka appeals to pity for the sake of getting his conclusion accepted.]

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Teacher: Are you a new student? Did you not know you need to wear your uniform for the welcoming ceremony?
    Student: But ma’am, because I bought a really cute top, I wanted to hurry up and wear it. Sorry.
    Teacher: You think apologizing will be enough?
    Student: But it’s really cute isn’t it –Lovely★Complex

    [The argument here is supposed to prove one proposition but succeeds only in proving a different one. It shows pure and simple irrelevance of the statements of the arguer.]

    7. Complex Question
    You have an ex-girlfriend?! –Lovely★Complex

    [Basically, what she is pointing out is that she could not believe that a guy like him would actually be able to find love and be in a relationship.]

    8. False Cause
    There are so many cute girls in the world; why was I born like this? THE HEAVENS ARE SO CRUEL!!! –Lovely★Complex

    [The girl talking rejects a proposition because of the falsity of some other proposition that seems to be a consequence of the first, but actually is not.]

    9. Petitio Principii
    Why am I laughing? Oh! It is laughable that is why I am laughing! –Lovely★Complex

    [The argument assumes the part of its premises is the very conclusion that is supposed to be true. The speaker is assuming at the onset of an argument the very point of what she is trying to prove.]

    10. Accident
    In this bet, the one famous usually wins. Otani had made a lot of admirers since the day he was on the basketball league; therefore, he will possibly win. –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone uses a general rule to justify something when that thing is in fact an exception. Here, Koizumi assumes that because Otani has a lot of admirers, then he is famous, and will win the bet (bet: first who will get a girlfriend wins). She ignores the fact that Otani only have fans, but not really “lovers” who will later be developed to be his girlfriend.]

    11. Converse Accident
    You fall in love with someone. As a result, you come to hate yourself. If this is the case, this someone is not meant for you. This someone is not your destiny. –Lovely★Complex

    [Here, someone takes an insufficient amount of evidence from what destiny and love is and attempts to form a conclusion from it, while ignoring or not being aware of the contradictory evidence.]

    12. Equivocation
    Sorry Koizumi, in Japan, the fad right now is thin and small. Like cell phones, mp3 players, DVD players… and MEN! Since I am small, I’m in of style. The time for short men is finally here! –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone uses two different meanings of a word to imply something that isn’t necessarily true. The argument assumes that a thing famous for being “small and cool in Japan” is the same as being a person who is small and because of fame will later be cool.]

    13. Amphiboly
    Koizumi [to Otani]: If you’re going to be bothered by such trivial matter, then you don’t even have the right to like anyone! –Lovely★Complex

    [Amphiboly is a syntactic error. The fallacy is caused by faulty sentence structure, and can result in a meaning not intended by the author. What matter? The fact that he is small, the fact that he can’t get a girlfriend, or the fact that he was always partnered to her?]

    14. Accent
    Koizumi [crying]: You are such an idiot Otani! –Lovely★Complex

    [We can’t really determine what she is implying to. In the scene, she was wounded at the knee, so she might be saying that Otani was such an idiot for not recognizing the wound; or maybe for the reason that Otani didn’t realize that she obviously already has feelings for him and he continues to make his heart break unknowingly.]

    15. Composition
    She was sexually abused by his step-father. For that, Aikawa Hinako could no longer trust men. She hates them and sees all of them as scary and violent. –Lovely★Complex

    [The arguer states that if this condition is true for how Aikawa sees his step-father, then it must also be true for any larger set that his step-father (man) is a part of.]

    16. Division
    Everyone who is in the elementary division of Alice Academy never gets a “no-star” rank, unless, you are a kindergartener. Mikan, you definitely do not belong here because you’re the only one in the record in the elementary division who got a “no-star”. –Gakuen Arisu

    [Here, the students assert that since the star-ranking system has a certain property, then all components of that system must also have this property.]

    17. Red Herring
    Otani: What are you doing here?
    Shouko: I’ve come to play with you! And I’ve joined the cheerleading team! We have to perform a cheer!
    Otani: Cheerleading?
    Shouko: Yes!
    Otani: Cheerleading?!
    Shouko: I thought I looked really cute dressed like this, so I ran here to show you! Aren’t I cute?
    Otani: …Right. –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone attempts to rebut an argument by bringing up a completely unrelated point, a “Red herring”, to lure his opponent away from the real point of the argument. It is shown here that Shouko diverts their conversation about cheerleading to her status on being cute as a cheerleader and ask Otani’s insight for that.]

    18. False Analogy
    Looking at Koizumi and Otani fight make them look like a giant and a dwarf – one absolutely tall and huge, can easily dump any small things on its way. It will be definitely hard for a dwarf though to hurt a giant, and the giant could just kick it away. So Koizumi beats Otani. –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone attempts to use an analogy to prove a point, but the conditions of the analogy differ from the original scenario enough to render the point from the analogy invalid.]

    19. Straw Man
    Koizumi: Why do you have to be so stupid?!
    Otani: Don’t take your anger out on me just because you don’t have anybody to like!
    Koizumi: What did you just say?! Nobody to like? I… at least had Haruka to confess to me!
    Otani: Confess? He didn’t like you as a girl. He just wanted somebody to protect him. –Lovely★Complex

    [Otani corrupts an opponent’s argument into something different. He set up a “straw man” just to knock the whole argument down. He told her that the “confession” Risa was telling was not really a “love confession” to make Risa as Haruka’s girlfriend, but instead making Risa only as Haruka’s bodyguard. But actually, Haruka liked Risa so much, and Otani was just jealous so he was giving out other explanations that were present in reality (Haruka liked Risa for protecting him when they were young)]

    20. False Dilemma
    Don’t worry about me on going to the live concert on the Christmas break. I can go by myself. Worry about her. You only got two options: either you go with her on Christmas break, or regret the chance of not knowing what important thing she is supposed to tell you. –Lovely★Complex

    [These are the two options but actually, the person the arguer is stating this to can decline the choices, and plan something else like call the girl on the phone in advance and talk to her in case he has other plans for Christmas break.]

    ——————————————————————————-
    waaaaah. okay late. done at last. Z_Z

  33. DEZA, Jaun Iyah Caryl R.
    1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    I gave birth to a boy, and put him up for abortion. I am very immoral because this act, abortion, is against the official laws of the Japanese government. –Bitter Virgin

    [The woman thinks that abortion is an immoral act since it wasn’t approved by the Japanese government, and since the Japanese government is a bigger group and influential, the claim that abortion is immoral is true even if the Japanese government said so, because it depends on what do you believe.]

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Koizumi: What now shorty? Why do I need to hear you, you idiot?
    Otani: Look at you! Not only are you tall, you don’t even have the slightest sense of feminity at all. Suzuki will never like you!
    Koizumi: What did you just say?! Oh, I forgot that Otani is an idiot. How pitiful if I believe explanations from somebody who is an idiot! –Lovely★Complex

    [Koizumi didn’t actually pay attention to Otani’s statement, sticking to the fact that idiocy makes his statements pathetic and false.]

    3. Argumentum ad Populum
    Oh, this is horrible. Now I have to give 5 bars of chocolates to a guy since every other girl here is giving theirs to a guy. –Lovely★Complex

    [She does it because everyone seems to do it too, and she thinks that if the majority does the same, then it is the only right act to do and ignores actual evidence and facts.]

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum
    You better shut up or you want me to hit you again! –Lovely★Complex

    [The arguer uses emotions like fear on his argument, and it says that using emotions in an argument will be wrong if the emotional appeal is used in place of definite reasons.]

    5. Argumentum Misericordiam
    Ruka, you stay away from here now, or you’ll regret being here. I can handle myself. Persona is just around. Because if you do not scram, you will never see me again. –Gakuen Arisu

    [The person talking to Ruka appeals to pity for the sake of getting his conclusion accepted.]

    6. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Teacher: Are you a new student? Did you not know you need to wear your uniform for the welcoming ceremony?
    Student: But ma’am, because I bought a really cute top, I wanted to hurry up and wear it. Sorry.
    Teacher: You think apologizing will be enough?
    Student: But it’s really cute isn’t it –Lovely★Complex

    [The argument here is supposed to prove one proposition but succeeds only in proving a different one. It shows pure and simple irrelevance of the statements of the arguer.]

    7. Complex Question
    You have an ex-girlfriend?! –Lovely★Complex

    [Basically, what she is pointing out is that she could not believe that a guy like him would actually be able to find love and be in a relationship.]

    8. False Cause
    There are so many cute girls in the world; why was I born like this? THE HEAVENS ARE SO CRUEL!!! –Lovely★Complex

    [The girl talking rejects a proposition because of the falsity of some other proposition that seems to be a consequence of the first, but actually is not.]

    9. Petitio Principii
    Why am I laughing? Oh! It is laughable that is why I am laughing! –Lovely★Complex

    [The argument assumes the part of its premises is the very conclusion that is supposed to be true. The speaker is assuming at the onset of an argument the very point of what she is trying to prove.]

    10. Accident
    In this bet, the one famous usually wins. Otani had made a lot of admirers since the day he was on the basketball league; therefore, he will possibly win. –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone uses a general rule to justify something when that thing is in fact an exception. Here, Koizumi assumes that because Otani has a lot of admirers, then he is famous, and will win the bet (bet: first who will get a girlfriend wins). She ignores the fact that Otani only have fans, but not really “lovers” who will later be developed to be his girlfriend.]

    11. Converse Accident
    You fall in love with someone. As a result, you come to hate yourself. If this is the case, this someone is not meant for you. This someone is not your destiny. –Lovely★Complex

    [Here, someone takes an insufficient amount of evidence from what destiny and love is and attempts to form a conclusion from it, while ignoring or not being aware of the contradictory evidence.]

    12. Equivocation
    Sorry Koizumi, in Japan, the fad right now is thin and small. Like cell phones, mp3 players, DVD players… and MEN! Since I am small, I’m in of style. The time for short men is finally here! –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone uses two different meanings of a word to imply something that isn’t necessarily true. The argument assumes that a thing famous for being “small and cool in Japan” is the same as being a person who is small and because of fame will later be cool.]

    13. Amphiboly
    Koizumi [to Otani]: If you’re going to be bothered by such trivial matter, then you don’t even have the right to like anyone! –Lovely★Complex

    [Amphiboly is a syntactic error. The fallacy is caused by faulty sentence structure, and can result in a meaning not intended by the author. What matter? The fact that he is small, the fact that he can’t get a girlfriend, or the fact that he was always partnered to her?]

    14. Accent
    Koizumi [crying]: You are such an idiot Otani! –Lovely★Complex

    [We can’t really determine what she is implying to. In the scene, she was wounded at the knee, so she might be saying that Otani was such an idiot for not recognizing the wound; or maybe for the reason that Otani didn’t realize that she obviously already has feelings for him and he continues to make his heart break unknowingly.]

    15. Composition
    She was sexually abused by his step-father. For that, Aikawa Hinako could no longer trust men. She hates them and sees all of them as scary and violent. –Bitter Virgin

    [The arguer states that if this condition is true for how Aikawa sees his step-father, then it must also be true for any larger set that his step-father (man) is a part of.]

    16. Division
    Everyone who is in the elementary division of Alice Academy never gets a “no-star” rank, unless, you are a kindergartener. Mikan, you definitely do not belong here because you’re the only one in the record in the elementary division who got a “no-star”. –Gakuen Arisu

    [Here, the students assert that since the star-ranking system has a certain property, then all components of that system must also have this property.]

    17. Red Herring
    Otani: What are you doing here?
    Shouko: I’ve come to play with you! And I’ve joined the cheerleading team! We have to perform a cheer!
    Otani: Cheerleading?
    Shouko: Yes!
    Otani: Cheerleading?!
    Shouko: I thought I looked really cute dressed like this, so I ran here to show you! Aren’t I cute?
    Otani: …Right. –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone attempts to rebut an argument by bringing up a completely unrelated point, a “Red herring”, to lure his opponent away from the real point of the argument. It is shown here that Shouko diverts their conversation about cheerleading to her status on being cute as a cheerleader and ask Otani’s insight for that.]

    18. False Analogy
    Looking at Koizumi and Otani fight make them look like a giant and a dwarf, respectively – one absolutely tall and huge, can easily dump any small things on its way. It will be definitely hard for a dwarf though to hurt a giant, and the giant could just kick it away. So Koizumi beats Otani. –Lovely★Complex

    [This is when someone attempts to use an analogy to prove a point, but the conditions of the analogy differ from the original scenario enough to render the point from the analogy invalid.]

    19. Straw Man
    Koizumi: Why do you have to be so stupid?!
    Otani: Don’t take your anger out on me just because you don’t have anybody to like!
    Koizumi: What did you just say?! Nobody to like? I… at least had Haruka to confess to me!
    Otani: Confess? He didn’t like you as a girl. He just wanted somebody to protect him. –Lovely★Complex

    [Otani corrupts an opponent’s argument into something different. He set up a “straw man” just to knock the whole argument down. He told her that the “confession” Risa was telling was not really a “love confession” to make Risa as Haruka’s girlfriend, but instead making Risa only as Haruka’s bodyguard. But actually, Haruka liked Risa so much, and Otani was just jealous so he was giving out other explanations that were present in reality (Haruka liked Risa for protecting him when they were young)]

    20. False Dilemma
    Don’t worry about me on going to the live concert on the Christmas break. I can go by myself. Worry about her. You only got two options: either you go with her on Christmas break, or regret the chance of not knowing what important thing she is supposed to tell you. –Lovely★Complex

    [These are the two options but actually, the person the arguer is stating this to can decline the choices, and plan something else like call the girl on the phone in advance and talk to her in case he has other plans for Christmas break.]

    ——————————————————————————-
    waaaaah. okay late. done at last. Z_Z

  34. 1. False Analogy
    Bleach – Rukiya:”You can see ghost but do not believe in Shinigamis!”
    Ghost and Shinigamis are different things, Ghosts are believed to be souls of the dead still attach to the land of the living while Shinigamis are God of deaths, guiding souls to the after life.

    2. Argumentum Ad Populum
    Ichigo 100% – Koyumi:”Tsukasa reejected almost every guy in shool, so she would probabbly reject Junpei.”
    The fact that Tsukasa rejected alot of suitors does not mean would definitely reject Junpei as well. [Btw, she did not :P]

    3. Petitio Principii
    Elfen Lied – Kota:” Nyu isn’t a monster, because shes also a human just like us!”
    The Premise “shes also a human just like us” has the same meaning as the conclusion “Nyu isn’t a monster.”

    4. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Vampire Knight – Yori:”We won’t get punished severely if ever were caught by the prefects, because no one’s actualy been punished for going to the night classes.”
    The fact that nobody was punished for attending the night classes if they are from the day class [which is not allowed by their school] does not mean they wouldn’t be punished by doing so.

    5. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Black Cat – Sven:”A scum bastard doesn’t have the right to chain anyone down!”
    Sven attacked Torneo’s personality, he should have stated reasons why Torneo cannot use Eve as a tool.

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Black Cat – Clevar:”If you won’t believe in Chronos again, I will shoot you!”
    Clevar replaces the reason why Train should follow Chronos again with fear.

    7. Argumentum Misericordiam
    I”s – Ichitaka:”Because Iori… …I think I would live a sad life if you go.”
    Ichitika is appealing to the pity of Iori to not to leave.

    8. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Naruto – Sasuke:”Itachi gave his life to protect the village, and now knowing the truth, there’s no way I can do as he wished and protect Konoha. The Elders, whole village are accomplices, trading Itachi’ life for the peace they enjoy.
    The Elders certainly used Itachi to settle their unstable relationship with the Uchiha clan but that is another issue. Sasuke is missing the point that Itachi sacrificed his life for the village and for Sasuke, destroying the village would have made Itachi’s death meaningless.

    9. Complex Question
    Paradise Kiss – Yukari’s mom:”Modeling? Do you want to have anorexia?”
    Yukari’s mom is jumping to a conclusion that Yukari wants to have anorexia by phrasing a question in such a way to imply that another unproven statement is true without evidence.

    10. Accident
    Hunter x Hunter – Leorio:”Zaoldyecks?! He must be a bloodthirsty assasin.”
    While the Zaoldyeck family is a famous for being assasins, this is not true for Killua.

    11. Converse Accident
    Slam dunk – Sakuragi:”You’re just jealous because this genius can dunk, Ryota can’t do a slam dunk, players of his height can’t do slam dunks.”
    Because Ryota can’t do a slam dunk does not mean players with tha same height as him can’t do a slam dunk. There are short players who can jump high enough to do a slam dunk.

    12. Equivocation
    Love Hina – Su:”Chocolates are sweet, Keitaro is sweet, so Keitaro is my chocolate!”
    In the first instance, the word “sweet” means “something of delightful taste” while in its second instance it means “to describe a thoughtful person.”

    13. Aphiboly
    Ichigo 100% – Ookusa:”If Manaka and Kuyami will confess to Tsukasa, she will just reject a looser.”
    Ookusa did not specify who will Tsukasa reject.

    14. Accent
    Alice Academy – Narumi:”Mikan is not energeic today.”
    The statement’s meaning varies on how t is spoken.

    15. Composition
    Alice Academy – Mikan:”All Students from this school are wierd, this school is wierd.”
    Although students from Alice Academy has special talents, Alice Academy is still an institute of learning just like other schools. Its does not mean that the students are wierd, the school is wierd.

    16. Division
    Alice Academy – Natsume:”The teachers cannot be trusted because the academy is evil.”
    Natsume attributes of the academy to the attributes to one of its parts.

    17. Red Herring
    Naruto – Sasuke:”Itachi gave his life to protect the village, and now knowing the truth, there’s no way I can do as he wished and protect Konoha. The Elders, whole village are accomplices, trading Itachi’ life for the peace they enjoy.
    The Elders certainly used Itachi to settle their unstable relationship with the Uchiha clan but that is another issue. Sasuke is missing the point that Itachi sacrificed his life for the village and for Sasuke, destroying the village would have made Itachi’s death meaningless.

    18. Slippery Slope
    Rurouni Kenshin – Kenshin [Having thought he killed Chou] :”I have tainted my hands with blood again, I’ve become a slasher again, I’ve become battousai again.”
    It does not necessarily mean that he was forced by the situation to kill some one he’ll become battousai again.

    19. False Cause
    Rurouni Kenshin – Yoshi:”We were right, aren’t we? We won because we were right and Shishiyo was wrong.”
    It does not necessarily mean that they were right because the won and Shishiyo was wrong because they lost.

    20. False Dilemma
    Hajimme no Ippo – Takamura:”You either reject this fight or risk Ippo losing his Championship belt.”
    Takamura reduced the arguement to only two alternatives even though there are still more like training Ippo so that he could have a higher chance of winning against Baron.

    Hay 😛

  35. 1.) Death Note
    Yagami Light: “This world is rotten, rotten people should be killed of to cleanse this world.”
    -Argumentum ad Baculum
    -Light(as Kira) stated it on live television and he said that it is this purpose why Light killed and will kill criminals.

    2.) Rurouni Kenshin (Samurai X)
    Leader of the Shingotsu Village henchmen: “The right to live and die, to give and take, are controlled by Lord Shishio!”
    -Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    -He can’t decide who will live or who will die because he is no god.

    3.) Inuyasha
    Kagome: “…besides, even if anything happens to me, Inuyasha will avenge my death.”
    -Converse Accident
    -She already depicted what may happen but it is still possible that it may not happen, after all Inuyasha is a wild demon.

    4.) Yuyu Hakusho
    Hiei: “So tell me, what’s it like living in a constant haze of stupidity?”
    -Complex Question
    -The one who is supposed to answer that can’t answer a direct yes or no.

    5.) Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
    Willy Wonka: “You’re weird.”
    -Accent
    -This statement can have two ways of saying it: first is sarcasm and second is direct insult.

    6.) Fruits Basket
    Motoko’s Mom: “What kind of idiot knocks on a sliding door? Stop acting so westernized, would you?”
    -Converse Accident
    -It doesn’t necessarily mean that if you are a westerner you are an idiot, actually this is rather too harsh >.<

    7.) Death Note
    L: “I think that Light-kun is kira and Misa is the second Kira.”
    -Accident
    -The two Kira’s are moving as L suspected what Kira will do.

    8.) 300
    Leonidas: “Spartans! Ready your breakfast and eat hearty… For tonight, we dine in hell!”
    -Amphiboly
    -The last thing that Leonidas said, “we dine in hell!” has a double meaning; first is literally they’ll die and or the second one they’ll live but the skirmish may look like hell–bodies spread all over the place, the stench etc.

    9.) ‌Final Fantasy IX
    Amarant: “If there is really god then why the hell am I experiencing this?”
    -Red Herring
    -The way he is experiencing right now doesn’t necessarily mean that there is no real God.

    10.) Batas sa aking Kamay
    Eddie(as Major): “Marami ka pang bigas na kakainin.”
    FPJ: “Di ako kumakain ng bigas, Major. Sinasaing ko muna para maging kanin! Ikaw pala major, bigas pa lang kinakain mo na.”
    -Composition
    -Major committed the fallacy of composition when he mistakenly said the word ‘bigas’ that made FPJ react.

    11.) SpongeBob Squarepants
    SpongeBob: “Whew! It’s a good thing that was only a sea bear, this dirt circle would never protect us against a sea rhinoceros. It’s a good thing I’m wearing my anti-sea rhinoceros undergarments”
    -Sliperry Slope
    -It is like a domino, one after the another.

    12.) SpongeBob Squarepants
    SpongeBob: “Gary, you better call an astronomer, because this clotted cream is OUT OF THIS WORLD!”
    -False Analogy
    -there is no clotter cream that is literally out of this world -.-

  36. 1. Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    “Women, when they kill themselves, choose far more romantic methods-like slashing their wrists or taking an overdose of sleeping pills. Abandoned princess and Hollywood proves this.” Veronika fom the book Veronika decides to die

    This fallacy is committed because the premises of the argument appeal to the judgement of the Hollywood movies with no legitimate claim to authority in the matter at hand.

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem

    “From what I see, if we stop Eyeshield 21, The Deimon Team is just a pile of shit!”
    -Habashira Rui from the manga Eye shield 21

    This fallacy is committed because it takes the form of attacking directly against the Deimon Team seeking to defame or discredit them.

    3. Argumentum ad Baculum

    “Tsubaki-kun, you’re my boyfriend, so you don’t need to go liking an idol that looks like me,” Urabe said then disintegrates the picture which is threatening -From the manga Mysterious Girlfriend X

    This fallacy is committed because careful reasoning is replaced with threats.

    4. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    “It’s impossible to organize a mass murder of this scale and frequency.”
    -ICPO international crime police investigation from the manga Death Note

    This fallacy is committed when it is argued that a proposition is true on the ground that it has not been proven false, or when it is argued that a proposition is false because it has not been proven to be true. In the proposition’s case, it is not proven true that it is impossible to organize a mass murder because of their inability to do so.

    5. Complex question

    “You had a boyfriend just two months ago. Have you experienced sex?”
    – Yagami Ryuunosuke from the manga Love Strip

    This fallacy is committed when a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in that question. In this case, Yagami jumped into conclusion without warrant.

    6. Argumentum ad Populum

    Situation: (From Yakitate Japan)

    The newcomer’s battle of Pantasia Bakery is being held. Azuma Kazuma who is popular for being a great baker picked margarine as his main ingredient but it was wrong. But many followed him and some bakers also followed him

    This fallacy is committed because one appeals to popularly held beliefs as premises to a conclusion.

    7. Argumentum Misericordiam

    Mamori: What is it that keeping you here Sena?
    Hiruma: Nothing… Sena-kun’s place is here. No one is forcing him to stay. There is no doubt about it! Being a Shumu and a manager are both his tasks. But being a manager as well could be overwhelming. If we could only somehow decrease his workload…

    -Eye shield 21

    This fallacy is committed when careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion. In this case, it replaces support of a claim with an appeal to pity of the listener.

    8. Ignorantio Elenchi

    “Do you think someone who’s been sitting in front of a desk for 17 years can win against the basketball team with nothing but 4 months of severe training? Yukimitsu take 5.6 secs for 40 yards. Satake and Yamaoka only need 5.2 secs. Speed is not the only thing that decides who wins- that’s all. –Youichi Hiruma from the manga Eyeshield 21

    This fallacy is committed because the premises miss the point, Purporting to support one conclusion while in fact supporting or establishing another.

    9. False Cause

    “Kira’s rebirth is now undeniable with this many deaths.” –Death Note

    This fallacy is committed because one treats the cause of deaths to another but is not really proven to be the cause.

    10. Converse Accident

    “The people dying are all age 65 and above, and all of them have died from worsening of their medical conditions. None of them had heart attacks, but the results show their hearts all stopped. Above all else, the number of people who wished for death, their remaining life expectancy, and usually high percentage Japanese people. We really say this is the work of Kira.” –Newscaster from Death Note

    This fallacy is committed because he moves so carelessly from a case to create such conclusion.

    11. Amphiboly

    “If Sparta attack the Persians, they will destroy a kingdom” –The 300

    This fallacy is committed because it is to vague to know who will be destroyed

    12. Division

    “If this is the work of Death Notes, then there’s no mistaking that the person using them is Japanese.”-Mr. Matsuda from Death Note

    This fallacy is committed because he reasons mistakenly that the fact that the former users of the Death Note are Japanese so he mistakenly concluded that the new user is also Japanese. When one reason mistakenly from the attributes of a totality of some collection of entitles to the attributes of the individual entities within the collection, Division is committed.

    13. Red Herring

    “ Ryuuzaki… The Criminals have stopped dying since I’ve been detained… I think there is a high possibility that Kira is someone who is aware of my current condition…” –Yagami Light from Death Note

    This fallacy is committed becase Kira diverts the discussion from the real subject to a related but different one. He is the one detained but he divers the listener off track that the fact that he was the one that is detained.

    14. Slippery slope

    “So you won’t get me away? So you’re going to kick me out of the team? Then you will remove the football team? Then we will be disqualified.”-Youichi Hiruma

    This fallacy is commited because the conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction. It doesn’t mean that with 1 player gone the whole team will be out of the tournament.

    15. False Dilemma

    “You know that you can’t really win against my brother! You’ll really get killed this time! So I’ve already made peace with this so you don’t need to rescue me!.”
    -Kuchiki Rukia

    This fallacy is committed because there are only 2 ways. One is not acceptable rather possible so she chooses to do the other one.

    16. Accent

    “Youichi is not bad today” –Kurita from Eyeshield 21

    This fallacy is committed because the premise may be true without change of stress but it could have meant different if the stresses would change

    17. Petitio Principii

    “The one comes in time is an outsider because he was a drifter” -5th Captain from Bleach

    This fallacy is committed because Drifters and Outsiders are alike

    18. Straw man

    “I hate shinigamis because they are the reason for my master’s death. Those shinigamis are bad. So all of the shinigamis are bad. I have shinigamis!” –Uryu Ishida

    This fallacy is deceptive because Uryu attacks another argument in order to strengthen his own.

    19. Accident

    “Everyone has things that they’re good at and things that they’re not good at so not I cannot just play sports club and play in a game!”-Yukimitsu from Eye shield 21

    This fallacy is committed because he applies generalization to his case

    20. Composition

    “The opponent posses a wall of muscles to protect Homer!
    Possessing a body that is immune to tackling from the opponents, this is the power from the source of American Football! The muscles of the Americans!!” –Announcer

    This fallacy is committed because the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of homer to the Americans. It does not mean that if Homer has big muscles, Americans would have big muscles too.

  37. From The Book “New Moon”:

    1. Argumentum ad Hominem:
    “If you want to blame someone, why don’t you point your finger at those filthy, reeking bloodsuckers that you love so much?” Jacob said.
    He attacks directly the person not the argument.

    2. Amphiboly:
    “Bella, were leaving” Edward Said.
    The “were” in the sentence does not only mean one thing. So the girl understands it as she is also leaving with them but only Edward and his family is leaving.

    3. Argumentum ad Baculum:
    “Anyway, you don’t want to irritate the Volturi; not unless you want to die—or whatever it is we do”. Edward said.
    He threatens the girl so it will accept not to go to Italy.

    4. Red Herring:
    “Relax, Alice. If Bella wants to watch a movie, then she can. It’s her birthday.” Edward said.
    He used her birthday as a cause even it is not related so it is missing its point.

    5. Division:
    Charlie considered himself a Lutheran, because that’s what his parents had been.
    It reasons mistakenly from the parents to Charlie.

    6. Argumentum Misericordiam:
    “I’d rather die than be with anyone but you.” Bella said.
    It insinuated threat to bring acceptance of some conclusion.

    7. False Dilemma:
    “You can’t have it both ways- either you want people to ignore your birthday or you don’t. One or the other.” Edward said.
    It claims that there are only two alternative and the other is unacceptable because the girl doesn’t want the boy to ignore her birthday.

    8. Ignorantio elenchi:
    “Well, I was thinking, since it is my Birthday, that I’d like you to kiss me again”. Bella said.
    It again misses the point. She use her birthday as a cause to make the boy kiss her.

    9. Accident:
    Of course I slipped; I was only human.
    Not true to humans that they mistake every time so it is not a right cause.

    10. Argumentum ad Populum:
    “Well there’s that new romantic comedy that’s getting great reviews, I want to see that one.” Jessica said.
    She depended to the mob reviews/ popularity to what they will watch.

    11. Accent:
    “Oh, Joy. Bella’s back.” Lauren said.
    The word “Back” can be changed in many ways. It can mean that Bella was not there yesterday or she has gone from a long distance and come back again and many more.

    12. False cause:
    “Because you’re so handsome and because since you brought the camera, you’re obligated to be one of my subjects.” Bella Said.
    It is not a right cause to take a picture of man that is handsome or even when he brought the camera.

    13. Complex question:
    “Are you… breaking up with me?” Bella said to Jacob.
    There is no “them” in the story. So Bella jump into her question even they are not yet proven real lovers. So there’s an unproven statement in the question she gave.
    ———————————————————————————

    HAha… Sir galing lng lahat yan sa iisang libro!!! Galing noh… plus point yan… haha…

    ——Red Herring— I am missing the point of the plus!!!

    =)

  38. i researched some of these faLLacies over the internet and some are with the heLp of my brother. hehe :))

    faLLacies of ReLevance

    1.) Ad Hominem
    A: Of course I’m voting for the Reagan budget and tax bills. We need a strong defense – and by lowering the taxes on the wealthy, more capital will be available for investment,thus insuring economic prosperity and jobs.
    B: According to Lester Thurow, Lyndon Johnson’s high military budget for Vietnam, coupled with a large tax cut, was a primary cause of the inflation of the 60’s and early 70’s. Reagan’s proposed increase in military spending is three times the increase Johnson established. Don’t you think this program might be risky?

    2.)Ad Ignorantiam
    –The health department could not prove that the committee was responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.
    ==Therefore, the committee is not responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.

    3.)Ad Verecundiam (appeal to authority)
    –My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking.
    –So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.

    4.)Fallacy of Division
    1) Things are not that bad. 2) We’re the United States, for heaven’s sake. 3) We are the world’s largest exporting nation, (4) we produce 25% of the world’s total output with 5% of the world’s population, and (5) the share of the working age population with jobs during my administration has averaged 62.2%, the highest in U.S. history. (6) So things for every individual American must be pretty good.

    5.) Ad Ignorantiam
    –(a.)The drug deprenyl is an effective anti-depressant, says Dr. J. John Mann, professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh.
    –(b.)Dr. Mann asked these depressed patients if they had noticed any improvement in sexual desire, and several of them said they had.
    –(c.)Deprenyl affects a certain neurotransmitter in the brain called dopamine.
    –(d.)Dopamine affects sexual function.

    6.)Questionable Analogy
    Amy Carter was found innocent of trespassing charges because she was just trying to explose the atrocities that the CIA supposedly perpetrates and the false advertising it engages in when not telling recruits about supposed attempts to destabilize foreign governments.
    If she is found innocent by this type of logic, then Lt. Col. Oliver North should also be found innocent of any wrongdoings. He was, after all, just trying to help the people of Nicaragua gain their freedom.
    If a person can plead innocence because he or she is trying to stop a larger crime from being committed, North should be given a medal.

    7.) Denying the antecedent.
    If I made it to class, that means my car is working well.
    I didn’t make it to class.
    So I guess my car isn’t working well.

    8.)Red Herring.
    (Conversation at 4:00 p.m. on a bright and sunny day)
    Father: If you want a Halloween make-up kit, why don’t you ride your bicycle up to the store?
    Son: There’s not enough time, I need you to help me pick it out, and besides, it’s getting too dark to ride…

    9.)Complex Question
    I notice that you surf the Net a lot. Do you enjoy all the pornography you find there?

    10.)Hasty Generalization
    Howard: You mean you take this Horoscope business seriously?
    Aunt: Yes, of course. Don’t you see how today’s horoscope fit you to a T?
    Howard: Yes, but…
    Aunt: No buts. There must be something to it.
    (From Howard Kahane, Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric)

    11.)Ad Populum.
    “…if you ask [your children] which personal computer they’re using, chances are they’ll say an Apple II. It’s the leading computer in education. And one of the most popular computers in the larger world. Nearly 3,000,000 Apple II’s are helping people in virtually every field of human endeavor.

    12.)Appeal to tradition.
    It’s all right for President Reagan to impound funds voted by the Congress. Every recent president – Carter, Ford, Nixon, Johnson – did so. In fact, Nixon did so on a grand scale.

    13.)Slippery Slope
    –If we don’t stop the Communists in South Vietnam, they’ll take over the whole country.
    –If they take over Vietnam, next they’ll conquer Laos, –Cambodia, and Thailand.
    –Once they have Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand – they’ll overrun Indonesia and the rest of the Pacific Rim.
    –Once they conquer the Pacific Rim, they’ll take Japan – and the next thing you know, they’ll be off the coast of California!
    –[implicit: Communists invading California is unacceptable]
    –[explicit] We must stop the Communists in South Vietnam.
    –(The path of history and geopolitics is not easily captured in deductive syllogisms.)

    14.) Post hoc, propter hoc
    Basketball star Bill Walton of the Boston Celtics, now recovering from an ankle injury, says that adding meat to his diet turned his life and game around. The strapping 6ft.11in. hoopster was plagued by health problems as a vegetarian thoughout his career. But last year, he played 80 out of 82 games as a meat-eater – a record for him.
    –“Adding meat to his diet helped make him physically stronger,” says Jeff Twiss, an officer of the Celtics. “The doctors convinced him he needed meat.”

    15.)Bifurcation
    The homicide problem results from a decay in social and cultural values, not the availability of guns. Killings are indiscriminant. That is more a reflection on society’s lack of values than anything else. Stricter gun control would not help: we must have a change in society’s values.

    15.)Begging the Question
    —A: 1) I’m all in favor of the war on drugs. 2) Hundreds of people die every year, and (3) the lives of thousands more are adversely affected because of illegal drugs.
    —B: O.k. — while you’re at it, what about stopping tobacco use, which kills over 400,000 people a year, and curtailing alcohol use, which is estimated to cost the economy over $12,000,000,000.00 per year in unnecessary “sick” days and unproductive workers? [HINT: QUESTIONS ARE NOT LOGICAL STATEMENTS}
    —A: 4) Alcohol and tobacco aren’t drugs. 5) They’re recreational consumer items, (6) and thus legitimate products to be offered in a free-market system.

    16.) Suppressed evidence,
    Teacher salaries here doubled in the past decade and teachers now command an average of nearly $24,000 a year. So clearly, any complaint about teachers not receiving an adequate salary is completely unjustified.
    –[$24,000 is the salary of a teacher who has 15 years’ experience. And, while it is true that 10 years ago the average teacher received $11,690, when inflation is considered, teachers salaries come out lower than a decade ago.]

    17.)reductio ad adsurdum
    –If a Down’s syndrome child is born with an intestinal blockage – one which will quickly prove fatal unless operated on (a routine procedure) – in the name of passive euthanasia, we will let the child die.
    –If a Down’s syndrome child is born without an intestinal blockage – our commitment to passive euthanasia means that we will let the child live.

    18.)Inincible Ignorance
    –A: Of course I’m voting for the Reagan budget and tax bills. We need a strong defense – and by lowering the taxes on the wealthy, more capital will be available for investment, thus insuring economic prosperity and jobs.
    –B: According to Lester Thurow, Lyndon Johnson’s high military budget for Vietnam, coupled with a large tax cut, was a primary cause of the inflation of the 60’s and early 70’s. Reagan’s proposed increase in military spending is three times the increase Johnson established. Don’t you think this program might be risky?
    –A: Not at all. I’m a firm believer in it. Those economists don’t know what they’re talking about.

    19.)Affirming the consequent.
    If a person is provincial, racist and bigoted – they will oppose the ERA. Jack opposes the ERA. So he must be a provincial, bigoted racist.

    20.)Ad Baculum
    –A. “Any scientist or research group which doesn’t support my Strategic Defense Initiative cannot expect to receive any further federal funds supporting their research.
    –B. Likewise, every member of the Republican Party must choose between supporting my economic policies – or getting the political blackball.”

    ayan.. sana pumasa. hahaha :))

  39. mukhang ako yung may pinakaonti.. waaaahh.. hehehe.. hirap nmn kc sir eh.. hehe.. :))

  40. elow po ..
    mag-papaalam lang po sana ako na gamitin yung ibang sagot ninyo ..
    thanks
    godbless

  41. You’re really a good webmaster. The site loading velocity is amazing. It kind of feels that you’re doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a great task on this matter!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: