2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—”

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–”

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

36 Responses

  1. I have watch the movie entitled “Moulin Rouge” – A story about love overcoming all obstacles. I have quoted 20 informal fallacies in this movie.

    1.) Christian have gone to London to be a part of a bohemian revolution. When he arrived there he said
    “I knew nothing of Moulin Rouge, Harold Ziddler or Satine”
    -Fallacy of Accent,
    –because we don’t whether he knew nothing of that 3 things or he knew nothing of Moulin Rouge same to Harold Ziddler and Satine both they do not know the Moulin Rouge.

    2.) Christian remembered what his father have said regarding the village of Montmarte. His Father said “It was a village of Sin”
    -Amphiboly
    –because you don’t know if the village itself has sin or is it the people living there is sinful

    3.) When Tolouse’s companion is forcing Christian to be their new bohemian writer Christian said he is not sure if he is a true bohemian. Then Tolouse and His companion asked “Do you believe in Beauty, Freedom, Truth and Love?” Christian replied “Yes” Then the four guys said “Then you are a true Bohemian Revolutionary”
    -Accident
    –A person can believe in Beauty, Freedom, Truth and Love without being a Bohemian.

    4.) When Christian and Satine are in the Elephant, Christian said he wants a Poetry Reading but Satine mistook the meaning of that Poetry Reading as the thing that happens in a Bordello.
    -Amphiboly
    –Satine didn’t understand what was the poetry reading.

    5.) The Duke found out Christian and Satine in a Bed. Satine explained to Duke that they were rehearsing for a play but The Duke said “You expect me to believe that scantily clad in the arms of another man in the middle of the night inside an Elephant. You were rehearsing?”
    -Accident
    –In a situation like that not everything means that they have an intimate relationship maybe it’s just an accident that they have lied in the bed together.

    6.) The Duke is a little doubtful about the rehearsing play so he asked what was the story about, Christian and his companion said it was a story that is amazing and they sung “So exciting the audience will stomp and cheer, so delighting it will run for 50 years.”
    -Slippery slope
    –Because it does not mean that the show will really be a success.

    7.) Satine said “Christian I’m a Courtesan, I’m paid to make men believe what they wanted to believe.”
    -Composition
    –Not all courtesan are paid to make men believe what they want to believe but sometimes they are paid just to make men happy.

    8.) Christian Said ” A life without love that’s terrible.”
    -Converse Accident
    –Because A life without love maybe it will not be that terrible.

    9.) Satine Replied “No, Being on the street that’s terrible”
    -Accent
    –Maybe living in the street is terrible but being on the streets to walk, dance, sing, play and many thing is not terrible.

    10.) Christian Said “Love is a many splendor thing”
    -Composition
    — Love can be a splendor thing or not.

    11.) Christian sings “No, Don’t leave me this way I can’t survive without your sweet love.”
    -Argumentum Misericordian
    –Christian is appealing to be pitiful so that he will not be left.

    12.)Christian said “Love lift us up where we belong”
    -Composition
    –Maybe love can lift us or pulls us down.

    13.)Satine replied “Love makes us act like we are fools, throw our lives away for one happy day”
    -Composition
    –Love doesn’t always makes us fools maybe it makes us better

    14.)The Duke said “I shall hold the deed to the Moulin Rouge and if there are shenanigans, I my man servant, Warner shall deal with it w/ the only language you underworld folks know.”
    -Argumentum ad Baculum
    –The Duke force Ziddler to let him hold the deeds of Moulin Rouge or else something bad might happen.

    15.) The Duke said to Ziddler “Satine’s affection for me is waning and I know how important her work is but she’s at it with the damn writer”
    -Argumentum ad Hominem
    –The Duke attacked Christian or the writer

    16.) Ziddler said to Satine “The duke is spending a fortune for you, He wants to make you a star so go and tell the boy that it’s over.”
    -Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    –Ziddler have said that because The Duke hold the deeds of moulin rouge and he is afraid something bad might happen bad to the moulin rouge.

    17.) Christian asked “Were were you last night?” Satine replied “I was sick” Christian replied “You don’t have to lie to me.” Satine replied ” We have to end It.”
    -Amphiboly
    –You don’t know whether they should end their conversation or their relationship

    18.) The Duke said “Why would the Courtesan choose a penniless sitar player over the Maharajah who is offering a lifetime security that’s real love.”
    -converse accident
    –when you offer lifetime security it sometimes doesn’t mean real love. What if you are a policeman?

    19.) The Duke driven mad because of Satine he said to Ziddler that she wanted Satine back or else he would have Christian Killed”
    – Argumentum ad Baculum
    –The Duke force Ziddler to let him have Satine

    20.) Ziddler said to Satine ” Hurt Christian in order to Save Him”
    -False Dilemma
    — There can be other way, maybe they she can save him by not hurting him.

  2. My older sister gave these examples that’s why there is no reference.

    1.”Superintendent, you should cut the school budget by $16,000. I need not remind you that past school boards have fired superintendents who cannot keep down costs.”

    -ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM
    -While intimidation may force the superintendent to conform, it does not convince him that the choice to cut the budget was the most beneficial for the school or community.

    2. “If we allow the government to infringe upon our right to privacy on the Internet, it will then feel free to infringe upon our privacy on the telephone. After that, FBI agents will be reading our mail. Then they will be placing cameras in our houses. We must not let any governmental agency interfere with our Internet communications, or privacy will completely vanish in the United States.”

    -SLIPPERY SLOPE
    -Such thinking is fallacious; no logical proof has been provided yet that infringement in one area will necessarily lead to infringement in another, no more than a person buying a single can of Coca-Cola in a grocery store would indicate the person will inevitably go on to buy every item available in the store, helpless to stop herself.

    3. Prosecutors in a Virginia court presented overwhelming proof that a boy was guilty of murdering his parents with an ax. The defense presented a “not-guilty” plea for on the grounds that the boy was now an orphan, with no one to look after his interests if the court was not lenient.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD MISERICORDIAM
    -This appeal to emotion obviously seems misplaced, and the argument is irrelevant to the question of whether or not he did the crime.

    4. I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.

    -PETITIO PRINCIPII
    -The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible

    5. Congress shouldn’t bother to consult major universities about educational appropriations. As members of educational establishment, they will naturally want as much money for education as they think they can get.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM
    -Simply from the fact that someone is in education, it does not follow that they would be prejudiced. What someone argues should be assessed on independent grounds from who they might be

    6. I can see that you are in the market for a new car. We’re having a sale on Pintos this month. Do you want to pay cash or do you want the installment plan?

    -COMPLEX QUESTION
    -The salesman assumes you are going to buy a car and proposes the complex question on this basis.

    7. As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.

    -CONVERSE ACCIDENT
    -The locator is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances

    8. The late Ely Culbertson, one of the world’s outstanding bridge players, once declared that the United Nations as presently constituted has serious defects. He must be right because I don’t think the opinion of a man of his caliber should be taken lightly

    -ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM
    -Mr. Culbertson is cited as an authority on bridge, not international affairs

    9. During the Gulf war many Americans made immense profits. That is an indisputable fact. Therefore, there can be no doubt that American business interests instigated the war.

    -FALSE CAUSE
    -Simply because some persons made profits, it does not logically follow these persons caused the war.

    10. Everyone says that a logic course is easier than a math course, so it must be.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    -Simply because many people believe something is true, this fact does not make it true

    11. Since the Bible says, “Thou shall not kill,” it would be wrong to exterminate the termites in City Hall.

    -ACCIDENT
    -The general rule is being used in an instance not meant to be covered by the rule

    12. A great many charges of graft and corruption have been brought against Senator Anderson over the past several years, and he has had numerous opportunities to refute them, but he has never done so. Therefore, I think, the evidence indicates he is not to be trusted.

    -ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM
    -Charges can be made without evidence, and no evidence is cited. From the fact we do not know, no conclusion can be drawn

    13. Stanford produces the best graduates in the United States. Therefore, any every Ph.D. from Stanford is better than any other Ph.D. in the country.

    -DIVISION
    -The argument moves from whole (best graduates in general) to part (each graduate in a distributive sense)

    14. Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property.

    -COMPOSTION
    -The argument moves from part to whole, committing the fallacy of composition.

    15. I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think.

    -EQUIVOCATION
    -The word ”right” is used in two different senses, what is ethically right and what is politically right

    16. Although you have said you will give me no more of your time, I’ll not ask for any more of your time; I’ll just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more.

    -AMPHIBOLY
    -Because of the loose and awkward sentence construction the fallacy of amphiboly occurs.

  3. 1.“No capes!” (as she said to Bob Parr of the Incredibles) Do you remember Thunderhead? Tall. Storm powers. Nice man. Good with kids. November 15, ’58. All was well, another day saved when his cape snagged on a missile fin. Stratogale! April 23, ’57. Cape caught in a jet turbine. Metaman. Express elevator. Dynaguy! Snag on takeoff. Splashdown. Sucked into a vortex. No capes!

    Incredibles
    Converse Accident
    Because of accidents due to capes, Edna suggested that there will be no more capes in costumes.

    2.”Practice makes perfect but nobody’s perfect, so why practice?”

    Tony Gonzaga
    Accident
    Everyone says that no one is perfect, but there is a saying that practice makes perfect. What to do?

    3.”People don’t trust me because I have a monster inside me, but i can’t help it because they are special to me.”

    Naruto
    Appeal to Ignorance
    Not all people dislikes you if you are different. There are others that will appreciate you.

    4.”Please don’t kill me, Mukuro-sama ordered me to kill your friends if you fight us.”

    Birds
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Appeal to Pity
    Tsuna is giving pity to birds because he was just ordered.

    5.”Why do you have to be good to that monkey? Tsuna is a loser.”

    Hana
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Attack on the Person
    Hana directly speaks of tsuna.

    6.”I’ll use the death note to change the world for the better”

    Light
    Death note
    False dillema
    He is doing something wrong for his own beliefs.

    7.”He says he is the strongest guardian but I have defeated him already.”

    Gamma
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Appeal to Ridicule
    He is giving him bad comments.

    8.”His hyper intuition is the best in the history of Vongola”

    Reborn
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Appeal to Flattery
    His comment to Tsuna is positive.

    9.”They say good people go to heaven. I think that’s true.”

    Michiru
    Zombie Loan
    Appeal to Belief
    She believes things because most of the people is saying it.

    10.”No man can ever defeat the great Xanxus”

    Xanxus
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Appeal to common practice

    11.”During the day, you’re mine. When that day comes, I’ll cry”

    Akatsuki
    Zombie loan
    Equivocation
    The word day has 2 meanings.

    12.”You mean you think can defeat me little sword boy!?”

    Squallo
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Complex Question

    13.”Why do you like such things? The life of a mafioso and a hitman is hard. But being a hitman requires bravery and wisdom.

    Tsuna
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Slippery Slope
    The conclusion jumps.

    14.”Everybody can be a saint even if they had a life that is full of evil.”

    Mukuro
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Argumentum Verecudiam
    Not all people can be a saint.

    15.”I like to have a candy! Everyone has a candy!”

    Lambo
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Argumentum ad Populum
    He requested a candy because he saw everyone with a candy.

    16.”You will give me your pacifier arcobaleno.”

    Byakuran
    Katekyo Hitman Reborn
    Appeal to force
    He is ordered to do so or he will die.

    17.”Kyoko hates me because she just smiles when i ask her on a date.”

    Tsuna
    Katekyo hitman reborn
    Petitio Principii
    The reason she hates him isn’t enough.

    18.”Come with me to the kingdom that i will rule.”

    Xanxus
    Katekyo hitman reborn
    Amphiboly
    The word kingdom is not really a specific word. You are not sure of the place.

    19.”Reborn is a hitman, Colonello is a hitman, maybe Lambo is a hitman because he is a kid too but with great talent.

    Tsuna
    Katekyo Hitman reborn
    Composition
    He is assuming things.

    20.”Trying to protect someone is something cool to do.”

    Yamamoto
    Katekyo Hitman reborn
    Red Herring
    Protecting someone is not connected in being cool.

  4. 1. The Ford Taurus is the most popular selling car in its class. Shouldn’t you get a Taurus?
     Appeal to the people
     Even it is the most popular selling car, it doesn’t mean that you should buy it
    2. Art replies: “Kim is Japanese, and so we can ignore his opinion on Mexican food.”
     Attack on the person
     Even he’s a Japanese, it doesn’t mean that he’s not aware of Mexican food or other dishes.
    3. My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.
     Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
     You should reason for yourself and not do things just because someone said it to you.
    4. “Any scientist or research group which doesn’t support my Strategic Defense Initiative cannot expect to receive any further federal funds supporting their research. Likewise, every member of the Republican Party must choose between supporting my economic policies – or getting the political blackball.”
     Appeal to force
     You should choose what is right even if there is a punishment or reward when you choose some of the choices.
    5. The health department could not prove that the committee was responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival. Therefore, the committee is not responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.
     Appeal to Ignorance
     Even if there is no evidence about something, it doesn’t mean that it is right or wrong.
    6. I notice that you surf the Net a lot. Do you enjoy all the pornography you find there?
     Complex Question
     When someone surfs the net, it doesn’t mean that he goes to pornography websites.
    7. A friend of mine got food poisoning from MacDonald’s last week. I’m never going there again!
     Hasty Generalization
     Maybe, there are still some reasons why your friend got poisoned, therefore you should not come with a hasty generalization.
    8. Either you love God or hate God.
     False Dilemma
     It doesn’t mean that if you don’t love God is you hate Him.
    9. If you don’t get to bed early, you’ll be too tired to do well on the GRE tomorrow – and then you won’t get accepted into a decent graduate school and then you’ll end up a washed-out alcoholic living in a trash-bin.
     Slippery Slope
     There are still other consequences that are better when you don’t get to bed early.

    10. Girlfriend: “Honey, does this dress make me look fat?” Boyfriend: “Say, babe, your hair is really gorgeous! And those earrings are a knock-out!”
     Red Herring
     The boy gives the girl a related answer to the question but not really answers what the girl really wants.
    11. You’re born from nothing. You go back to nothing. What do you lose? Nothing! So always look on the bright side of life… (Monty Python)
     Equivocation
     It doesn’t mean that if you came from nothing is that you’ll go back to nothing and get nothing.
    12. Matter is real – indeed, the most real thing. It can be seen and experienced all around us through the senses.
     Begging the Question
     “Real” and “can be seen and experienced” amounts the same thing.
    13. If we had a governor like him in every state, what a great country this would be!
     Composition
     It doesn’t mean that if all the governors will be like him is there would be a great country.
    14. Darwin’s theory of evolution asserts that human beings developed after a long process of change, from pre-hominid ancestors who are also the source for our primate relatives – chimpanzees, gorillas, etc.. If Darwin’s theory is correct, then we can no longer assert with such arrogance that we are above the animals: rather, human beings and human intelligence are simply different, but related results of the same evolutionary process that has produced the rest of the animal kingdom.
     Straw Man
     The careless opponent is held off guard believing that what is demolished is the opponent’s original argument.
    15. We all know how great Drury is. And, since I’m a student at Drury, I must be great, too!
     Division
     It doesn’t mean that if your teacher is great then you will be great too.
    16. The universe is like an intricate watch.
    Many early watches were designed by locksmiths.
    Therefore, the universe may have been designed by some kind of locksmith.
     False Analogy
     While the universe may be like a watch in that it is intricate, this does not in itself justify the assumption that watches and the universe have similar origins.
    17. Public Schools, K through 12, need to have much easier exams for students because teachers don’t fully realize the extent of the emotional repercussions of the sorrow and depression of the many students who could score much better on easier exams.
     Appeal to Pity
     It doesn’t mean that you should give easier exams for the students to get better scores and avoid depression.
    18. “Thou shall not kill; therefore, you should not try to control termites in your home or fight for your country.”
     Sweeping Generalization
     It doesn’t mean that you should not kill pests because it was said so.
    19. “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”
     False Cause
     Being short doesn’t have anything to do with being a great emperor.
    20. Young men and women.
     Amphiboly
     It doesn’t mean that all men and women are young.

  5. 1. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Anyone who will not join the Fire Nation will suffer. (Avatar)

    This statement threats the people who will not join them that caused them to bring out the acceptance of the conclusion.

    2. Petitio Principii
    No one can pass this city, because this is not an open city. (Avatar)

    The statement “No one can pass this city” is actually saying that the city is not open.

    3. Division
    If you love those detective stories so much, you should be a writer. (Detective Conan)

    The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of the whole from the attributes of its part. It is not a must that he should be a writer if he loves reading detective stories.

    4. Accent
    I don’t want to write about detectives… I want to be one of them. (Detective Conan)

    The person did not cleared if he wants to be the writer or a detective.

    5. False Cause
    Drinking fresh water will keep you well. (Avatar)

    Drinking fresh water could not make you really well it may only contribute.

    6. Amphiboly
    Good luck for the Avatar day. (Avatar)

    Avatar day can be the day birthday of Ang but there is also a feast called Avatar day.

    7. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Past climate change was due to natural causes so the
    present climate change must also be due to natural causes. (An inconvenient Truth)

    Climate has varied naturally in the past, and will continue to do so in the future. However, we understand the causes of past changes, and they don’t explain the current warming. If temperature increases, there must be a source of extra heat – this is a basic tenet of physics. In the case of global warming, scientists have eliminated all possible candidates (including the sun) with one exception – greenhouse gas pollution.

    8. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Debater Allan: Ethanol is a vital part of reducing our impact on the environment.

    Debater Bob: Well, you own a large corn farm, so of course you think that. (Bull in China)

    The argument proffered by (the increasingly middle-American) Allan is that ethanol is good for the environment, not that ethanol is good for his wallet. Bob’s rebuttal does not attack the position, but the person. Raising the point that ethanol is only about 2/3 as efficient gasoline, or that ethanol’s inability to be carried via pipeline requires vehicle transport at all steps from the farm to your tank could cast doubt on Allan’s position. The corn farm is irrelevant.

    9. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “Evolution is not proven to be true, therefore it is false.” (RIA)

    You can’t assess something false even though it was not proven true until the technology finished its research.

    10. Complex Question
    “What did you do with the money you stole?” (The COP)

    Instead of asking the man if he commited the crime he presupposed that he and the suspect have already agreed that the suspect did, in fact, commit the robbery.

    11. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    He is the real killer like what detective Kogorou Mouri has been said.

    Mouri is the high authority in that case but you should not trust what he says easily because Shinichi is the one who really knows who is the real killer.

    12. Straw Man
    “Liberals want to raise taxes, which will hurt the economy, further increasing the recession.”

    He presupposes a universal increase in taxes, which is pretty much never the stance of any politician.

    13. Argumentum ad Populum
    My favorite actor, who appeared in a movie about AIDS, has testified that the HIV virus doesn’t really cause AIDS and that there has been a cover-up. So, I think that AIDS must be caused by something other than HIV and the drug companies are hiding it so that they can make money from expensive anti-HIV drugs.

    Although there is little evidence to support the idea, perhaps it is true that AIDS is not caused by HIV; but that is really beside the point. The above argument bases the conclusion on the testimony on an actor, apparently because they appeared in a movie on the topic.

    14. Accident
    Hardworking people are good for the economy. Immigrants are hardworking people. Therefore, immigrants are good for the economy.

    Hardworking people are, in general, good for the economy, and we can even grant the assumption that all immigrants are hardworking people. But that doesn’t mean that any quantity of hardworking immigrants is good for the economy. The economy is not so simple that one rule can cover it.

    15. Converse Accident
    Albert Einstein, John Lennon, and Peter Brimelow have been good for our society.
    Albert Einstein, John Lennon, and Peter Brimelow are immigrants.
    Therefore, immigrants are good for our society. (E.T.)

    It is not because those three are immigrants as others are, its not mean that others do the same.

    16. Equivocation
    If someone breaks the law, they are acting irresponsibly. Therefore, anyone who breaks the law is not responsible for his actions and therefore that person’s actions aren’t their fault. (Storm Loader)

    Only the first statement is true that someone breaks the law are acting irresponsibly. But fault is because of person’s action.

    17. Slippery Slope
    “If we legalize marijuana, then we would have to legalize heroin and crack and we’ll have a nation full of drug addicts on welfare. Therefore we cannot afford to legalize marijuana”. (The COP)

    It doesn’t follow that when Marijuana is legalized, heroin and crack will be. Also in other countries that this was implemented they are not full of addicts in welfare.

    18. False Analogy
    If engineers can design those black boxes that survive plane crashes, they should be able to build the whole plane from that same material.

    Box are different from a plane and there are many circumstances in creating that such big things flying in the air that can survive in an accident.

    19. False Dilemma
    Senator Jill: “We’ll have to cut education funding this year.”
    Senator Bill: “Why?”
    Senator Jill: “Well, either we cut the social programs or we live with a huge deficit and we can’t live with the deficit.”

    There is no choice in the conversation rather than to accept the less faulty things that should happen.

    20. Red Herring
    Grizzly bears can’t be dangerous – they look so cute. (Sesame)

    The topic were jumped from the grizzly bears being dangerous to its other characteristics.

  6. 1.Ad Baculum
    “Any scientist or research group which doesn’t support my Strategic Defense Initiative cannot expect to receive any further federal funds supporting their research.”

    2. Ad Verecundiam
    “My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.”

    3.Ad Hominem
    “Christians? Jesus Christ admonished his followers to feed the hungry. These people declare catsup a vegetable and try to eliminate free lunches for the homeless. They fight tooth and nail against appropriations for the street people spending cold winter nights on heating grates. Jesus Christ was the Prince of Peace. They build the biggest war machine the world has ever known, then heroically invade an island the size of Cedar Rapids.”

    4. Ad Ignorantium
    P1: “The health department could not prove that the committee was responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.”

    C1: “Therefore, the committee is not responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.”

    5. Complex Question
    “I notice that you surf the Net a lot. Do you enjoy all the pornography you find there?”

    6.Accident
    GP1) “Ministers of the church are to represent Jesus — as healer, as speaker of God’s word, as the one who assures us of God’s forgiveness of sin.”

    GP2) “Males and females are both created in the image of God: both stand as equal reflections of God. The church affirms the full equality of male and female.”

    PC) “Because Jesus was male, only men can be ordained as ministers of the church.”

    7.Bifurcation
    “We will either learn to live together as brothers and sisters – or, in a world of nuclear weapons available to any fanatic with money and a favored target, we will die together as fools.”

    8. Red Herring
    Girlfriend: “Honey, does this dress make me look fat?”

    Boyfriend: “Say, babe, your hair is really gorgeous! And those earrings are a knock-out!”

    9. Slippery Slope
    “If you don’t get to bed early, you’ll be too tired to do well on the GRE tomorrow – and then you won’t get accepted into a decent graduate school and then you’ll end up a washed-out alcoholic living in a trash-bin.”

    10.Straw Man
    A: “It’s not fair that when doing the same work and with the same qualifications, women are paid only $ .70 for every $1.00 that men are paid. Isn’t it reasonable to expect that in equivalent jobs, with equivalent work experience and education, that your sex should have no impact on your salary?”

    B: “Of course not! Everyone knows that bosses go easier on women and what they do. Besides girls are physically smaller and weaker than men, so they need to be protected from the real world.”

    11.Division
    “We all know how great Drury is. And, since I’m a student at Drury, I must be great, too!”

    12.Composition
    “if we had a governor like him in every state, what a great country this would be!”

    13. Equivocation
    “We can never have jam today,” the Queen insisted.

    “But it must come to jam some day,” Alice protested. “After all, the rule is, ‘jam every other day.'”

    “Precisely,” said the Queen. “‘Jam every other day.’ But today is not any other day, you know.”

    14. Begging the Question
    “Matter is an illusion. There is no proof it exists outside my own mind. I know I am occasionally deceived by my senses. What assures me that the senses per se are not themselves an elaborate illusion?”

    15. Ad Populum
    “The Ford Taurus is the most popular selling car in its class. Shouldn’t you get a Taurus?”

    16. Hasty Generalization
    Howard: “You mean you take this Horoscope business seriously?”

    Aunt: “Yes, of course. Don’t you see how today’s horoscope fit you to a T?”

    Howard: “Yes, but…”

    Aunt: “No buts. There must be something to it. ”

    17.False Analogy
    “Education cannot prepare men and women for marriage. Trying to educate them for marriage is like trying to them to swim without allowing them to go into the water. It cannot be done.”

    18.Appeal to Tradition
    “Cannibal father to cannibal son: “Go ahead and eat your dinner! You know we’ve always eaten people.”

    19.False Dilemma
    “Either we allow abortion or we force children to be raised by parents who don’t want them.”

    20.Amphiboly
    “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger…’

  7. The Informal Fallacies I’ve collected are from the anime series Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion. 2010, a.t.b august 10th. The new Britannia empire declared war on japan, the neutral islands on the far east, and the worlds only superpower, Britannia. In Between them was the epicenter of the deeply rooted diplomatic conflict created by japan, due to technological gaps between Britannia and japan, japan was easily defeated by armored suits known as knightmare frames, japan became a territory of the empire, and had its freedom, rights and name taken away. Area 11 was the new name of japan after the war. Lelouch Lamperouge, a normal Britannian student, while attempting to provide aid to some drivers, got caught up in a conflict between terrorists(who we’re the drivers) and the Britannian government, this event led to his fateful meeting with C.C, who gave him the power of geass in order to live. The power of geass is of absolute obedience, it bends the wills of people and forces them to act under any command given by lelouch even if that command was to kill themselves as he had first demonstrated with the soldiers, who tried to erase the witnesses like Lelouch and most of the 11’s(Japanese). From then on, he vowed to destroy Britannia to uncover the truth of his mothers death, and to make the world a more peaceful place for Nunnally, his younger sister.

    R1: Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Tamaki: if Zero were here, I wouldn’t have to take this from you guys….
    11(forgot her name): Don’t mention the name of the traitor anymore.
    Tamaki: He didn’t betray us!
    Ohgi: There must have been a reason…
    11: Reason? For a commander to disappear in the middle of the final battle?!
    Todoh: Enough! either way, Zero is dead.
    =The fact that zero is dead cannot be proven true just because he disappeared in the middle of the battle and have been missing ever since.

    R2: Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    Black king: Nice Merchandise.
    Kallen: I’m not merchandise.
    Black king: You are, the people who do not win have no rights, curse your own powerless birth, his majesty, emperor Britannia said so.
    =The emperor has no right over the lives of people, nor does his ideals can bend their rights.

    R3:Argumentum ad Hominem
    Governor Calares: This isn’t discrimination against the 11’s, its distinction, 11’s were manipulated by the name of zero into trying to change their name back to japanese. They are a barbaric and dangerous race. That’s why we, Britannia must control and educate them.
    =They were executed based solely on their wanting to live as japanese and not as 11’s, and were judged less likely by their actions.

    R5: Argumentum ad Baculum
    Japanese Liberation font leader: If we do not receive any responses to our demands, we will make someone fly every 30 min.
    =The alternative is definitely an insinuated threat towards the Britannia government.

    R6: Argumentum Misericordiam
    Lelouch: This moment, I am bowing my head for someone for the first time in my life. I have no shame or reputation to lose. I don’t need anything, not even geass. So please, save Nunnally, I beg you.
    Suzaku: Now.. what does doing that bring you? do you think you will be forgiven? by doing this?!
    Lelouch: No… but I have no choice but to ask you to save Nunnally.
    =Lelouch is asking suzaku a favor beget the fact that he has lied to so many people, and tainted his hand with so many lives, including suzakus’ most loved one.

    R7: Ignorantio Elenchi
    Zero: What do you wish to achieve through all of this?(Terrorism, Killing of hostages).
    Terrorist leader: Its obvious. I want to announce to the world that the japanese are still alive.
    Zero: How old-fashioned, you guys are old-timers and can no longer be saved.
    =The actions done and the reasons for it are far-off from each other, trying to support or establish that they did it to revive the japanese name, though in wrong actions.

    P2: False Cause
    Spectator: Traitor! why did he let them get away.
    Spectator 2: It’s because they’re fellow 11’s, right?
    Spectator 3: I get it. I was wondering how he was able to take them on even though it was 7 against 1.
    =The fact that suzaku is an 11 doesn’t have anything to do with his failure of catching the escapees, after all it was 7 against 1.

    P4: Accident
    They are armed 11’s, therefore they’re members of the order of the black knights and are publicly brandished as Terrorists by the Britannian Masses.
    =Just because they are armed 11’s, doesn’t necessarily say that they are members of the order of the black knights or are terrorists.

    A3: Accent
    After losing a chess match with Lelouch
    Black king: if rumors of this were to spread, I wouldn’t have any face to hang on anymore.
    =The rumors here actually meant differently from “his loss to a student”.
    Continuation:
    Lelouch: I don’t have a tendency to spread rumors
    Black king: No, Student, I’m referring to the cheap shot you pulled.
    Lelouch: Cheap shot?!
    Black king: What a bad boy, Arrest him, Now, time to create some evidence.
    Lelouch: You dirty adult.
    Black king: There is no value in things that are “right”.

    A4: Composition( Taken from Fate/Stay Night)
    Issei: oh yeah, what has changed is that father took in a beautiful lady he knew as a guest, everyones getting kinda restless.
    Emiya: A lady… is she a nun?
    Issei: No… its tough to explain, she’ll be borrowing a room before her marriage, but she is a real beauty; so much that even I can’t take my eyes off her. No! NO! this is why women are evil! women! Erase your sexual desire, all is vanity, my training is not enough.
    =The lady who was beautiful was brandished evil by issei, but this doesn’t necessarily state that all women are like her.

    A5: Division
    Britannia is the worlds only superpower, being born of Britannian blood, it won’t be long till we achieve greatness, thus with pride, let us demonstrate our superiority, and step on the rights of those we have defeated.
    =Britannnia and Britannian people are related but all the same very different, greatness and such attributes are not distributable.

    D2: Slippery slope
    Lelouch: Indeed, Emperor Charles yearned for the past, you wanted the present, however I want the future.
    Schneizel: The future may be worse than the present.
    Lelouch: No, it will be, no matter how long it takes, people will continue to pursue happiness.
    Schneizel: Yet that would lead to ambitions, wars, conflict, strife, this is the pinnacle of foolishness, That is just emotion, a fabrication in the name of hope and dreams that lead to nowhere.
    =Happiness does not always lead to ambitions, not does ambitions to wars and so forth.

    D3: False Analogy
    Cornelia: then.. the people at pendragon were..
    Schneizel: I had them erased, but don’t you think that was a more fortunate road for them rather than a life of loyalty towards lelouch and his geass.
    =Killing them and Living by Lelouchs’ will is very different since while alive gives them a chance to remove the effect, while if dead, they have nil.

    D5: False Dilemma
    Emperor: Deny me and what awaits you will be his,,,, schneizels’ world, good and evil are merely the front and back of the same card. Even so you…
    Lelouch: Even so, I will deny your world!
    =The two alternatives, the emperors worlds which is *spoiler* and schneizels’ world we’re not the only alternative they still had a plan which is purely *spoiler*.

    P1: Complex Question
    Was that an accident?
    Are they drunk? they’re so stupid….
    =The question are they drunk was used in attempt to discover if they were drinking while driving.

    P3: Petitio Principii
    Telling lies is wrong because it deceives others like a mask
    =Telling lies was simply restated as it deceives others thus is arguing in a circle.

    R4: Argumentum ad Populum
    The order of the black knights, known as the defenders of justice led by zero, has been supported by 11’s throughout japan, not only because of their actions, but rather on they’re fame as an organization who takes on Britannia herself. People began to acknowledge them one by one due to popularity among the bigger supporters.
    =His popularity and charisma gained him new supporters, much of those believed him because others believe in him as well.

    P5: Converse Accident
    The Ashford academy is a school rather famous for its hilarious events like giant pizza making, costume parties and the sort, mostly due to the student council presidents antics.
    Cecile: That must be a crazy(in a good way) school, I wonder how suzuka is doing?
    =The fallacy occured after cecile heard Nunnallys cat cry (Meooowww~~~) and concluded the statement, which was too quick.

    D1: Red Herring(From Gundam 00)
    Celestial being is a paramilitary organization that intervenes on any nation that brews conflict with others, or within itself. They will use force and eliminate both sides of opposition, to prevent the war from escalating, through these actions, they plan on uniting the world.
    =They eliminate conflict-brewing countries for the sake of unification. Or maybe it was intended as a diversion, and they had a different goal in mind.

    D4: Straw Man( Back to code Geass)
    After destroying the facility of V.V, lelouch and C.C stated that this was atonement for their sins of allowing geass to to live on. They killed all of the scientists who were unarmed and all of the test subjects who were children.
    =The threat of geass does not justify their erasure from existence. By weakening the opposing statement that geass is dangerous and one possessor is enough, they wiped out everything and everyone about it.

    FOR MORE INFO. I recommend watching Code GEASS

  8. 1.)
    You are always crying Yui, that’s why the cherry blossoms fall.
    – Vampire Princess Miyu
    Fallacy Committed: False Cause
    Explanation: Yui is not the real cause of the falling of cherry blossoms. It is just a coincidence.

    2.)
    I saw miyu with a tall guy that looks like a foreigner, it must be her boyfriend.
    – Vampire Princess Miyu
    Fallacy Committed: Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
    Explanation: Nothing proves that that guy was really Miyu’s boyfriend.

    3.)
    Those workers destroyed this place. Humans never tried to harmonize with nature, they only try to bend her to their will.
    – Vampire Princess Miyu
    Fallacy Committed: Composition
    Explanation: Not all humans treat mother nature like that.

    4.)
    If they find out I am doing this, they wont have respect to me then soon they will replace me and kick me out. After that I will be fired and have a miserable life.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Slippery Slope
    Explanation: One thing could never lead to another and another.

    5.)
    I denotated the bomb because my shoe locker was secretly opened. Maybe someone put a bomb in it.
    Because there was this new about a terrorist putting a bomb on the mailbox of his target.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Composition
    Explanation: It does not really mean that if it happened to someone, it will happen to you too.

    6.)
    Imagine if someone sent you a package. When you are about to open it. It smelled rotten and it feels slimy. What Would You do?
    I would throw it away.
    See, then you would also throw that package from your locker because you do not know who it is from.
    – FUll Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Composition
    Explanation: The case would be always like that.

    7.)
    Because I Have You
    Because I have tomorrow
    Because I cant live on all alone
    I feel you cloce by me, Maybe its love.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Missing the Point
    Explanation: The conclusion has no stable basis.

    8.)
    I demand a plain roll!
    Bring them here or else… I shoot!
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    Explanation: Sagara used his gun to get what he wants.

    9.)
    I cant accept this!
    I wouldnt call leaving everything up to the students respecting their autonomy. Its total anarchy.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Sweeping Generalization
    Explanation: It does not mean that it will lead to anarchy.

    10.)
    I feel sorry for what I did.
    If saying sorry can solve everything, there would be no war and we wouldnt need soldiers.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Red Herring (Missing the Point)
    Explanation: The proposition does not support the claim.

    11.)
    If you leave I’ll shoot.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Appeal to Force
    Explanation: Sagara forced the taxi driver to stay.

    12.)
    She broke my heart, she broke our promise, she destroyed my trust on her. That is why I dont trust anybody.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Hasty Generalization
    Explanation: Not all people will broke his heart and destroy his trust.

    13.)
    I’m about to die, will you take me on a date?
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Appeal to Pity
    Explanation: The boy begged kaname indirectly.

    14.)
    Today’s society is supposed to have sexual equality! The attitude that dictates that me and women should behave in certain ways is a breeding ground for discrimination.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Equivocation
    Explanation:

    15.)
    You cannot go there. The air is bad. The people are mad and the enviroment is bad.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Ad misericordiam
    Explanation: What he is saying is not actually true, he is just saying that so Thessa would not go to that place.

    16.)
    All boys do it, then we should do it.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Appeal to popular predujice
    Explanation: It does not mean that if everyone is doing it, we should do it.

    17.)
    My father said that I have to fight before I die.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Appeal to inappropriate authority
    Explanation: Only his father said it, no stable basis.

    18.)
    BORING! Everything that this man say is BORING!!
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Attack on the Person
    Explanation: Kaname discriminated the boy so that no one would listen to him.

    19.)
    Your not hitting me today..
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Accent
    Explanation: His claim is a little irony.

    20.)
    If we will get out of this room.
    Everyone in this school will be infected, then the city, then this country and no one will be left in this world.
    – Full Metal Panic
    Fallacy Committed: Slippery Slope
    Explanation: It does not follow that no one will be left in this world. The chemical is not correctly identified.

  9. The following informal fallacies are from the movie Scream 3 and the 90’s sitcom The Nanny:
    1. ” No one is to get killed Sydney because that’s what my hot boyfriend said do.” (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)
    – this is an appeal to inappropriate authority beacause Amanda is citing her boyfriend’s statement as means of backing up the claim that no one is going to be killed, which does not necessarily prove the claim, instead as means of trying to make the situation less complicated but proving no absolute evidence.

    2. ” Oh, I know you know what I mean. You had millions of movies with her. You’re obsesed with her, and now, You’re obsessed with her daughter. Then you’l get everyone killed, including me.” (Slippery Slope)
    – this is a fallacy of slippery slope because Amanda draws out a conclusion from a chain of previous conclusions. Even if the person she speaks with is obsessed with Sydney’s mother, it doesn’t follow that the man is obsesed with Sydney and it doesn’t follow as well that he is the killer and get everyone killed including the speaker.

    3. “Tell me that cop doesn’t have a girlfriend or I’ll kill myself.” (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    – here, Gale threats of killing herself, though it’s quite obvious that she won’t do such act, but still she replaces careful reasoning with a threat as means of wanting to deny the fact that a cop has a girlfriend.

    4. “My father told me to keep an eye with Alex, so, I went off the plane.” (False Cause)
    – Tom states a reason which doesn’t have any concrete causal-relationship with him going down the plane because even if he was to be a watch guard of Tom, Alex getting off the plane is not a vaild reason for him to get off the plane knowing the fact then that Alex is still going to be in the plane but separated from others.

    5. ” Sydney is not the killer because there are no evidences pointing her as the killer.” (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
    – this one is an appeal to ignorance because it doesn’t follow that if there were no evidences that points out Sydney to be the killer makes Sydney an innocent to the crime.

    6. ” Gale is my past. She’s cruel, obsessive with her carer, and annoying.” (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    – it is clear that Gale is attacked directly by her ex-boyfriend as means of defaming or dicrediting Gale with the person the the speaker is talking at. Leaving Gale unable to defend her side about the speaker who defamed her.

    7. ” Barbar who happens to be very popular is my friend now. So, that makes me popular too and so all of you should start treating me like a queen. ( Argumentum ad Popoulum)
    – Even if Fran is known for a fact to have Barbara as a friend, who happens to be very popular, still that is not a chain effect that everyone who’s friends with Barbara directly becomes popular, and that includes Fran, falsely claiming to her audience her instant popularity after being friends with Barbara.

    8. “I will not tolerate you escaping gymn class young lady. There are other ways of dealing with your problem with your gymn teacher. You can go shopping or go retailing. ( Missing the point)
    – it is certain that shopping or go retailing could be a way for a girl to unwind and set her problems. But that doesn’t solve Maggie’s problemn with her gymn teacher and completely irrelevant with Fran not tolerating Maggie’s unacceptable act.

    9. ” So, Maggie, I see you really intersted with that Magazine. Are you enjoying looking at all the cute guys?” ( Complex Question)
    – Fran in this cxase is jumping to a conclusion that Maggie is indeed looking at the cute guys in the magazine without even looking first if Magie is indeed looking at the hot guys in the magazine or if there were any to begin with.

    10. ” The story you fabricated against me is not real because it’s a fiction.” (Petitio Principii)
    – Gale Weathers did not prove the unrealness of the fabricated story about her for she just restyated the meaning of not real with fiction.

    11. “He’s a guy for crying out loud. All he can shove up on his head is sex and his toys.”
    (Sweeping Generalization)
    – Even if the person that Amanda is talking about happens to be a collective generalization about guys is wrong and wo’t justify their claim that the guy they are talking about only thinks about sex and his man toys, thus making him a pervert as well.

    12. ” Honey, remember the time when I told you about the the incident when my cousin Earl died while eating popcorn and drinking soda at the same time. There, I realised that popcorn and soda can be fatal once consumed at the same time.” (Hasty generalization)
    – although Fran’s uncle Earl died while eatin g piopcorn and drinking soda at the same time, doesn’t mean that those exact conditions are the exact things that lead to uncle Earl’s unfortunate death, for Fran failed to look at other possibilities of what caused Uncle Earl’s death.

    13. ” Looks like we’re having a reunion. And I must admit that I’m trukly sad about my favorite teachers fate.” (Amphiboly)
    – It’s not clear if John is sad about the idea that his favorite teacher is next to die, or sad about her teacher leaving the town.

    14. “Either you will let my Nana leave her or I’ll resign as your nany.” (False Dilemma)
    – Fran makes the situation much worse for having only two conditions as if those were the only options that Mr. Shefield is left with. Thus, forcing Mr. Shefield to choose the one that Miss Fine forces Mr. Shefield to do which in reality gives Mr. Shefield more viab le options other than the two alternatives Miss. Fine presented to him.

    15. “Cynthia is evil. So, that makes the rest of her family evil.” (Composition)
    – it’s wrong dor Mr. Shefield to claim that Cynthia is evil so that basiocally makes everyone in her family is evil. The wickedness of the part is not necessarily the wickedness of the whole.

    16. ” Brytant, everyone in the Fine family never failed to wion any competition. So, that makes me a winner already before the cointest even begins.” (Divisions)
    – Miss fine mistakenly attributes all of the members of the Fine family’s success in certain competitions to be her succes as well because for her, after all, the same blood runs thru her veins thus, for her, that makes her a winner before the competition even starts.

    17. ” Mr. Shefield is not home today.” (Accent)
    – Miss Fine’s statement seems to be unclear for the case could be that Mr. Shefield was home last night, or Mr. Shefield is not home only for today.

    18. “Why are you stopping me from kissing that guy? It’s not like I’m thwarting you and Fran from kissing and hugging any time you want. That makes me capable of doing whatever you are doing any time of the day.” ( False Analogy)
    – Margaret presumes that her case is similar with that of the case of her father and Miss Fine which in reality ar both different cases due to the diferences with the gravity of the two situations. Miss Fine and Mr. Shefield are practically at the legal age while Margaret is still under the legal age which makes her capable of douing such acts but not freely allowed to do in public and private places due to the undesirable consequences that may arise.

    19. “Honey I wasn’t born yesterday. Fighting for your right as a student is good. And It’s not always that your teacher is right. So, go fight your teacher and let her have a taste of her own medicine.”( Equivocation)
    – the woird fight is used with different meanings in two different arguments thus making the meanings of the arguments irrelevant with conclusion

    20. “I’ll grow old and be very depressed iof you won’t bre married with Mr. Shefield.” (Appeal to pity)
    – it is very obviouys that Sylvia just want her daughter to get married. But her reasonig is complete;ly wrong for she is using threats just to make Miss fine marry Mr. Shefield.

  10. R1 – Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)

    Accounts by ‘eye witnesses’ are the fruit of their imagination,’ the official news agency said.” (New York Times)

    = The conclusion is based on the official news agency which has not proved if the event was true or false.

    R2 – Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    PROTHERO: Last night’s scheduled demolition of two deteriorating landmarks went off without a hitch. Spokesman for the Interior ministry said both structures were severely damaged and judged to be a danger to the unsuspecting public. Plans for new landmarks are well underway.
    Do you believe this crap, Dascombe?
    DASCOMBE: It’s not our job to believe it, Lewis. Our job is to tell the people –
    PROTHERO: “Exactly what they tell us.” I know but do you think that people will believe it?
    DASCOMBE: They will if it’s you that’s telling it to them. Now let’s try it again. (V for Vendetta)

    = People are concluded to believe of what they say because Prothero said so.

    R3 – Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    V: You are but a single individual. How can you possibly make any difference? Individuals have no power in this modern world. That is what you’ve been taught because that is what they need you to believe. But it is not true. (V for Vendetta)

    = A part of the statement is against the person V is talking to.

    R4 – Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to Popular Justice)

    Gatorade is the official drink of the NBA. (an advertisement by Gatorade)

    = The advertisement is assuming that the totality of NBA is drinking Gatorade.

    R5 – Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)

    LEADER: Any man that disobeys this order will be court marshaled! (V for Vendetta)

    = The leader is threatening his subordinates to follow him, otherwise he will order then to be court marshaled.

    R6 – Argumentum ad Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)

    DELIA: There is something wrong with us. With all of mankind. With me. Something evil that made me enjoy what I did. Some hideous flaw. We deserve to be culled. We deserve it. (V for Vendetta)

    = Delia is forcing punishment onto herself because of what she did.

    R7 – Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)

    Beneath the loudspeaker is a surveillance system labeled, “For your protection.” (V for Vendetta)

    = A surveillance system could not only be for protection, it could be used for other purposes.

    P1 – Complex Question

    INTERROGATOR: Have you ever participated in a terrorist act against your country? Did you participate in the murder of Bishop Anthony Lilliman? What is the identity of codename V? Allow me to be more precise. Did you participate in the murder of Dr. Delia Surridge? Did you participate in the murder of Derek Almond, director of the Finger? (V for Vendetta)

    = He instantly jumps to a conclusion that the one being interrogated has participated in a terrorist act.

    P2 – False Cause (Non causa pro causa)

    FINCH: He escapes from Larkhill and vows to get even with his tormentors. The whole exercise an elaborate, chilling vendetta. (V for Vendetta)

    = Finch is quickly jumping into conclusion while there are other options to look into.

    P3 – Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)

    “Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer as studied law to its highest degree.” (Oscar Wilde, De Profundis)

    = The meanings of the two statements are univocal.

    P4 – Accident (Sweeping Generalization)

    BISHOP LILLIMAN: Ah well, if Job could bear his disappointments, I suppose I must have the good grace (God) to bear mine. (V for Vendetta)

    = He compares his sins with Job’s disappointments that were bore by God and he believes that God will also bear his.

    P5 – Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    FINCH: That’s the explanation that I find most reassuring, funnily enough. Because that means he’s finished. It’s over now. (V for Vendetta)

    = Finch derives a conclusion too quickly and oversees the situation as “over”.

    A1 – Equivocation

    MISAKI: God is supposed to help the suffering. But everywhere there is suffering, so I do not believe in God. (Welcome to the NHK)

    = Having experienced suffering does not mean God does not exist.

    A2 – Amphiboly

    COLONEL OLIVER: You have a battalion, you could stop this now. The Hutu army is no match for you. (Hotel Rwanda)

    = There is no assurance if the battalion could really stop the Hutu army, there could be other outcomes.

    A3 – Accent

    BIK: Don’t tell me we have cockroaches, Paul? (Hotel Rwanda)

    = Which cockroach, the Tutsi or the real cockroaches?

    A4 – Composition

    Referring to the Tutsi children as rebels:
    CAPTAIN: Traitor! They are all Tutsi cockroaches. SHOOT THEM! (Hotel Rwanda)

    = The captain is generalizing that if the children are part Tutsi which is a larger group, they are rebels.

    A5 – Division

    RADIO: Good Hutus of Rwanda, beware. The dictatorship of the Tutsi cockroach is near. Watch your neighbor. Identify these cockroaches. Then rise up and stamp out this murderous infestation… (Hotel Rwanda)

    = The announcer on the radio attributes all the Tutsi as abominable people.

    D2 – Slippery Slope

    BOB: Don’t be stupid for Christ sake. The Watusis are invading the country. I told you not to come here.
    PAUL: The Tutsi rebels are far away on the border. And soon there will be peace.
    BOB: Tutsis, Watutsis they’ll still shoot you.
    (Hotel Rwanda)

    = Bob is concluding that Paul will get shot by the Tutsis once that he goes there.

    D4 – Straw Man

    EVEY: The homosexuals were next. What God had started with AIDS had to be finished by man. It was God’s work. That’s what we were told. (V for Vendetta)

    = In this situation, people believed that AIDS was caused by God to erase the homosexuals, and would be continued to be erased by man from the world because the Bible does not permit the third sex.

    D5 – False Dilemma

    LEADER: Control! The world around us is a changing, directionless, amoral morass and it is up to man and man alone to set things right! Without control, man is nothing more than any other stinking, sweating, brute animal. (V for Vendetta)

    = There are many other options that could happen if man has no control.

  11. Taken from the fiction book written by Paulo Coehlo entitled “11 Minutes”

    “It is not something you can explain, it is just how people kiss.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance, Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to inappropriate authority)
    [it doesn’t mean that, that is how it is because the majority is doing that]

    “Men brought only pain, frustration, suffering and a sense of time dragging.”
    -Fallacies of Presumption, Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    [she generalized all men with only one man as a basis]

    “You must have been pretty when you were younger and you were brought up in a country that respects its inhabitants. Wasn’t that enough for you to be happy?”
    -Fallacies of Presumption, Complex Question
    [she asked as if that, you should be japp in those reasons she gave]

    “When I have nothing to lose, I had everything, when I stop being myself, I found myself.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance, Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    [this cannot be proven wrong or right]

    “I can’t walk here, the ground’s covered with stone.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance, Argumentum ad Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)
    [the reaon she cannot walk is valid and she cannot do anything about it]

    “Ever since we got expelled from the paradise, we have either been suffering, making other people suffer or watching the suffering of others. It’s beyond our control.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance, Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    [everyone knows that humans are expelled from paradise because of disobedience]

    “I can’t think of anything duller than painting; a static thing, a movement frozen in time, a photograph that is never faithful to the original. A dead thing that is no longer of any interest to anyone, apart from painters, who are people who think they’re important and cultivated, but who haven’t evolved with the rest of the world.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance, Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)
    [she just criticized the painter as if painting is dull and she do anything but painting]

    “Either to be an adventurer in search of treasure or a victim of the world”
    -Fallacies of Relevance, Argumentum de Baculum (Appeal to Force)
    [it is obvious that no one wants to be a victim, we have no choice but to choose the other option]

    “The gospels and all the sacred texts of all religions were written in exile, in search of God’s understanding, of faith that moves whole peoples, of the pilgrimage of souls wandering the face of the earth. Our ancestors did not know, as we do not know, what the Divinity expects from our lives—and it is out of that doubt that books are written, pictures painted, because we don’t want to forget who we are—nor can we.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance, Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)
    [the first statement and the other statements do not conclude to the last statement or the conclusion]

    “She was doing it because she had nothing to lose, because her life was one of the constant, day-to-day frustrations therefore she can do whatever she wants, she had nothing to lose.”
    -Fallacies of Ambiguity, Amphiboly
    [what those nothing to lose means? does this apply to all the readons she has given?]

    “Pleasure brought me pain, Pain brought me peace maybe pleasure will bring me peace”
    -Fallacies of Ambiguity, Equivocation

    “Maria cannot go to work today, she is sick.”
    Fallacies of Ambiguity, Accent
    [is maria sick today? yesterday?]

    “I see those who touched my heart failed to arouse my body, and that those who aroused my body failed to touched my heart. Sex and love cannot meet”
    -Distraction Fallacies, False Analogy
    [it is said that 2 things are more connected when they really aren’t]

    “They say that sex is the sin of all sins because sex is the root of Lust. Therefore those who had sex commit sin.”
    -Fallacies of Ambiguity, Straw man
    [we are given one option that obviously is false so we have no choice but to choose the other one]

    “If prostitution will be made legal, then all sex related diseases will spread, thus sex workers should be medically updated or kill prostitution.”
    Fallacies of Ambiguity, False Dilemma
    [choices are not really choices, one is unacceptable]

    “He is a painter because he can see beyond the physical appearance of things, persons, sceneries, problems and situation.”
    -Fallacies of Presumption, Prititio Principii (Begging the Question)
    [painter is just repeated but in other terms]

    “I’m not crying, the onions just make my eyes teary”
    Fallacies of Presumption, non causa pro causa (False Cause)
    [she just blame the onions for her crying but the truth is something is wrong]

    “All Swiss men go for foreigner women, maybe Swiss men don’t like Swiss women or Swiss women don’t like Swiss men”
    -Fallacies of Presumption, Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    [it is jumping into conclusion with only one evidence]

  12. Fallacies taken from Naruto
    1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “His body was not found. He died trying to suicide bomb them.”
    *It cannot be concluded that he is dead just because his body was not found. A proposition cannot be proven true by saying that it has not been proven false.
    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam(Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    “Slaughter is the core of the Jashin faith. Therefore, leaving people half-dead is a mortal sin.”
    *The speaker believes in what his religion tells him, whether it be right or wrong. He appeals to the judgment of his god without asserting if it is right or wrong.
    3. Argumentum ad Hominem(Attack on the Person)
    “What we’re protecting… The real reason we fight… If you still don’t understand, then there’s no way I can put you out in front.”
    *The argument ended with this statement. Asuma didn’t answer Shikamaru’s question but told him that he was incapable because he didn’t know the reason they’re fighting.
    4. Argumentum ad Populum(Appeal to popular prejudice)
    “During the Great Ninja Wars, each nation’s hidden village tried to obtain them, hoping to turn them into weapons. That’s why Akatsuki wants them.”
    *Just because each nation wants a Bijuu doesn’t mean they are really that important. Akatsuki here appeals to the popularly held belief that a Bijuu has amazing powers.
    5. Argumentum ad Baculum(Appeal to Force)
    “I’ll to scream if you try to leave.”
    *A threat was insinuated instead of reason.
    6. Agrumentum Misericordiam(Appeal to Pity)
    “I’m not forcing you to continue your mission. It’s alright. If I die, only my beautiful daughter and his son will mourn my death. It’s ok, go ahead.”
    *The speaker clearly wants the team 7 to continue protecting him. So he told him the team that if he dies, his daughter and grandson will be very sad.
    7. Ignorantio Elenchi(Missong the Point)
    “Killing a priest is like a one-way ticket to Hell.” “Don’t worry, even hell runs on money.”
    *When Hidan tells Kakazu that killing a priest is wrong, Kakazu answers him that even hell runs on money. We don’t know if hell really runs on money, but the topic is about killing a priest. The premises miss the point.

    8. Complex Question
    “You’re like a pussy you know? Do you even have a dick?”
    *It doesn’t mean that when someone is a pussy or a coward, he doesn’t have a dick. The speaker jumped to a conclusion without warrant.

    9. Non Causa Pro Causa(False Cause)
    “We’re late because we’re going to your stupid exchange point.”
    *There can be other reason why they’re late other than what was mentioned.
    10. Petitio Principii(Begging the Question)
    “I bet this’ll be the easiest part.” “Actually not, it’ll be the hardest.”
    *The premise was just restated in other terms to reason.
    11. Accident(Sweeping Generalization)
    “He is from Akatsuki. He must be a very skilled ninja.”
    *The speaker applied a generalization to the individual being spoken of. Even though Akatsuki is known for skilled ninjas, it doesn’t mean that it applies to all members. Especially because all the members haven’t made their appearances yet. This is also a Fallacy of Division.
    12. Converse Accident(Hasty Generalization)
    “Naruto, if this works, you may, in a sense, even surpass me.”
    *The speaker quickly jumped to a conclusion that Naruto will surpass him if the training worked.
    13. Amphiboly
    “You don’t get it at all. What it really means to protect a king.”
    *In this statement, the word king has an ambiguous meaning. It can mean the Feudal Lord or it can symbolize other meaning.
    14. Accent
    “This battle’s over.”
    *This was said by Rock Lee during the battle between Kisame and Gai. But he didn’t say who won. Kisame or Gai.
    15. Composition
    “Not a single one listed in this file is normal… I’d bet anything the remaining five special abilities beyond my or anyone’s imagination.”
    *It doesn’t mean that if a few members of Akatsuki had special abilities, all their members also have special abilities of their own.
    16. Division
    “He is from Akatsuki. He must be a very skilled ninja.”
    *The speaker applied a generalization to the individual being spoken of. Even though Akatsuki is known for skilled ninjas, it doesn’t mean that it applies to all members. Especially because all the members haven’t made their appearances yet. This is also a Sweeping Generalization.
    17. Red Herring(Missing the Point)
    “Killing a priest is like a one-way ticket to Hell.” “Don’t worry, even hell runs on money.”
    *When Hidan tells Kakazu that killing a priest is wrong, Kakazu answers him that even hell runs on money. We don’t know if hell really runs on money, but the topic is about killing a priest. The premises miss the point.
    18. Slippery Slope
    “You should eat this medicine. If you do, your body will have nutritious goodness mixed with fast-acting digestive agents. After that, it will add color to your pale skin and helps you recover in no time.”
    *It does not follow that if one eats this medicine, his body will have nutritious goodness and will add color to his skin. Some taking it might have good results while some might not. It depends on the person taking it, whether he or she is compatible with the medicine or not.
    19. Straw Man
    “So much commotion was caused by a handful of bandits? Now that the surrounding nations knows about this, Konoha’s become a laughing stock.”
    *The speaker used strong words to make his look opponent weaker.
    20. False Dilemma
    “If we run without putting up a fight, we’ll be wiped out… Don’t you get it?! That’s the best strategy we’ve got right now!”
    *The speaker insists that if they don’t fight and use the strategy he thought of, they will be wiped out. But there could still be more effective strategy than what he had thought of.

  13. I’ve chosen 5 shows for the fallacies. Namely, Kara no Kyoukai(majority of the fallacies), Fate/Stay Night, Major Dream, Shingetsutan Tsukihime and last but not least, Ultraman Nexus =))

    Kara no Kyoukai:
    – This story is about the life of Ryohgi Shiki, a woman with a second personality, oftentimes referred to as “SHIKI”, together with her “friend” Kokutoh Mikiya. The main topic of the story is about Shiki’s, rather, SHIKI’s serial killings.

    1.) “You can’t see it ’cause you’re wearing glasses.”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P2 False Cause

    Explanation:
    What’s the connection? Aren’t glasses supposed to enhance your vision and not impair it?

    2.) “If one cannot perform any of these processes, they have memory disorder.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Explanation:
    Even if it’s true, is this statement proven? This statement is merely an opinion.

    3.) “The crafter, whose name is Aozaki Tohko, is a hermit to put it simply. I guess her true job is doll-making, but it seems she designs buildings as well. She does anything that involves making something, but she never accepts any requests. She always goes to someone and shows them what she will make, and starts making it once she receives the payment up front. She must be a big time prodigal, or just a big weirdo.”
    – Fallacies of Ambiguity -> A4 Composition

    Explanation:
    Look at the last sentence. Is it necessary to imply that Tohko is a big time prodigal? Does it actually follow?

    4.)”As Tohko-san puts it, there are two types of people with one of two attributes; the one to make and the one to search, the one to use and the one to destroy.”
    -Fallacies of Relevance -> R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Explanation:
    As stated in the book, this is an example of intellectual laziness. The possibility that this statement is false has been discarded simply because the speaker fully believes what has been said to him.

    5.)”… I feel it. Yes, we are alike. Yeah… I can kill you as you are now.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R5 Argumentum ad Baculum

    Explanation:
    Well, this one’s kinda self-explanatory. In the statement, Shiki’s intent to kill is shown and is directed at Asagami Fujino, her enemy.

    6.) “To confess one more thing, I think I burdened a sin with this thing today. But I found out one thing in return. What my life is and what I want. It’s vague and fragile, but I will have to follow it for now. It turns out that what I’m following isn’t as ugly as I thought it was. I’m a bit happy. A bit. A killing impulse that leans slightly towards your view..”

    I can only frown at her last sentence, but Shiki is beautiful as she smiles saying so in the rain.

    – Fallacies of Ambiguity -> A2 Amphiboly

    Explanation:
    The statement shows a “lapse in judgment”

    7.)”I wonder at my conclusion. I used to have him inside of me, but he is not anymore. Not being there means that he is dead”
    – Fallacies of presumption -> P5 Converse accident

    Explanation:
    “not being there means that he is dead” It’s like Shiki’s jumping to conclusions. Just because SHIKI is no longer inside of her doesn’t mean that he(SHIKI) is already dead.

    8.) ” You will be killed if you stay in here too.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R6 Argumentum Misericordiam

    Explanation:
    This is an appeal to pity because Mikiya, the speaker, is showing sympathy to the person he’s talking to.

    9.) “That did it. A pure power… Pure words erase everything just because it is pure.”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P3 Petitio Principii

    Explanation:
    The statement is not clear. The term “pure words” was not explained clearly.

    10.)Shiki: “I’m sorry. I am a killer. Why do you let me go even after seeing that scene?”

    Mikiya looks dumb-struck

    Mikiya: “There’s nothing to let go, because you never did such a thing.”

    Shiki: “Even if I say so myself?”

    Mikiya nods

    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R7 Ignorantio Elenchi

    Explanation:
    Kinda self-explanatory, but Mikiya obviously missed Shiki’s point. Even though Mikiya saw Shiki kill someone, he still denied the fact.

    11.) “If I get to know someone, SHIKI will just kill that person because SHIKI’s purpose is to deny.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R3 Argumentum ad Hominem

    Explanation:
    This statement is kinda abusive.

    12.) ” Why do you keep saying that you’ll get killed? You will be killed if you stay in here, too. So you’ll just get killed if Fujino sees you, her target.”
    -Distraction Fallacies -> False analogy

    Explanation:
    What the speaker said here is probably used just to calm the person he’s speaking to. Somehow, he gave out a false analogy on purpose.

    13.) “Don’t come near me. If you continue to ‘open’ me up, SHIKI will kill you. So, this is for the best…”
    – Distraction Fallacies -> D5 False Dilemma

    Explanation:
    This is a false dilemma because the ‘result’ she’s thinking about might only end up as an opinion.

    Ultraman Nexus:

    14.) ” That silver giant(ultraman) is enormous. The space beasts that attac us are also enormous. Therefore, that silver giant won’t save us. It will try to destroy us just like the other space beasts.”
    -Fallacies of Ambiguity ->A1 Equivocation

    Explanation:
    This statement is equivocal. Just because ultraman is enormous doesn’t mean that it will act like the beasts.

    Major Dream:
    – This is a show about someone who’s dedicated to baseball.

    15.) ” WHAT!? You’re not Japanese! With blonde hair and pale skin like that, you’re obviously a foreigner. It’s rare for Japanese people to have that hair color!”
    -Fallacies of Ambiguity -> A5 Division

    Explanation:
    This statement shows that the speaker is somehow disregarding the possibility of a recessive trait.

    Fate/Stay Night:
    – This show is about a person’s will to protect people. He participated in the “Holy Grail War” to defeat evil masters that use their servants to kill people.

    16.) ” A master that protects his servant? That’s silly! If you continue protecting Saber like that, you’ll die for sure. And if you, Saber’s master, dies, she’ll disappear anyway.”
    – Distraction Fallacies -> D2 slippery slope

    Explanation:
    The speaker is obviously jumping to conclusions. Of course, there’s a possibility that Saber’s master will not die because of “something”(story related, omitted to prevent spoilers).

    17.) “She’s mysterious… She must be a magus!”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P4 Accident

    Explanation:
    If someone is mysterious, does it mean that he/she is a magus? That doesn’t add up.

    18.) “Draining a human soul for mana replenishment is unacceptable. Those masters who order their servant to drain human souls are evil. So, draining a human soul is evil.”
    – Distraction Fallacies -> D4 Straw Man

    Explanation:
    The speaker just made the argument look strong, but it just covers up the statement’s weakness.

    Shingetsutan Tsukihime
    – This show is an alternate world of Kara no Kyoukai. This is about Tohno Shiki’s life that took a turn to the supernatural.

    19.) “Everyone thinks that the serial killings are caused by a vampire, so I stopped hanging out at night.”
    – Fallacies of Relevance -> R4 Argumentum ad Populum

    Explanation:
    As they say, “Majority wins.”. Just because it is a popular saying, doesn’t mean that it’s true.

    20.) “Nii-san, I noticed that you’ve been coming home late recently. Do you enjoy making me angry that much?”
    – Fallacies of Presumption -> P1 Complex Question

    Explanation:
    Akiha, the speaker for this one, is jumping to conclusions. Surely Shiki, her brother, didn’t mean to make her angry.

  14. INFORMAL FALLACIES

    Argumentatum ad Baculum (appeal to force)
    “Live or die? Make your choice.” –jigsaw (SAW)
    The arguer threatens the life of the listener to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.

    Argumentatum ad Ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance)
    “I can’t find any reason to continue so maybe there is no reason.”-Alfred Kropp (The Extraordinary Adventures of Alfred Kropp)
    A fallacy is committed in this argument because the arguer didn’t even seek for proofs. He already presumed that there is a conclusion. It doesn’t follow that reasons do not exist.

    Argumentatum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)
    “I will join the army to help the North destroy the South for they are evil, especially Belle…”-Davis Winslow (The Dixie Widow)
    Davis just become so abusive, he wanted everyone to be destroyed. He attacks the character of others.

    Argumentatum ad Populum (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    “My countrymen say that Abraham Lincoln looks bad and is evil…”-Belle Wickham (The Dixie Widow)
    It doesn’t follow that the majority is always right.

    Complex Question
    “Where have you been? Did Pat and you had a little game?-Captain Beau Beauchamp (The Dixie Widow)
    Captain Beau quickly jumps into the conclusion without any further evidence.

    False Cause (non causa pro causa)
    “Lowelle died because of her (Belle Wickham)! I curse her and the South!”-Davis Winslow (The Dixie Widow)
    Davis treats Belle as if she was the cause of his brother’s death.

    Petitio Principii (begging the question)
    “I think you’re not wrong because you are right” –LeComp (The Dixie Widow)
    The premise “you’re not wrong” is exactly the same thing as the conclusion “you’re right”. They are univocal terms.

    Accident
    “He came from the North. It’s either he is a spy or a lookout for the enemy…”-Captain Beau Beauchamp (The Dixie Widow)
    Beauchamp’s statement is a fallacy because even though the North sends a lot of spy to the Southern Confederacy doesn’t mean that Davis was also a spy.

    Converse Accident
    “I haven’t seen him crack any joke, so I think that he is a very serious man.” –Thomas (The House of Dies Drear)
    It does not necessarily mean that the man he is talking about is a serious man just because he never heard him crack any jokes.

    Amphiboly
    Belle suddenly blames the South for the death of her husband:
    “They started this war-they killed my husband. Now let them suffer.”-Belle Wickham (The Dixie Widow)
    We do not know who exactly she wanted to suffer.

    Accent
    “Davis usually talks to his grandfather (Captain Whitfield Winslow) whenever he feels depressed” –house keeper (The Dixie Widow)
    We cannot determine the man who was depressed.
    Division
    “Your family is well known and sooner or later, I am going to marry Pat and be a part of it. Maybe I could be popular to.”-Thad Novak (The Dixie Widow)
    Thad Novak took separately what should have been taken as a whole.
    Red Herring

    Straw Man
    “The Confederacy just surrender, our countrymen just quickly give up. Giving up is a sign of being weak. I therefore conclude that our leaders are weak!” –Beau Beauchamp (The Dixie Widow)
    This is a fallacy because Beau is attacking another argument in order to strengthen his own.
    False Dilemma

    False Analogy
    “If you do not appreciate life, then you do not deserve life.” –jigsaw (SAW II)
    In this statement, appreciate and deserve are presumed to be the same which isn’t right because it doesn’t follow that you do not deserve live when you do not appreciate it.

    Slippery Slope
    “If I didn’t kill them, they could harm and kill more people, including you Alfred. One day you will realize why I kill them that way.”-Lord Bennacio (The Extraordinary Adventures of Alfred Kropp)
    This is a fallacy because it depends on unlikely chain reaction which may or may not happen. He only makes prediction.

    Composition
    “They killed my husband! They are all the same and I live for only one purpose: to see the Union destroyed.”-Belle Wickham (The Dixie Widow)
    The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part to the attributes of the whole.

  15. 1. Argumentum ad ignorantiam
    Ah, Mr. Finch. I sent for you because what I have to say cannot be said over a phone or a radio. (V for Vendetta)

    2. Argumentum ad verecundiam
    God had started with AIDS had to be finished by man. It was God’s work. That’s what we were told. (V for Vendetta)

    3. Argumentum ad hominem
    You’re no better than the people who built this place. (Jurassic Park 3)

    4. Argumentum ad populum
    I can’t. I’m involved now. If you let go I have to jump in after you.(Titanic)

    5. Argumentum Misericordiam
    You can stick with us, or you can go and look for him. Either way you’re probably not getting out of here alive. (Jurassic Park 3)

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Now I’m telling you to make a choice. Either you stick that syringe into your neck or — I can kill you right now. (V for Vendetta)

    7. Ignoratio Elenchi
    It comes with the job. How are things in the Eye, Conrad? Well, we’ve been working some bugs out of the new Mark IX fiber optic network, actually —
    Oh, Conrad, don’t be such a bloody bore. Do tell us about the terrorist, Derek. (V for Vendetta)

    8. Complex question
    Is this your first time, darling? (V for Vendetta)

    9. False Cause
    I don’t know what brought us together that night. I had never
    been to that part of Westminster but ever since I’ve known him, I’ve stopped believing in coincidence. (V for Vendetta)

    10. Accident
    The time has come, London, to return to a bygone age, an age of tradition, an age of values that have been disparaged and all but forgotten. What this country needs is a leader! A true leader to remind us of that age. A righteous leader with the strength of his moral convictions to do what must be done. I give you that man! I give you our leader! Adam Susan! (V for Vendetta)

    11 Converse Accident
    It was done so quickly and violently, so completely, that it
    began to seem that it had never even existed. (V for Vendetta)

    12 False Dilemma
    Some of the worst things imaginable have been done with the best intentions. You rushed in with no thought to the
    consequences, to yourself or anyone else. (Jurassic Park 3)

    13 Equivocation
    This terrorist knows us, Finch. These attacks are perfectly
    calculated and they are divisive.He knows what he’s doing, Finch. He knows us all too well.(V for Vendetta)

    14 Amphiboly
    Would you like… uh, would you like to sleep with me?(V for Vendetta)

    15 Accent
    Is this your first time, darling? (V for Vendetta)

    16 Composition
    I can’t. I’m involved now. If you let go I have to jump in after you.(Titanic)

    17 Red Herring
    I believe in a few things, Mr. Finch. I believe in god. I believe in the destiny of the Nordic race. And I believe in
    fascism. The romans invented fascism. They had a symbol for it; a bundle of twigs bound together. One twig could be broken but a bundle would prevail. That is the heart and soul of fascism. Strength in unity. I tell you these things knowing full well that they make you uncomfortable.(V for Vendetta)

    18 Slippery Slope
    You can stick with us, or you can go and look for him. Either way you’re probably not getting out of here alive. (Jurassic Park 3)

    19 False Analogy
    You grew up in their world. Art is created by individuals and there are no individuals in a world where you are told what to think.(V for Vendetta)

    20 Straw man
    A Latin quotation. A motto. “Vi veri veniversum vivus vici.” “By the power of truth, I, while living, have conquered the universe.” Part of me wants to stay here forever and never have to face what’s going on outside. But that’s not right. Is it? That’s not taking responsibility. Not conquering my universe. (V for Vendetta)

  16. 1.ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM
    Since 88% of the people polled believed in UFOs, they must exist.

    ***It is a fallacy because he is trying to convince a person that a widely popular theory is true

    2.APPEAL TO IGNORANCE
    “If polar bears are (the) dominant (predator) in the Arctic, then there would seem to have been no need for them to evolve a white-colored form of camouflage.”

    SOURCE: Probability of God, Anglican Bishop Hugh Montefiore

    *** If the writer had thought to imagine a black polar bear trying to sneak up on a seal in the Arctic, he would see the evolutionary value of such fur. The ignorance in this case was assuming that no other purpose could be served.

    3. APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY
    “Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel.”

    SOURCE: Alexander Pope

    ***Implying that, therefore, patriotism is always bad. And in fact, it was not Alexander Pope but Samuel Johnson to whom this quote can be rightly attributed.

    4.ATTACK ON THE PERSON
    “Paula says the umpire made the correct call, but this can’t be true, because Paula wasn’t even watching the game.”

    *** Assuming the premise is correct, Paula’s evidence is valueless, but the umpire may nonetheless have made the right call.

    5.APPEAL TO PITY
    “You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied very hard for weeks specifically because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I’m going to be so unhappy!”

    *** Recognizing an argument as an appeal to pity does not necessarily invalidate the conclusion or the factual assertions. There may be other reasons to accept the invited conclusion, but the logical consistency of an appeal to pity is not one of them.

    6.APPEAL TO FORCE
    “Shut up or push up.”

    Source: Coach Carter

    ***The example is an instance of the second type of ad baculum, because he use this tactic to persuade without convincing his players.

    7.COMPLEX QUESTION
    Why should merely cracking down on terrorism help to stop it, when that method hasn’t worked in any other country? Why are we so hated in the Muslim world? What did our government do there to bring this horror home to all those innocent Americans? And why don’t we learn anything, from our free press, about the gross ineptitude of our state agencies? about what’s really happening in Afghanistan? about the pertinence of Central Asia’s huge reserves of oil and natural gas? about the links between the Bush and the bin Laden families?

    Source: Mark Crispin Miller, “Brain Drain”, Context, No. 9

    ***This is a series of loaded questions and it illustrates one of the common uses of the loaded question as a rhetorical device. The questions come at the end of the article:
    • The American government did something to bring about the terrorist attacks.
    • The public doesn’t learn anything from the press about that government’s mistakes.
    • The public is not learning about what’s happening in Afghanistan.
    • Central Asia’s oil reserves are somehow pertinent.
    • There are some unspecified links between the Bush and bin Laden families.
    No evidence is given in the article for any of these claims. Loaded questions are used in this way to slip claims into rhetoric without the burden of proving them, or the necessity of taking responsibility for unproven assertions.

    8. BEGGING THE QUESTION
    To cast abortion as a solely private moral question,…is to lose touch with common sense: How human beings treat one another is practically the definition of a public moral matter. Of course, there are many private aspects of human relations, but the question whether one human being should be allowed fatally to harm another is not one of them. Abortion is an inescapably public matter.
    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy, Greenhaven, 1995, p. 23.

    *** This argument begs the question because it assumes that abortion involves one human being fatally harming another. However, those who argue that abortion is a private matter reject this very premise. In contrast, they believe that only one human being is involved in abortion—the woman—and it is, therefore, her private decision.

    9.SWEEPING GENERALIZATION
    “St.Francis a great school Damien. It puts you in a great position in college. “

    Source: Coach Carter

    ***There is a fallacy committed because it doesn’t mean that if you study in a great school,it will already put you in a great position in college. It depends on your performance if you will be put in a great position in college.

    10.HASTY GENERALIZATION
    Person A travels through Town X for the first time. He sees 10 people, all of them children. Person A returns to his town and reports that there are no adult residents in Town X.
    Person A and Person B walk past a pawn shop. Person A remarks that a watch in a window display looks like the one his grandfather used to wear. On the basis of this remark, Person B concludes that:
    Person A’s grandfather pawned his watch; or
    Person A’s grandfather had expensive tastes in jewelry; or
    Person A’s grandfather was ostentatious; or
    Person A’s grandfather can not tell the time any more.

    ***In mathematics the conjecture is true for numbers less than 906150257, but fails for this number. Believing conjectures to be true because they hold for some number of examples (however large that may be) would be an example of hasty generalization

    11.FALSE DILEMMA
    Gerda Reith is convinced that superstition can be a positive force. “It gives you a sense of control by making you think you can work out what’s going to happen next,” she says. “And it also makes you feel lucky. And to take a risk or to enter into a chancy situation, you really have to believe in your own luck. In that sense, it’s a very useful way of thinking, because the alternative is fatalism, which is to say, ‘Oh, there’s nothing I can do.’ At least superstition makes people do things.”

    Source: David Newnham, “Hostages to Fortune”

    ***Fatalism is not the alternative to superstition; it is an alternative. Superstition involves acting in ways that are ineffective, whereas fatalism involves failing to act even in situations in which our efforts can be effective. Fortunately, there are other alternatives, such as recognizing that there are some things we can control and other things we cannot, and only acting in the first case.

    12. EQUIVOCATION
    The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect.

    Source: Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995), p. 24.

    *** This argument equivocates on the word “humanity”—”the condition of being human”—which means “of, … or characteristic of mankind”. The two relevant meanings here are:
    1. “of…mankind”, meaning being a member of the human species.
    2. “characteristic of mankind”. For instance, the “human heart” is “human” in this sense, since it is not a human being, but is the kind of heart characteristic of human beings.

    13.AMPHIBOLY
    “Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets.”

    ***This could be taken to mean the teenagers will be in danger, or that they will cause the danger.

    14.ACCENT
    “Damien is not drunk.”

    Source: Coach Carter

    ***The premise may be true if read without inflection but if read with stress may imply the truth of conclusion.

    15. COMPOSITION
    Should we not assume that just as the eye, hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper function, so man too has some function over and above the function of his parts?

    Source: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Martin Ostwald, translator (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962), p. 16.

    ***The function of an organ is definable in terms of what the organ does to help the whole organism to live, however, one cannot define a function for the organism as a whole in this way. For this reason, “function” is not expansive. If it were true that human beings as a whole have a function, this would be a very different notion of function than that of the function of a human organ.

    16.RED HERRING
    Maher: It’s arbitrary, isn’t it? If you had been born in Pakistan, you wouldn’t be believing in Jesus Christ. You would have been told another fairy and you would have been believing that.
    Scarborough: Well, Bill, that’s your opinion.

    *** Whether Maher’s argument is his opinion or not is irrelevant and does not address the argument made.

    17. SLIPPERY SLOPE
    If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach it in the public school, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools, and the next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the husting or in the church. Today it is the public school teachers, tomorrow the private. The next day the preachers and the lectures, the magazines, the books, the newspapers. After [a]while, your honor, it is the setting of man against man and creed against creed until with flying banners and beating drums we are marching backward to the glorious ages of the sixteenth century.

    Source: Clarence Darrow, The Scopes Trial, Day 2

    ***An eloquent example of the causal slippery slope fallacy. In over seventy-five years since the Scopes trial, which Darrow lost, few if any of the horrors that he paraded before the jury have taken place.

    18.FALSE ANALOGY
    “This bill reminds me of legislation that ought to be introduced to outlaw automobiles” on the grounds that cars kill people, said Rep. Tom DeLay, R-Texas, who owns an exterminating business.

    Source: Associated Press, June 25th, 1987

    *** Representative DeLay attempts to argue against a bill banning chlordane by comparing it to a bill banning automobiles, but this analogy is very weak. Here are some of the relevant differences:
    • Banning automobiles would be economically and socially disruptive in a way that banning a single pesticide would not.
    • There are many alternative pesticides available to replace a banned one, but there are few modes of transportation available which could replace cars.
    • Automobiles play a significant role in our society, whereas chlordane was used only to prevent termite damage to houses, which is of comparatively minor importance.

    19.STRAW MAN
    Person A: We should liberalize the laws on marijuana.
    Person B: No. Any society with unrestricted access to drugs loses its work ethic and goes only for immediate gratification.

    Source: Hypothetical Marijuana debate.

    ***The proposal was to relax laws on marijuana. Person B has exaggerated this to a position harder to defend: “unrestricted access to drugs”

    20.FALSE CAUSE
    A superstitious person might say: “A black cat crossed Joe’s path yesterday, and he died last night from the bad luck.”

    ***Many of our superstitions stem from use of the false cause fallacy. Somewhere back in history, one man must have had bad luck coincidentally after seeing a black cat walk in front of him. Animals often were used as scapegoats for the unpleasant happenings in people’s lives. The same bad luck apparently happened to the guy who broke a mirror and walked under a ladder.

  17. 1.)

    Jurassic Park

    Ian Malcolm:
    God creates dinosaurs, God destroys dinosaurs, God creates man, man destroys God, man creates dinosaurs.
    Dr. Ellie Sattler:
    Dinosaurs eat man, woman inherits the earth.

    – Red herring, the argument is a red herring fallacy because the main subject is diverted to a different subject not related to the real subject of the argument.

    2.)

    Independence Day

    President Thomas J. Whitmore:
    In less than an hour, aircraft from here will join others from around the world. And, you will be launching the largest aerial battle in the history of mankind. “Mankind,” that word should have new meaning for all of us today. We can’t be consumed by our petty differences anymore. We will be united in our common interest. Perhaps, it’s fate that today is the Fourth of July, and you will once again be fighting for our freedom–not from tyranny, oppression, or persecution, but from annihilation. We’re fighting for our right to live–to exist. And, should we win the day, the Fourth of July will no longer be known as an American holiday, but as the day when the world declared in one voice: “We will not go quietly into the night. We will not vanish, without a fight. We’re going to live on. We’re going to survive. Today, we celebrate our Independence Day!”

    – Argumentum ad Baculum, the statement committed the fallacy of “Appeal to force” because the arguer emphasizes on his statement to bring about the acceptance or occurrence of the conclusion.

    3.)

    The Matrix

    Morpheus:
    What is real? How do you define real? If you’re talking about what you can feel, what you can smell, what you can taste and see, then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain.

    – Argumentum ad Ignorantiam, this is a fallacy of “Appeal to Ignorance” because something is drawn out as the conclusion even though the premises is not yet proven to be true.

    4.)

    The Matrix

    Agent Smith:
    Human beings are a disease. A cancer of this planet. You’re a plague. And we, are the cure.

    – Argumentum ad Verecundiam, it is a fallacy of “Appeal to Inappropriate Authority” because the arguer cites an untrustworthy authority for the judgment of his premise.

    5.)

    Rocky III

    Rocky Balboa:
    Nobody owes nobody nothing. You owe yourself.

    – Petitio Principii, the fallacy of “Begging the Question” is committed because the conclusion have been restated as a premise and it is also reasoning in a circle.

    6.)

    Rocky III

    Mickey Goldmill:
    I’ve seen wrestlers that was bigger than dinosaurs! You ever fight a dinosaur, kid?
    Rocky Balboa:
    No, not lately.
    Mickey Goldmill:
    They can cause a variety of damage.

    – Equivocation, it is a fallacy of equivocation because the word “dinosaur” in the argument uses multiple meanings.

    7.)

    Jerry Maguire

    Jerry Maguire:
    I will not rest until I have you holding a Coke, wearing your own shoe, playing a Sega game–featuring you–while singing your own song in a new commercial–starring you–broadcast during the Superbowl in a game that you are winning, and I will not sleep until that happens. I’ll give you fifteen minutes to call me back.

    – Ignorantio Elenchi, this is a fallacy of “Missing the Point” because the arguer draws conclusion different from the one supported by the premises of the argument.

    8.)

    Transformers

    Optimus Prime:
    One shall stand, one shall fall.
    Megatron:
    Why throw away your life so recklessly?
    Optimus Prime:
    That’s a question you should ask yourself, Megatron.

    – Complex Question, it commits the fallacy of complex question because a question is asked by Megatron which presumes the truth of certain statements.

    9.)

    Batman Returns

    Dr. Victor Fries/Mr. Freeze:
    Freeze in Hell, Batman!

    – Argumentum ad Hominem, the fallacy of “Attack on the Person” is committed because an attack is directed to Batman in the statement.

    10.)

    Batman Returns

    A Guard:
    Please, show some mercy.
    Dr. Victor Fries/Mr. Freeze:
    Mercy?! I’m afraid that my condition has left me cold to your plea

    – Argumentum Misericordiam, it is a fallacy of “Appeal to Pity” because the guard begs for his life to be saved by Mr. Freeze in the argument.

    11.)

    Batman Returns

    Alfred Pennyworth:
    You must be the only lonely man-beast in town because of your stupid look!

    – False Cause, the fallacy is committed because the arguer treats the premise as the cause of a thing even though it is not really the cause.

    12.)

    Batman Returns

    Selina Kyle/Catwoman:
    To destroy Batman, we must first turn him into what he hates the most . . . namely, us.

    – Amphiboly, it commits the fallacy of Amphiboly because the conclusion is not supported because of the wrong interpretation of the statement.

    13.)

    Batman Returns

    Oswald Cobblepot/Penguin:
    I was their number one son, and they treated me like number two.

    – Accent, it is a fallacy of Accent because the arguer in the statement changes the emphasis of a part in the statement thus also changing the meaning of the said part.

    14.)

    Batman Returns

    Selina Kyle/Catwoman:
    Who are you? Who’s the man behind the bat? Maybe you can help me find and know the woman behind the cat or you could just leave me here knowing nothing about the cat.

    – False Dilemma, it commits the fallacy of False Dilemma because there are two alternatives presented in the argument and the other one is unacceptable and so the other alternative should be done.

    15.)

    Batman Returns

    Selina Kyle/Catwoman:
    Life’s a bitch. Now so am I.

    – Straw Man, the statement is a fallacy because the arguer makes a position strong that she is a bitch by stating that life is also a bitch.

    16.)

    Men in Black

    Kay:
    Human thought is so primitive, it’s looked upon as an infectious disease in some of the better galaxies. That kind of makes you proud, doesn’t it?

    – Slippery Slope, this is a slippery slope fallacy because it does not necessarily follow that you would become proud upon hearing the arguer’s statement.

    17.)

    Spiderman 1

    Green Goblin:
    We are the same, webhead
    We are masked weirdos on this city.

    Its either you are on the hero side, or on the evil side like me

    – Accident, the fallacy is committed because the arguer applies a generalization to an individual case that is not properly govern.

    18.)

    Men in Black

    I.N.S. Agent Janus:
    Who are you, really?
    Kay:
    Really? I am just a figment of your imagination.
    I.N.S. Agent Janus:
    Then, you must have known what I am thinking of right now

    – Composition, the fallacy is committed because the arguer takes the words or phrase in the statement as a whole when they should be taken separately.

    19.)

    Detective Conan

    Conan Edogawa:
    In every crime, there is a flaw or loophole. It is the imperfection of the criminal that reveals the truth. Therefore, there is no crime done by a human that is perfect.

    – Division, the argument is a fallacy of Division because it takes in separately what should be taken a a unit.

    20.)

    Full Metal Alchemist

    Edward & Alphonse Elric:
    You cannot gain anything, without sacrificing something.
    That is the law of “Equivalent Trade”
    You must present something of equal value in order to gain something.

    – Converse Accident, the statement is a fallacy because it is not always true that you need to present something in order for you to gain something. The statement is not always true to all things.

  18. The fallacies I’ve collected came from the book
    Lord of the Flies by William Golding

    1). “This is an island. At least I think it’s an island.” (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
    -they have not yet proven that they are really on an island or not.

    2). “Perhaps there aren’t any grownups anywhere.” (Converse Accident)
    -they immediately concluded that there are no grownups where in fact they have not yet searched the place.

    3). “He must have flown off after he dropped us. He couldn’t land here. Not in a place with wheels.” (Accident)
    -they are not sure if the pilot really left them and just dropped them of.

    4). “My auntie told me not to run, so I am not running.” (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)
    -he is not running because someone in authority said so.

    5). “You can’t half swim well.” (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    -the statement is directly targeting Ralph who can’t swim.

    6). “Didn’t you here what the pilot said. About the atom bomb. They’re all dead.” (Converse Accident)
    -they already concluded that all the others are dead without them searching or investigating the place.

    7). “We may stay here till we die” (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    -they are saying the they will stay there until they die.

    8). “He’s always throwing a faint” (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    -the statement is directly targeting someone who has just recently joined their group.

    9). “I’m chief then because I am not a follower.” (Petitio Principii)
    -when Ralph said that he is chief, it is the same as what he said that he is not a follower.

    10). “… otherwise you can’t eat the meat” (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    -Ralph is telling his companions that they will not be able to eat if they don’t do what he say.

    11). “And he won’t be interrupted. Except by me!” (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    -threatening others that they can’t interrupt Ralph except Piggy.

    12). “But there isn’t any snake” (Converse Accident)
    -concluding without exploring the field.

    13). “Shut up!!! Wait and listen or taste my fist” (Argumentum ad Baculum)
    -threatening his companions so they would listen to what he will say.

    14). “You’ve noticed it haven’t you? Did you enjoy seeing the grass burn?” (Complex question)
    -the question is asked so he would know if he enjoyed seeing the burning grass.

    15). “He has found that counch because he was with me” (False Cause)
    -he is saying that the counch was found because of him.

    16). “These branches are useless, we can’t use this to build the huts” (Composition)
    -since the branches they found were not strong so they can’t use those to build the huts.

    17). “Don’t worry my father will save us he is from the Navy” (Division)
    -he is saying that the navy is great and so is his father.

    18). “You don’t half look a mess” (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    -directly teasing the person he is talking to.

    19). “We’re back in the primitive ages silly, can’t you see there are no electronic devices here?” (Red Herring)
    -he is saying that they are back in the past because there are no more modern gadgets in sight.

    20). “All of you are going to find food, so I would also find food to eat” (Argumentum ad Populum)
    -since all of his companions will look for food, he too will look for food.

  19. (Naruto)
    1. Gaara of the Desert: Shut up… or I’ll kill you.
    Argumentum ad baculum
    -Gaara is threatening them

    (Bleach)
    2. Zangetsu: Ichigo… I hate rain. It rains in here, too. When you are moody, it becomes cloudy. When you are sad, the rain comes down.
    False clause
    -when the sky becomes cloudy, it doesn’t mean a person is moody.
    False analogy
    -it’s a bad analogy

    4. Ikkaku Madarame: it’s to late to come crying with apologies!
    Amphiboly
    -who will be the one crying with apologies. Ichigo? Ikkaku?

    (Digimon the movie)
    5. Tai: Hey Matt, who are those weird people?
    Argumentum ad hominem
    -Tai is calling matt’s friends weird people

    6. TK: I care too much about you to let you go down without a fight.
    Red herring
    -he diverted caring too much to a fight
    Ignorantio elenchi
    -the statement does not follow

    8. Davis: Did you see that? I got a noogie, that means I’m one of the guys now.
    Converse Accident
    – A noogie does not signal that you are a guy or that a noogie is the only way to become a guy

    (Step up)
    9. Tyler Gage: I’ll do it.
    Accent
    -he is willing to be her partner, I will lift you, I’ll dance with you.

    10. Skinny Carter: But why can’t I do it this time?
    Complex question
    – A lot of questions are concealed inside this one. Like “you think I’m not ready?”, “don’t you trust me?”

    (Incredible)
    11. Honey: ‘Greater good?’ I am your wife! I’m the greatest *good* you are ever gonna get!
    Argumentum ad verecundiam
    -she uses her authority
    Equivocation
    -the first good means the welfare of others, the second good is pertain to her being a wife.

    12. Mr. Incredible: It’ll be easy, like breaking a toothpick.
    Petition principia
    -breaking a toothpick is easy.

    13. Bomb Voyage: [French] Little oaf.
    Argumentum ad hominem
    -he is insulting bob’s sidekick

    (scary movie4)
    14. Brenda Meeks: [Holding up Shaquille O’Neal’s femur] I don’t believe it! The aliens killed a dinosaur!
    Converse accident
    -she presumed the bone is from a dinosaur.

    15. C. J.: Zombies!
    Mahalik: Grandma? The zombies have got my grandma!
    Converse accident
    -he presumed that his grandma is a zombie because she looks awful.

    (McDonalds commercial)
    16. Lola: do you still love me?
    Lolo: yes, I still love you.
    Lola: burger! Burger!
    Ignorantio elenchi
    -the statement does not follow
    Complex question
    – A lot of questions are concealed inside this one. Like “you think I’m beautiful?”, “do you trust me?”

    18. Boy: you tucked your shirt, buy us burger!
    Ignorantio elenchi
    -the statement does not follow

    (Smart commercial)
    19. Friend: there are many fish in the sea. That’s why I called all the men.
    Ignorantio elenchi
    -the statement does not follow. What’s the relationship of fishes and men.

    20. Man: I’m mark
    Woman: I’m single
    Ignorantio elenchi
    -the man said his name but the woman answered her marital statues.

  20. 1..A rgumentum ad Hominem.
    “Your lipgloss just smell like our bathroom.”
    Explanation: an attack is leveled at a person so this is a fallcay. dohoon is attacking jinny with hurtful words like this one to bring her feelings down or just simply teasing her.

    2. Petitio Principii
    “There was a hot, hot yard guy who was in the yard and was hot.”
    Explanation: This argument is arguing in circle.

    3.Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    Kyle: What I understand is that you two really screwed me over! Why should I have to listen to you?!
    Gerald: (angrily) because we’re your parents.
    Explanation: Gerald cannot use the fact of him being the father of Kyle as a reason for Kyle to listen to what he says.

    4. Appeal to tradition
    Light: “Your invention is a bad idea because it has no historical precedent.”
    Explanation: the fact that something has not been previously attempted does not guarantee it will fail.

    5. False Analogy
    “Women are like the police. They can have all the evidence in the world, but they still want the confession.” –Chris Rock
    Explanation: Women cannot arrest and put their husband in jail because they don’t have the authority, but policemen can do.

    6. False Cause
    “I failed all my test because I dreamt about it last night”
    Explanation: This is a fallacy which is causing of something that is not related to the other cause. In this example, the failing of his/her exam is based on his/her dream, which is hard to be accepted in reality, hence not related.

    7.Arguementum ad Ignorantiam
    “Devils do not exist cuz medication is what really matters in her…..”
    Explanation: In here the lawyer claims a conclusion that devils do not exist which leads without an appropriate premises or condition to prove what he had said.

    8.Accident
    “You are from the hyuga clan, you must be strong.”
    Explanation: Sakura insist that hinata is a strong ninja because she came from the strongest clan of konoha, the hyuga clan. Yet the truth is she is not.

    9.Apriorism
    “oh my god he wink me, I’m really so beautiful”
    Explanation: he a hasty generalization happened by one of the fans,, claiming that she is very beautiful just because being wink by some guys.

    10.Complex question
    “What is really peace?”
    Explanation: The given question by kira in gudam seed question has a definitely many answers making it more complicated and irrationable.

    11. Ipse dixit
    “It must be more okey if we follow his orders, it might be for our own sake.”
    Explanation:Claiming a term again just for the legitimating authorities held by them

    12. Accident
    The best definition distinguishing man from other animals is that man is a rational animal. Therefore, you, as a person, should spend more time studying and using your brain than you should spend for partying.
    Explanation: Although all persons, as human beings, have
    rational capacities, it does not follow that in
    this specific case one should be rational more
    often

    13. Converse Accident
    When I was shopping at Bess’s Fine Clothing, not one person gave me the time of day. I guess Bess’s is not a very friendly place to work.
    Explanation: The speaker is generalizing from one
    experience. More evidence would be necessary to
    reach the conclusion that Bess’s is not a good
    place to work.

    14. Ad Verecundiam
    John Bardeen, a professor at the Advanced Institute of Physics, has gone on record to say that the American Medical Association needs to raise its standards for physicians. The opinion of a man of that brilliance should not be disregarded.
    Explanation: An authority in physics is being cited outside
    of his field of expertise

    15. Ad Baculum
    I think that the tests given in this class were more than fair, and I think you will agree with me because, if you do not, your grade in this course will certainly be in jeopardy.
    Explanation: The threat of a poor grade is logically
    unrelated to the fairness of tests

    16. Ad Antiquitatem
    “My father and his father before him polished wood this way. Don’t tell me how to polish wood.”
    Explanation: The way to polish wood is not hereditary.

    17. Ad Novitam
    “This new YPod is much better than the old XPod.”
    Explanation: Not all new things are good, they may have glitches.

    18. Insufficient Statistics
    “I met some children from Garton yesterday, who were very polite. I think all children from that area must be well-behaved.”
    Explanation: Not all children has a consistency of being well-behaved.

    19. Amphiboly
    ” Is there any peace in this world?”
    Explanation: there is many definition in it esp. to every people in their own individual poin of views

    20. Accent
    Jorge turned in his assignment on time today.
    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because the emphasis on the statement gave a double meaning

  21. False Dilemma

    1. Either we allow abortion or we
    force children to be raised by parents
    who don’t want them

    2. Philippines, love it or leave it!

    Denying the Antecedent

    3.If he denies that he knows her,
    then he’s been cheating on me.
    He admitted that he knows her.
    So he hasn’t been cheating on me.

    Ambiguity

    4. “Every society is, of course,
    repressive to some extent – as Sigmund Freud
    pointed out, repression is the price we pay for
    civilization.”

    5.God exists because the bible says that he does.
    We all know that the bible is accurate because it
    was written by inspired men, men inspired by God
    to write down his words.

    Appeal to Authority

    6.the commercial for a `popular’ toothpaste which is
    endorsed by an actor/model who is “not a dentist”

    Ad Hominem

    7, Bill: “I believe that abortion is morally wrong.”
    Dave: “Of course you would say that, you’re a priest.”
    Bill: “What about the arguments I gave to support my position?”
    Dave: “Those don’t count. Like I said, you’re a priest, so you have to say that
    abortion is wrong. Further, you are just a lackey to the Pope,
    so I can’t believe what you say.”

    8. Bill: “Smoking is very unhealthy and leads to all sorts of problems. So take my advice and never start.”
    Jill: “Well, I certainly don’t want to get cancer.”
    Bill: “I’m going to get a smoke. Want to join me Dave?”
    Jill: “Well, I guess smoking can’t be that bad. After all, Bill smokes

    Appeal to Consequences of a Belief

    9. God must exist! If God did not exist, then all basis for morality would be lost and the world would be a horrible place”

    10. “It can never happen to me. If I believed it could, I could never sleep soundly at night”

    11. “I don’t think that there will be a nuclear war. If I believed that, I wouldn’t be able to get up in the morning. I mean, how depressing”

    Appeal to Fear

    12. You must believe that God exists. After all, if you do not accept the existence of God, then you will face the horrors

    Appeal to Flattery

    13. That was a wonderful joke about AIDS boss, and I agree with you that the damn liberals are wrecking the country. Now about my raise

    Appeal to Ridicule

    12.”Sure my worthy opponent claims that we should lower tuition, but that is just laughable.”

    13.”Support the ERA? Sure, when the women start paying for the drinks! Hah! Hah!”

    14.”Those wacky conservatives! They think a strong military is the key to peace!”

    Begging the Question

    15. The belief in God is universal. After all, everyone believes in God.

    16. If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law.

    Appeal to Tradition

    17. Sure I believe in God. People have believed in God for thousands of years so it seems clear that God must exist. After all, why else would the belief?

    18. Of course this mode of government is the best. We have had this government for over 200 years and no one has talked about changing it in all that time. So, it has got to be good.

    Burden of proof

    19. You cannot prove that God does not exist, so He does.

    20. Bill: “I think that some people have psychic powers.”
    Jill: “What is your proof?”
    Bill: “No one has been able to prove that people do not have psychic powers.

  22. 1. Appeal to Force: Ad Baculum
    We can call this the Sledgehammer Fallacy – Argument through intimidation. Threat or harm is promised or implied to the listener if the conclusion is not accepted.

    example:
    Smith! Concede that Platonic Reals have an existence external from the mind!

    *In an appeal to force, you are never given any reason for believing – you are given a reason to comply.
    ———
    2. Appeal to Antiquity: Argumentum ad antiquitatem. This is the fallacy of asserting that something is right or good simply because it’s old. This mindset was directly responsible for the error of the scholastics, who held that Aristotle and Plato had to be correct in their views on science and nature, because they were venerable philosophers from a golden age. In fact, this very fallacious mindset is behind the entire concept of a ‘golden age’. The reality is that the past was a brutal, primitive and ignorant world to live in.

    The opposite of Argumentum ad Novitatem.

    Example: “For thousands of years Christians have believed in Jesus Christ. Christianity must be true, to have persisted so long even in the face of persecution.”
    Response: It is not the antiquity of a tale that is an evidence of its truth; on the contrary, it is a symptom of its being fabulous. – Thomas Paine, Age of Reason
    ———
    3. Argumentum ad Novitatem
    This is the opposite of the Argumentum ad Antiquitatem; it’s the fallacy of asserting that something is better or more correct simply because it is new, or newer than something else. Yes, it’s true that our distant ancestors were brutes, but not every new idea is automatically better than what they came up with.

    example:
    Christianity is just the thought of the ancients. Modern science is latest way of thinking, and therefore the best.
    ———
    4. Appeal to Poverty
    Argumentum ad lazarum. This is the fallacy of assuming that someone poor is more virtuous than someone who is wealthier. This fallacy is the opposite of the Argumentum ad Crumenam.

    example:
    Monks are more likely to possess insight into the meaning of life, as they have given up the distractions of wealth.

    *Poor people can be stupid too, and often are. This fallacy stems from a psychological phenomena: we tend to find that our own characteristics and strong points are the most important characteristics and strongp oints for everyone. If you are poor, you’re likely to find wealthy people to be inferior to you in some way.
    ———
    5. Tu QuoQue
    or “You too” fallacies, concern arguments that are used to justify or defend one’s wrong-doing by claiming that an opponent has committed a similar crime. This is more commonly known as “two wrongs don’t make a right.”

    example:
    Q: Now, the United States government says that you are still funding military training camps here in Afghanistan for militant, Islamic fighters and that you’re a sponsor of international terrorism.… Are these accusations true? … A: Osama Bin Laden: …At the time that they condemn any Muslim who calls for his right, they receive the highest top official of the Irish Republican Army at the White House as a political leader, while woe, all woe is the Muslims if they cry out for their rights. Wherever we look, we find the US as the leader of terrorism and crime in the world. The US does not consider it a terrorist act to throw atomic bombs at nations thousands of miles away, when it would not be possible for those bombs to hit military troops only. These bombs were rather thrown at entire nations, including women, children and elderly people and up to this day the traces of those bombs remain in Japan. The US does not consider it terrorism when hundreds of thousands of our sons and brothers in Iraq died for lack of food or medicine. So, there is no base for what the US says and this saying does not affect us.… Source: “CNN March 1997 Interview with Osama bin Laden”
    ———
    6. Fallacy of Magical Thinking
    Also known as the Labeling Fallacy, and similar to reification, the fallacy of magical thinking occurs when a debater claims that by merely naming or providing a name for a phenomenon, he has in fact provided an argument in favor of his position.

    example:
    “There are, of course, many who regard the concept of God as an exceedingly simple explanation of everything, and who regard scientific elucidations as either incomplete or ponderous. However, that is a self-delusion. Such views are generally held by people who do not understand the scientific method. Indeed, to believe that the assertion that God is an explanation (of anything, let alone everything) is intellectually contemptible, for it amounts to an admission of ignorance packaged into the pretence of an explanation. To aver that ‘God did it’ is worse than an admission of ignorance, for it shrouds ignorance in deceit.”
    “Religion – The Antithesis to Science”, Oxford Chemistry Professor, Peter Atkins

    *Magical thinking is akin to the problem of “labeling” – the fallacious assumption that providing a name for an observed phenomenon provides us with information.
    ———
    7. The Centipede Fallacy
    The Centipede Fallacy is closely related to the God of the Gaps Fallacy and the Argument From Ignorance. It occurs when an arguer implies that your inability to explain how some concept or phenomena works implies that the phenomena therefore cannot work, or does not even exist. The name comes from fact that a centipede has no idea how to move hundreds of legs in unison, but he does so anyway.

    Example:
    Since science cannot totally explain how the universe got here, we have reason to question its claims

    *This fallacy does not apply when a debater points out that the phenomena in question cannot work because it violates an observable law of physics, or that the precepts it is based on are in contradiction. In this case, he is not committing a fallacy… and in fact, if his premises are true, he is right – the phenomena is untrue.
    ———
    8. Fallacies of Weak Induction
    ->Sweeping Generalization
    Also known as Accident – concluding that a legitimate generalization necessarily applies to a particular case.

    Example:
    The Bible says ‘Thou shall not kill’, so capital punishment is morally wrong.

    *Capital punishment may be morally wrong, but the general rule is likely misapplied here.
    ———
    9. Equivocation
    Also known as Conflation. The purposeful or erroneous transposition of meaning when the same word is used in two premises (or a premise and a conclusion), that is actually used in two different senses. This is also known as ‘Weasel Words’ – the use of which allow unscrupulous arguers to change their meaning after the fact. ‘I didn’t mean that, I meant this…’

    A simple example: ‘Banks have money. Rivers have banks. Therefore, whoever owns a river has a lot of money’ Perhaps a person who could own a river would have a lot of money, but this point is not proven here. The error is apparent – it hinges on the claim that the word ‘bank’ has the same meaning in each premise. A more complex form, from an argument posed by the theist, J. P. Moreland from the book ‘Does God Exist’: ‘Information must ultimately derive from an intelligent source. DNA possesses information – therefore, DNA shows design by an intelligent force- this force must be God’. Leaving aside the Kierkegaardian leap made from the premise to the conclusion, which commits the fallacy of missing the point (Why does it HAVE to be God? How about Allah? Zeus? Aliens from another dimension? The sole reason for choosing God seems to be that the arguer is a christian.) the error here is that the word ‘information’, when used in explaining the code in DNA, is used in a second sense – as a metaphor. The word ‘blueprint’ could have been used, yet no one would seriously suggest that there are real, miniature blueprints in DNA. If they did, perhaps then they could claim the existence of very tiny draftsmen. Equivocation happens purposely as well:

    That all depends on what the meaning of ‘is’ is. – William Jefferson Clinton.

    This fallacy is also known in classic Aristotelean logic as the fallacy of four terms.

    Warning Catchphrase to look for: Examine analogies and metaphors carefully, especially when an analogy differs greatly from the phenomena discussed. (I.E. God is like a flower…) Ask for precising or operational definitions of words, even simple words, when they are used in argument form. Few words are univocal – with just one meaning.
    ———
    10. Fallacy of Division
    The reverse of the composition fallacy – when a characteristic of the whole is erroneously transferred to one or more of its parts.

    Example:
    Water is a liquid, it follows that oxygen and hydrogen must also be liquids’ A special case of the fallacy of division is the the clustering illusion or the Texas-sharpshooter fallacy. The Texas sharpshooter fallacy is the name epidemiologists give to the clustering illusion – the clustering illusion is the intuition that random events which occur in clusters are not really random events, i.e, finding a statistically unusual number of cancers in a given neighborhood–such as six or seven times greater than the average.

    *When this rate is re-connected to the overall population, we see that such a high localized rate is not all rare or even unexpected. Much depends on where you draw the boundaries of the neighborhood. The illusion is due to selective attention based on a false assumption: that a given rate for a phenomenon will be perfectly uniform across all members of that group. The term refers to the story of the Texas sharpshooter who shoots holes in the side of a barn and then draws a bull’s-eye around the bullet holes: as long as the sharpshooter gets to pick where the target is afterwards, he will always remain a sharp shooter!
    ———
    11. Appeal to Wealth
    Argumentum ad crumenam.
    The fallacy of believing that money is a criterion of correctness; that those with more money are more likely to be right. The opposite is known as Argumentum ad Lazarum.

    Example: “Microsoft software is undoubtedly superior; why else would Bill Gates have got so rich?”
    ———
    12. Special Plead
    Special pleading is a fallacy in which a person applies standards, principles, rules to others while claiming special dispensation or exemption for themselves without providing adequate justification for the exemption.

    In particular, special pleading occurs when when a person in logical discourse asserts that their claims lie outside of reason or logic itself.

    Example: How can there be an equally godlike Father, Son and Holy Ghost in the same person? Answer: You don’t grasp the ineffable mystery of the trinity.

    You don’t have to grasp the ineffable mystery, (and as stated, your opponent doesn’t grasp it either!) If your opponent wants to maintain a belief in an argument, he must provide you with his evidence, not his own explicit admission that he has no evidence!

    Remember that the basic premise of rational discourse is to present your reason for why you hold a belief. Stating that you don’t know the reason is not a reason. And we cannot invalidate reason simply because reason doesn’t give us what we want
    ———
    13. Begging the Question
    In Latin: Petito principii

    Any argument that relies on its own conclusion as a premise.

    example:
    “We must believe the there is a God because it is so taught in the Holy Scriptures, and we must believe in the veracity of the Holy Scriptures because they are the word of God”

    Some people like to note that circular arguments are trivially valid. They are right: – circular arguments are valid. But the validity of a circular argument should not impress us seeing as the ‘validity’ stems from the fact that we are merely holding that a thing is identical to itself!

    Deductive arguments work just like mathematical equations: a set of equivalences – we can even reformulate such arguments as tautologies. Therefore, the point of such arguments is to demonstrate some equivalence (or lack thereof) between two categories. So, yes, plugging the same statement into both a premise and the conclusion gives us an equality, but the fact that that the same exact statement gives us an equivalency is not exactly noteworthy! This is why we call this an informal fallacy – nothing is being proven here, we aren’t demonstrating an equivalancy, the equivalency is already a given prior to the argument!
    ———
    14. Complex Question
    A specific form of circular logic, a complex question is a question that assumes its own conclusion so that any attempt to answer the question necessarily leads to accepting the conclusion. The most famous example of the complex question fallacy:

    example:
    “Do you still beat your wife?”

    If this question is answered, it becomes an argument with the conclusion that you have in fact beaten your wife at some point in time. The problem is that a complex question is really two questions that demand one answer. This can be committed out of ignorance, but it can also be a purposeful deception.

    Another form of this fallacy is to ask for an explanation of something which is untrue or not yet established.
    ———
    15. False Dichotomy
    Also known as the fallacy of the excluded middle, the fallacy is committed when an argument presents a supposedly valid disjunctive premise, (an “Either… Or” argument) wherein the items presented either are not jointly exhaustive (a third choice exists) or are not mutually exclusive.

    Example: You’re either with us or against us.
    ———
    16. Stolen Concept Fallacy
    The fallacy consists of the act of using a concept while ignoring, contradicting or denying the validity of the fundamental characteristics or axioms on which it logically and/or genetically depends.

    Example written by Nathaniel Branden:

    One of the most grotesque instances of the ‘stolen concept fallacy’ may be observed in the prevalent claim-made by neo-mystics and old-fashioned mystics alike-that the acceptance of reason rests ultimately on “an act of faith.” Reason is the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the senses. Faith is the acceptance of ideas or allegations without sensory evidence or rational demonstration. “Faith in reason” is a contradiction in terms. “Faith” is a concept that possesses meaning only in contradistinction to reason. The concept of “faith” cannot antecede reason, it cannot provide the grounds for the acceptance of reason-it is the revolt against reason. One will search in vain for a single instance of an attack on reason, on the senses, on the ontological status of the laws of logic, on the cognitive efficacy of man’s mind, that does not rest on the fallacy of the stolen concept. This fallacy must be recognized and repudiated by all thinkers, if truth and reality are their goal. In the absence of such recognition and repudiation, the gates are left open to the most lethal form of mysticism-the mysticism that postures as “science.” Who are the neo-mystics’ victims? Any college student who enrolls in philosophy courses, eagerly seeking a rational, comprehensive view of man and existence-and who is led to surrender the conviction that his mind can have any efficacy whatever; or who, at best, gives up philosophy in disgust and contempt, concludes that it is a con game for pretentious intellectual role-players, and thus accepts the tragically mistaken belief that philosophy is of no practical importance to man’s life on earth.
    ———
    17. Fallacy of Belief as Proof
    Closely related to the fallacy of a naked assertion is the fallacy of belief as proof. In fact, this fallacy is often used to support a naked assertion!

    This fallacy occurs when one maintains that one’s strong conviction is itself a proof, without any other evidence. As Sigmund Freud wrote in Future of an Illusion:

    example:
    Your own convictions can not serve as proofs for me.

    This fallacy stems from the confusion of that the intensity of one’s beliefs indicates the veracity of one’s beliefs. Try to remember that intensity of a belief in no way correlates with the veracity of a belief. Billions of people are sure and wrong. Every christian who knows that the christian god is real also “knows” that there are a billion Muslim fools.
    ———
    18. Arguments from Ignorance
    An Argument from Ignorance occurs when one makes a positive claim based on a lack of information. Basically, the claimant assumes that since something has not been proven false, it is therefore true. But you can’t make claims without reason or evidence. All a lack of information can tell you is that you do not know. A claim’s truth or falsity depends upon supporting or refuting evidence for the claim, not the lack of support for a contrary or contradictory claim.

    The weakness of my argument does not imply the strength of yours – Sigmund Freud
    An argument from ignorance often is merely an expression of one’s desires and little more. The Skeptic’s dictionary calls it “Wishful thinking”.
    ———
    19. The Platonic Fallacy
    The Platonic fallacy is a specific form of Centipede Fallacy, which in turn is a form of an Argument from Ignorance. It is based on the notorious difficulty in defining a concept, such as ‘chair’, in a way that gives both necessary and sufficient conditions for chairs, rules in only things that we consider chairs, and rules out anything that is not a chair.

    The reason we find the application of categories to the real world so daunting is because categories are themselves artificial: we create them. The universe is a continuum, not a set of static categories, and as such, is under no obligation to fit into our categories. We struggle to find an absolute separation point between things like chairs and couches, or tables, or even a fallen tree log because there is, in fact, no real, obvious and absolute demarcation between such entities in the first place. The fallacy, therefore, occurs when one attempts to rely on this notorious difficulty in applying categories to the real world entities, as a grounds for holding to incoherent or contradictory terms, since they, too, are ‘difficult to define’.
    ———
    20. The “Fallacy” Fallacy
    Argumentum ad logicam. This is the “fallacy fallacy” of arguing that a conclusion is false because it has been presented as the conclusion of a fallacious argument. Remember always that fallacious arguments can arrive at true conclusions.

    “Take the fraction 16/64. Now, canceling a six on top and a six on the bottom, we get that 16/64 = 1/4.”

    “Wait a second! That answer must be wrong. You can’t just cancel the six!”

  23. 1 I believe in the Bible because it is the written word of God through his prophets. Obviously, God would not lie to his prophets. After all, the Bible says so.
    =PETITIO PRINCIPII
    =The argument goes in a circle from the truth of the Bible being based on the Bible

    2 I’ll use the death note to change the world for the better”
    =Light
    =Death note
    =False dillema
    =He is doing something wrong for his own beliefs.

    3 My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.
    =Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    =You should reason for yourself and not do things just because someone said it to you.

    4 As I walked to the library from the Learning Center not one person spoke to me. Lander University is not as friendly as I was led to believe.
    =CONVERSE ACCIDENT
    =The locator is generalizing from one instance to all or most instances

    5 Either you love God or hate God.
    =False Dilemma
    =It doesn’t mean that if you don’t love God is you hate Him.

    6 If you love those detective stories so much, you should be a writer.
    =Detective Conan
    =Division
    =The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of the whole from the attributes of its part. It is not a must that he should be a writer if he loves reading detective stories.

    7 Japanese Liberation font leader: If we do not receive any responses to our demands, we will make someone fly every 30 min.
    =Argumentum ad Baculum
    =The alternative is definitely an insinuated threat towards the Britannia government.

    8 If they find out I am doing this, they wont have respect to me then soon they will replace me and kick me out. After that I will be fired and have a miserable life.
    =Full Metal Panic
    =Slippery Slope
    =Explanation: One thing could never lead to another and another.

    9 Sydney is not the killer because there are no evidences pointing her as the killer.
    =Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    =this one is an appeal to ignorance because it doesn’t follow that if there were no evidences that points out Sydney to be the killer makes Sydney an innocent to the crime.

    10 RADIO: Good Hutus of Rwanda, beware. The dictatorship of the Tutsi cockroach is near. Watch your neighbor. Identify these cockroaches. Then rise up and stamp out this murderous infestation…
    =Hotel Rwanda
    =Division
    = The announcer on the radio attributes all the Tutsi as abominable people

    11 When I have nothing to lose, I had everything, when I stop being myself, I found myself.
    =Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    =this cannot be proven wrong or right

    12 I’ll to scream if you try to leave.
    =Argumentum ad Baculum
    =A threat was insinuated instead of reason.

    13 You will be killed if you stay in here too.
    =Argumentum Misericordiam

    14 Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel
    =Alexander Pope
    =APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY
    =Implying that, therefore, patriotism is always bad. And in fact, it was not Alexander Pope but Samuel Johnson to whom this quote can be rightly attributed.

    15 Human beings are a disease. A cancer of this planet. You’re a plague. And we, are the cure
    =Smith
    =Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    =the arguer cites an untrustworthy authority for the judgment of his premise.

    16 He is from Akatsuki. He must be a very skilled ninja.
    =Division
    =The speaker applied a generalization to the individual being spoken of. Even though Akatsuki is known for skilled ninjas, it doesn’t mean that it applies to all members. Especially because all the members haven’t made their appearances yet. This is also a Sweeping Generalization.

    17 Monks are more likely to possess insight into the meaning of life, as they have given up the distractions of wealth
    =Appeal to Poverty
    =Poor people can be stupid too, and often are. This fallacy stems from a psychological phenomena: we tend to find that our own characteristics and strong points are the most important characteristics and strongp oints for everyone. If you are poor, you’re likely to find wealthy people to be inferior to you in some way.

    18 Shut up or push up
    =Coach Carter
    =he example is an instance of the second type of ad baculum, because he use this tactic to persuade without convincing his players

    19 My countrymen say that Abraham Lincoln looks bad and is evil…
    =Belle Wickham
    =It doesn’t follow that the majority is always right.

    20 Teenagers shouldn’t be allowed to drive. It’s getting too dangerous on the streets
    =AMPHIBOLY
    =This could be taken to mean the teenagers will be in danger, or that they will cause the danger

  24. 1. “I shall wait one hour in the Forbidden Forest. If at the end of that hour, you have not come to me, have not given yourself up, the battle recommences. This time, I shall enter the fray myself, Harry Potter, and I shall find you, and I shall punish every man, woman, and child who has tried to conceal you from me.”

    – Lord Voldemort, Harry Potter Series
    Argumentum ad Baculum

    2. “You know your mother, Malfoy? The expression on her face – like she’s got dung under her nose? Is she like that all the time or just because you were with her?”

    – Harry Potter, Harry Potter Series
    False Cause

    3. “Moronic though some of this class undoubtedly are, I expect you to scrape an ‘Acceptable’ in your O.W.L., or suffer my… displeasure.”

    – Severus Snape, Harry Potter Series
    Argumentum ad Baculum

    4. “Do you remember me telling you we are practicing nonverbal spells, Potter?”
    “Yes,” said Harry stiffly.
    “Yes, sir.”
    “There’s no need to call me ‘sir,’ Professor.”

    – Snape and Harry, Harry Potter Series
    Amphiboly

    5. “I understand now. Even if I must take the devil’s fruit, I must gain power. I am an avenger.”

    – Uchiha Sasuke, Naruto
    Ignorantio Elenchi

    6. “We’re nothing like God, not only do we have limited powers, but sometimes we have to be the Devil himself.”

    – Nicholas D. Wolfwood, Trigun
    False Analogy

    7. “If you aren’t remembered, then you never existed.”

    – Arisu, Serial Experiments Lain
    False Cause

    8. “We should have died a very long time ago, you and I, the instant we fell upon this sandy land without pain, without sorrow. Now the schedule has merely been set back. The end is near. It is time to embrace it. That is why…that is why I must end it. End it now!”

    – Legato Bluesummers, Trigun
    Ignorantio Elenchi

    9. “If you die, I’ll kill you!”
    – Zoro, One Piece
    Petitio Principii

    10. “I don’t want to cause a lot of injuries unnecessarily. All those who don’t like visiting the doctor should retreat now.”

    – Kenshin Himura, Rurouni Kenshin
    Argumentum ad Baculum

    11. “The strong survive and the weak die.”

    -Shishio Makoto, Rurouni Kenshin
    Sweeping Generalization

    12. “We fear that which we cannot see… we respect that which we cannot see… thus the blade will be wielded.”

    – Opening words of 1st episode, Bleach
    Red Herring Fallacy

    13. “A man can’t just live on carbohydrates alone…”

    – Spike Spegiel, Cowboy Bebop
    Ignorantio Elenchi

    14. “… if you let the butterfly live, the spider is going to die. You can’t save both without one suffering…”

    – Knives, Trigun
    False Dilemma

    15. ” It must be the way you look, Vash the Stampede. Your very existence seems to cause me undue irritation.” – Legato Bluesummers, Trigun
    False Cause

    16. ” It’s a simple formula. The greater the tragedy, the greater the emotional effect.”

    – Legato Bluesummers, Trigun
    Hasty Generalization

    17. “On the day we left, we burned down the family home and all the familiar things inside. Because some memories… aren’t meant to leave traces.”

    – Alphonse Elric, Full-Metal Alchemist
    Red Herring Fallacy

    18. “When it melts, what does snow become?”
    “It becomes … spring!”

    – Fruits Basket
    Amphiboly

    19. “My head’s not torn off. My sunglasses aren’t broke. Amen, Hallelujah, peanut butter.”

    – Dutch, Black Lagoon
    Ignorantio Elenchi

    20. “If you’re gonna be a pervert, don’t get found out. Common sense man, common sense. Right, Principal?”

    – Eikichi Onizuka, Great Teacher Onizuka
    Complex Question

  25. FALLACIES

    Liberals believe in burning the American flag, urinating on crucifixes, and passing out birth control pills to 11-year-olds without telling their parents — but God forbid an infidel touch

    1. An example of argumentum ad populum in the torture debate. From Ann Coulter, Have You Hugged an Islamo-Fascist Today?,

    And as I looked at those demolished towers in Lebanon, it entered my mind that we should punish the oppressor in kind and that we should destroy towers in America in order that they taste some of what we tasted and so that they be deterred from killing our women and children.

    2. The use of argumentum ad misericordiam in one of bin Laden’s videos. From Al Jazeera.

    Researcher 1: My experiment indicates that an individual internal combustion engine releases x parts-per-million of carbon dioxide. Comparing this to the number of vehicles presently operated in the United States, I estimate that U.S. vehicle use is responsible for approximately y percent of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, reducing the number of vehicles operated in the U.S. should significantly reduce CO2 emissions. Finding an alternative energy sources would drastically reduce emissions.
    Researcher 2: Don’t and your spouse both drive an SUV? You really are some kind of hypocrite! Your results are meaningless!

    3. An example of an abusive ad hominem argument. The actual argument presented, that reducing vehicle use would reduce emissions, is unaffected by whether or not Researcher 1 is an hypocrite (something we cannot accurately judge without further information).

    Celebrity: Hello, I’m Mr. G. You may remember me from such films as ‘Mr. G Goes to Washington’ or ‘The Nine Lives of Mr. G’. Today, I’m here to tell you about the importance of ethanol. Ethanol is the solution to our energy problems. Call your Federal Legislators and tell them that Mr. G said to start putting ethanol in your gas tank. It’ll be one of the smartest calls you make–I guarantee it!

    4. A fictitious celebrity endorsement of ethanol. Although Mr. G may be recognisable as a celebrity, his endorsement of ethanol is completely meaningless in the absence of any evidence that he is somehow an authority on the matter. This appeal to an authority that has no expertise to offer on the topic is an example of argumentum ad verecundiam.
    I can’t believe the Court did this. What’s this world coming to? Pretty soon, we’re going to have people marrying their pet dogs and cats!!

    “They are presented as alternatives that exclude each other,” the pope said. “This clash is an absurdity because on one hand there is much scientific proof in favor of evolution, which appears as a reality that we must see and which enriches our understanding of life and being as such.”
    He said evolution did not answer all the questions: “Above all it does not answer the great philosophical question, ‘Where does everything come from?’”

    5. A rather glaring example of the slippery slope fallacy. The author of this comment gave no explanation of how the legalization of homosexual unions creates a precedent for interspecies unions.

    We should invade their countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity.

    6. In a discussion about the ‘evolution vs. creation’ debate in the U.S. and Germany, Pope Benedict XVI points out that the two ideas are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Forcing someone to accept evolution or creation creates a false dilemma, as the one does not inherently preclude the validity of the other. It is an Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Evolution has at least three different definitions. Definition 1 is change over time, 2 is the Special Theory of Evolution, and 3 is the General Theory of Evolution. If I just say that I disagree with evolution, someone could assume that I’m arguing that things don’t change over time, when in reality I’m trying to say that I don’t believe the ‘Molecules to Man’ hypothesis.

    7. I’m really not sure how one goes about converting a dead leader to Christianity. Much of the confusion in this instance of amphiboly stems from the absence of a qualifier for who ‘they’ refers to, and confusion about whether the comma was omitted before ‘and’ because it is attached to ‘leaders’ or because it is the last item in a list. From Coulter (2001) This Is War: We should invade their countries. – Ignorantio Elenchi

    Evangelist: The Holy Scriptures are infallible and perfectly accurate.
    Skeptic: How do you know that?
    Evangelist: Because they say so. In Matthew 24.35 Jesus says, ‘Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.’, and Proverbs 30.5 says, ‘Every word of God proves true…’
    Skeptic: So what you’re telling me is that the Bible is accurate because it says it’s accurate? And you people wonder why no one takes you seriously anymore.

    8. Greg Koukl contends that discussing evolution without clarifying which type your referring to is equivocation.

    Mr. Cowan said he was “precipitously fired from the analysts group” for this appearance. The Pentagon, he wrote in an e-mail message, “simply didn’t like the fact that I wasn’t carrying their water.”

    9. An unfortunate example of petitio principii. While good reasons to believe that the Scriptures are infallible do exist, the fact that they say they are is not one of them.
    As with the other fallacies of presumptions, the best counter to a petitio principii is to point out the repeated assumption.

    Comment
    The lack of outrage on the part of the American people on this issue has been astounding. Before this happened, I never would have believed that the American people would openly endorse the abduction, torture and murder of other human beings. Hopefully the Supreme Court’s recent decision will help the United States to remember its commitment to freedom and justice.
    Response
    They weren’t tortured or murdered you imbecile. Compare what the murderous muslims do to their pows. They cold blooded murderers should have been executed.

    10. An example of a tu quoque form of an ignoratio elenchi. Torturing prisoners is unacceptable, even if they torture their own prisoners. Note how this attack is coupled with an ad hominem attack, and never actually offers any justification for the initial proposition (that no torture took place).

    .
    Dikaiapolis: Hey, what’s with the jersey? You’ve been wearing that thing all week–are you trying to get Helena to dump you again?
    Hegestratos: No, this is my special jersey! If I don’t wear it for a full week before every Spartan game, they’ll loose the game.
    Dikaiapolis: So that game they lost to the Polynesians while their coach was in prison…
    Hegestratos: Helena dragged me to a fancy dinner with her parents that week, and she hid my jersey.

    11. An example of a subtle use of argumentum ad baculum. According to the story, military analysts for major media networks were threatened with the loss of access to special briefings if they criticized the Bush Administration’s war efforts. From David Barstow, 20 April 2008, “Behind TV Analysts, Pentagon’s Hidden Hand”, The New York Times

    Diner 1: Illegal immigrants are stealing all the jobs from honest, hard-working Americans!
    Diner 2: Interesting. How did you arrive at this conclusion?
    Diner 1: A friend of mine was fired from his job with a landscaping crew. When he went in to pick up his last check two weeks later, some foreigner was running his mower.
    Diner 2: And so you conclude that this is a national trend?
    Diner 1: Yeah–why?

    12. In this example, Diner 1 has committed a Hasty Generalization by assuming that, because her friend lost his job to an (allegedly) illegal immigrant, all Americans are losing their jobs to immigrants. While the sarcasm in Diner 2’s response deflated the argument substantially (Diner 2 wasn’t in a particularly good mood on this occasion), it did not necessarily invalidate the conclusion.

    If Qi were just a concept, why would there be such a plethora of information regarding it’s importance and use?
    –“martial arts master” who argued over the existence of something called “Qi”.

    13. Argumentum ad Nauseum- it means that there is no truth that Qi existed.

    14. Argumentum ad lazarum. This is the fallacy of assuming that someone poor is more virtuous than someone who is wealthier. This fallacy is the opposite of the Argumentum ad Crumenam. For example:
    Monks are more likely to possess insight into the meaning of life, as they have given up the distractions of wealth.
    Poor people can be stupid too, and often are. This fallacy stems from a psychological phenomena: we tend to find that our own characteristics and strong points are the most important characteristics and strongp oints for everyone. If you are poor, you’re likely to find wealthy people to be inferior to you in some way.

    If there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. And if Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith. More than that, we are then found to be false witnesses about God, for we have testified about God that he raised Christ from the dead. But he did not raise him if in fact the dead are not raised. For if the dead are not raised, then Christ has not been raised either. And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins. Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ are lost. If only for this life we have hope in Christ, then we are to be pitied more than all men.” (1 Corinthians 15:13-19, NIV)
    15. Appeal to Adverse Consequences- It shows the relation of resurrection with that of Christ not to be exists.

    • Have you tried to stop watching too much television?
    • If so, then you admit that you do watch too much television.
    • If not, then you must still be watching too much television.
    • Therefore, you watch too much television—“mother”
    16. Complex Question- it means that the mother presuppose an assumption of what to be happened.

    • The moon was full on Thursday evening.
    • On Friday morning I overslept.
    • Therefore, the full moon caused me to oversleep.
    17. False Cause—It doesn’t mean that the cause happened then there will be an effect even if it is not related with the cause.

    • Women earn less than men earn for doing the same work.
    • Oprah Winfrey is a woman.
    • Therefore, Oprah Winfrey earns less than male talk-show hosts
    18. Accident—As the premise says that women earn less then Oprah Winfrey earns less.

    “What about Christmas? Well, my aunt is coming next week.” – child

    19 Red Herring—the second premise is not related to the first premise.

    You want to spend less on education. Do you really want to cripple this country’s future?

    20. Strawman—it attacks the country in instance the government because of the increase in spending for education .

  26. Fallacies
    1.) One strand of spider web is pretty weak, but to argue that “therefore a cable made out of spider webs would be pretty weak” would commit the fallacy of composition. Actually, spider web has a tensile strength greater than that of steel for the same diameter, so that a cable (of reasonable thickness) made of spider web would be very strong.

    2.) “every ingredient in this cake is the freshest and best quality we can get, so you know the cake must be of excellent quality.” The ingredients have to work together, and if mismeasured, mismatched, or wrongly prepared, they will not produce an even edible cake.

    3.) “Fruit juice can help to cure your cold completely,” we hear the “cure completely” but not the “can help.” Thus, the net effect of a weasel-worded statement is to make the hearer believe more than is actually expressed while technically protecting the asserter from a charge of falsehood.

    4.) “Economists say that this policy is unworkable.” Does this mean that all economists are saying that? Most? Many? Some? A few? Two? In all probability only “some” or “a few” really are saying this, but the impression such an unqualified plural gives is almost invariably that of “all” or “almost all.”

    5.) *Americans drink an average of three cups of coffee a day.
    *Americans drink an average of 650 million cups of coffee a day.
    Here we can clearly see that in the first statement, “Americans” refers to Americans considered individually (or “distributively”) while in the second statement, Americans are considered all added together (or “collectively”). The intended reference is not always clear, however, and in such cases the statement becomes ambiguous.

    6.) When you buy a car, you want value, don’t you? If you don’t get a good value, you feel gypped. Cadillacs have a higher value than any other American car. So when you want value, buy a Cadillac.

    7.) People who major in the hard sciences have little trouble getting a job. For me, psychology is the hardest science I’ve ever studied, so I will have little trouble getting a job.

    8.) A question often asked in relation to the abortion controversy is, “When does life begin?” But if you think about it for a moment, life does not have a beginning. It’s a continuum that has been going on for thousands and thousands of years.

    9.) “You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife,” because it then seems to imply that coveting the wife of a non-neighbor is all right.

    10.) You can die from eating steak. Statistics show that several people choke to death each year while eating steak. That proves that eating steak is very dangerous.

    11.) The original purpose of women’s make-up, like lipstick and rouge, was to mimic sexual arousal–so I guess you can see that women who wear make-up are just asking for trouble.

    12.) In the United States, aspirin is responsible for more than 10,000 cases of poisoning a year, many so severe that medical experts say, “Death may result despite all recommended procedures.” As little as 10 grams can be fatal, and much less than that can cause vertigo, delirium, vomiting, hallucinations, convulsions, and even coma. I think it is clear that we should outlaw aspirin.

    13.) This painting is very beautiful, so this rock in the painting must be very beautiful.

    14.) “Teenage exploitation films seem to be drawn from a pile of garbage that gets worse as time passes. There seems to be a contest to see who can make the most sickening, disgusting film ever. This one is the winner. It stands by itself. If you go to see it, be sure to take an air sickness bag.” –Sam Eyeball

    15.) The book of Romans was written by Tertius, who lived with Gaius. Just look at Romans 16:22-23: “I Tertius, who write this letter, greet you in the Lord. Gaius, host to me and to the whole church, greets you.”

    16.) How do we know God has a beard? Well, Isaiah tells us that in the future “the Lord will shave with a razor.” [Isaiah 7:20, NASB–look it up]

    17.) most people would agree with the statement, “Only man can reason.” But would we accept the conclusion that “since Mary is not a man, she cannot reason?” Of course not. In the original statement, to which we assented, “man” is understood in the sense of “mankind” or “the human species.” But in the conclusion “man” means “male human being,” an entirely different sense of the word. The strength as well as the deceitfulness of equivocation lies in the fact that the reader or hearer agrees with some statement containing some sense of the equivocal term. If the equivocation is not detected, the argument can appear very strong.

    18.) How can you be against people living together before marriage when the men and women at college live together in the dormitories with the approval of the school!

    19.) People who major in the hard sciences have little trouble getting a job. For me, psychology is the hardest science I’ve ever studied, so I will have little trouble getting a job.

    20.) “Have fun today; drink Bubbly Beer,” seem to say that you can have fun by drinking Bubbly, but they do not actually state or promise that. (The advertiser might have meant, “Have fun today and drink Bubbly.”)

  27. 1.) Hasty Generalization (Naruto) – Naruto
    “Training today is hard and the other team said so. Maybe Ninja training here is really tough.”
    It is not necessarily true that one thing is hard because one or two people’s ore even a group said so. Maybe they aren’t just good.

    2.) Converse Accident (Public-Ads) – Guy in Blue Shirts (dunno the name , Sorry)
    “Ferrari is an American-made car. I owned a Ferrari, and it broke down all the time.
    A car that breaks down all the time is not very good. American-made cars are not very good.”
    Because Ferrari is an American made car doesn’t mean that it broke down. Maybe it’s a factor that the owner is reckless.

    3.) Post Hoc (Naruto) – Itachi Uchiha
    “Madara became stronger and when he became strong there is the rumor that his brother was killed. Madara killed his brother to obtain the most powerful mangekyou sharingan.”
    Maybe it’s a factor that to gain the most powerful mangekyou sharingan you have to get the eye of another uchiha. Because the truth us that his brother gave his eye to Madara uchiha

    4.) Slippery Slope (Animal Planet) – Host (dunno the name)
    “Animal experimentation reduces our respect for life. If we don’t respect life, we are likely to be more and more tolerant of violent acts like war and murder. Soon our society will become a battlefield in which everyone constantly fears for their lives. It will be the end of civilization. To prevent this terrible consequence, we should make animal experimentation illegal right now.”
    Since animal experimentation has been legal for some time and civilization has not yet ended, it seems particularly clear that this chain of events won’t necessarily take place. Even if we believe that experimenting on animals reduces respect for life, and loss of respect for life makes us more tolerant of violence, that may be the spot on the hillside at which things stop—we may not slide all the way down to the end of civilization. And so we have not yet been given sufficient reason to accept the arguer’s conclusion that we must make animal experimentation illegal right now.

    5.) Weak Analogy (Ridiculous Twins) – Natsume
    “I’m like you. We have the same looks but I’m a criminal. All criminals should go to jail.”
    Not because you look alike doesn’t mean that if the other one is a criminal the other is also a criminal.

    6.) Appeal to Inappropriate Authority (Prince of Tennis) – Audiences at Nationals
    “Echizen is a good tennis player because he beat all of the other good players at the nationals…”
    You should see and judge by yourself if Echizen is really good.”

    7.) Appeal to popular prejudice (Totally Spies) – Clover
    “I want to date that guy because he is the most popular here!”
    Popularity is a factor amongst these days but for me we have our own opinions.

    8.) Ad Hominem (Naruto) – Naruto
    “You have written several books and you are a Sannin but you’re a perverty Sage so why should I listen to you!”
    Jiraiyas appearance and character is like that but it doesn’t mean that if he is like that you should not listen to him.

    9.) Fallacy of Presumption (Naruto) – Sasuke Uchiha
    “I want to kill my older brother Uchiha Itachi because he is a traitor of the Uchiha clan”
    Maybe there are more ways to punish Itachi rather than killing him.

    10.) Accident (Harry Potter) – Dolores Umbridge
    “Wands only choose witches or wizards. You are not a witch.”
    Wands doesn’t necessarily choose witches or wizards only, they also choose those who were gifted with magical abilities though not born from a magical family.

    11.) Appeal to Ignorance (Discovery) – Reporter
    “People have been trying for centuries to prove that God exists. But no one has yet been able to prove it. Therefore, God does not exist.”
    Opposing argument: “People have been trying for years to prove that God does not exist. But no one has yet been able to prove it. Therefore, God exists.”
    In each case, the arguer tries to use the lack of evidence as support for a positive claim about the truth of a conclusion. There is one situation in which doing this is not fallacious: If qualified researchers have used well-thought-out methods to search for something for a long time, they haven’t found it, and it’s the kind of thing people ought to be able to find, then the fact that they haven’t found it constitutes some evidence that it doesn’t exist.

    12.) Argumentum ad Baculum (Naruto) – Naruto
    ”Don’t touch Iruka sensei or else I’ll kill you!”
    It is a threat not to do the stated action. Threats will not help us arrive at the truth.

    13.) Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Naruto) – Naruto
    ”There’s no way humans would trust me yet, why am I trying so hard for another human?!”
    It’s not true that no one trust us. Like Naruto, we all know that Iruka-sensei trust him.

    14.) Argumentum Misericordiam (One Piece) – Luffy and Kuma
    Luffy: “So you are willing to be my pirate eh? What can offer me as a pirate?
    Kuma: “I have nowhere to stay. Our fridge is empty and i have no clothes to spare.”
    Kuma is not answering a question directly, attacking sympathy and because of that, there is no argument.

    15.) Argumentum ad hominem (Naruto) – Kakashi-sensei
    ”You sure are weak for someone who’s going to surpass Hokage.”
    Kakashi is judging Naruto just because Naruto is still weeak. But who knows, maybe one day he’ll surpass him (Actually he really surpassed him at Naruto shippuuden =) ).

    16.) Spotlight fallacy (Naruto) – Naruto
    “When I grow up I want to be a Hokage!!”
    The only conclusion in here is Naruto wants to a Hokage. He said that not because he is talented in fighting but the main reason is getting strong like the ninjas that become successful Hokages.

    17.) Slippery Slope (Naruto) – Naruto
    ”My dream is to surpass the Hokage and then… have all the people of this village acknowledge my existence.”
    Even if Naruto became a Hokage, we don’t know if people will start to acknowledge him because we don’t know what’s going to happen if he became the leader. If he became a good leader, then maybe people will acknowledge him.

    18.) Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Harry Potter) – Harry Potter
    “I can’t be a wizard, just can’t be, Uncle Vernon always telling it to me”
    This is invalid. It doesn’t mean that if Uncle Vernon told Harry that he is not a wizard, then he’s not really a wizard. Uncle Vernon hates anything that is connected to the world of Wizardry that’s why he doesn’t want Harry to be involve on such things.

    19.) Argementum ad ignorantiam (The Simpsons) -Bart Simpson
    “There’s no such thing as a soul. It’s just something they made up to scare kids, like the boogeyman or Michael Jackson.”
    This is a proposition that argues that there is no soul because it has not been proven if there is a soul or not. The arguer is just saying that the soul is fictitious and was just invented to scare kids if elders want them to behave or do what they asked them to do

    20.) Equivocation (Naruto) -Kakashi-sensei
    ”D-Rank and C-Rank missions are the two easiest missions; easiest missions are handled by genins; Therefore, D-Rank and C-Rank missions are for genins”
    The easy missions have two meanings at the above statement.

  28. Quotes from “Naruto”

    1. “Leaf ninjas are against Orochimaru, You’re a leaf ninja, those who oppose him are to be killed, i must kill you.”
    -Equivocation

    2. “Power to be had is a risk, I’m having it so i’m a risk.”
    -Composition

    3. “He’s dark because he ran away”
    -Red Herring

    4. “Ninjas like Itachi and some unknown are missing nins, akatsuki is a group of Anbu Squadron against anyone opposing them, Itachi is an akatsuki member after all.”
    –Division

    5. “My friend died in that woods Anko trained us, I’ll never return to that place again!”
    – Hasty Generalization

    6. “I must slaughter the whole Uchiha Clan to end this story, it’s an order from above.”
    -Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

    7. “It’s either we let Naruto follow Sasuke or we let him die as he follow him.”
    – False Dilemma

    8. “You’re a pebble in my way, You’re going to lose!”
    – Hasty Generalization

    9.“If were going to fight the Uchiha Clan to the last, this war will continue, let’s forget the past regarding the battles, let us call a truce to them”
    – False Dilemma

    10. “We all know how great Namikaze Minato was, I was a student of his, I must be great too!”
    -Division

    11. “I got a taste of Amaterasu in Sasuke’s eyes, I won’t take on him easy next time.”
    -Hasty Generalization

    12. “Minato sent us to patrol the forest, not to kill, it’s an order.”
    -Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

    13. “I don’t need your damn chances, I still want to fight!”
    -Ad Baculum

    14. “You came from that bathhouse, didn’t you peek again, perverted Hermit?”
    -Complex Question

    15. “Sarutobi told me not to follow Orochimaru, it’s against his will so I didn’t try.”
    -Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

    16. “It’s either we die or surrender to Hanzo(of the Salamander
    )-False Dilemma

    17. “Because of your god damn excuses, Rin got captured! I won’t make any mistake of trusting you again!”
    -Hasty Generalization

    18. “You’re not going to rap again, are you?!”
    -Complex Question

    19. “All those who failed in Kakashi’s Team 7 were sent back to Academy, Naruto and the rest are under his class, I fear that Naruto might fail.”
    -Division

    20. “This is the last time, who is pain? what is he?”
    -Complex Question

  29. 1.Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Black is mad. He’s a danger to anyone who crosses him.”
    – He’s attacking the person or backstabbing him

    2. Argumentum ad Baculum
    “You’ll be sticking to that story boy, or there’ll be trouble.”
    – He is being given a chance to choose or to be in trouble.

    3.Red Herring
    “Running away from your aunt and uncle like that! I’d started to think…, but you’re safe now and that’s what matters.”
    -A new topic has been opened to divert the first conversation.

    4. Ignorantio Elenchi
    “Perhaps you’ll be able to visit Hogsmeade next year. In fact, I think it’s best if you don’t…, yes…, well I’ll be off.”
    -A new topic has been opened to divert the first conversation

    5.Accent
    “I wonder why”
    -There can be a different meaning to what he said.

    6.Straw Man
    “We know Azkaban and Hogwarts are safe, but if Black can break out of Azkaban, then he can break into Hogwarts.”
    -One of the arguments is made stronger than the other one.

    7. False Cause
    “My uncle saw the Grim and he died 24 hours later.”
    – The Grim is not the cause of his uncle’s death.

    8.Argumentum ad Vericundiam
    “But professor, my aunt and uncle, you know they’re muggles, they don’t really understand about Hogwarts forms and stuff.”
    – He appealed to the fact that his guardians doesn’t know anything about magical stuffs and forms.

    9.Complex Question
    “I’ve only got teabags I’m afraid, but I daresay you’ve had enough of tea leaves?”
    -There is a hidden question.

    10. Amphiboly
    “He’s at Hogwarts”
    – We don’t know who he is reffering to.

    11.Converse Accident
    “If there’s something wrong with the bitch, there’ll be something wrong with the pup.”
    -This is a hasty generalization.

    12. Argumentum ad Populum
    “I need a beautiful girl to endorse my product, so I thought of you.”
    -He is saying that the girl is preety in order for her to endorse his product.

    13. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “The government is hiding the remains of several UFO crashes, including alien bodies, in “Area 51,” a top secret area of an Air Force base in the Southwest.
    While the government has denied this claim, they’ve never proven that it was false. So I’m entitled to continue to believe that it is true”
    -He believes in this because there’s no proof that it doesn’t exist.

    14. Petitio Principi
    “Sure, this was Indian Territory once. Sure, the white settlers didn’t always treat the Indians very nicely, or always live up the treaties. But there can be no question but that we have every right to be here and to enjoy this rich land. After all, we brought civilization to the Indians, a clearly superior way of life. You’d think they’d be grateful.”
    -This argument is going in circles.

    15. Slippery Slope
    “If you don’t get to bed early, you’ll be too tired to do well on the GRE tomorrow – and then you won’t get accepted into a decent graduate school and then you’ll end up a washed-out alcoholic living in a trash-bin.”
    -There is a chance that this wouldn’t happen

    16. False Dilemma
    “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.”
    -There are other choices

    17. Argumentum ad Misericordiam
    “I’m positive that my work will meet your requirements. I really need the job since my grandmother is sick”
    -He is making the person pity him in order to be accepted in the job.
    18. Division
    “Sodium chloride (table salt) may be safely eaten. Therefore its constituent elements, sodium and chloride, may be safely eaten.”
    -The whole attributes should not be mistaken with the parts attributes.
    19. Composition
    “Sodium and Chloride are both dangerous to humans. Therefore any combination of sodium and chloride will be dangerous to humans. “
    -The attributes of the part should not be mistaken with the whole.
    20. Equivocation
    “Really exciting novels are rare, but books are expensive, therefore really exciting novels are expensive.”
    -The word “rare” is used in different ways in the two premises of the argument, so the link they seem to establish between the terms of the conclusion is not right.

  30. Argumentum ad Hominem
    “You aren’t even worth killing, foolish little brother.” (Naruto)
    -Itachi directly attacks Sasuke with out any questions asked.

    Ignorantio Elenchi
    “A cute girl stopped me on the way, so I danced.” (Naruto)
    -dancing when seeing a cute girl is not really usual but it might be related somehow to kakashi’s personality.

    Argumentum Misericordiam
    “On that day, you taught me that solitude is painful! I understand that so well right now. I have family, and I have friends but if you’re gone… To me… It will be the same as being alone.” (Naruto)
    -sakura is saying that if sasuke leaves he might be in danger.

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Those in the ninja world who break the rules and regulations are called filth, but those who don’t care about their companions… are even lower than filth” (Naruto)
    -uchiha obito directly discredited those ninjas who disobey the rules.

    Equivotion
    D and C Rank missions are the two easiest missions; easiest missions are handled by genins; Therefore, D-Rank and C-Rank missions are for genins. (Naruto)
    -“Easiest missions” is used with two meanings in the formulation of the argument.

    False Cause
    “Sorry I got late. I black cat crossed my path.” (Naruto)
    -It is not really the cause of why he did get late.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “You all know that you don’t want to kill Hitsugaya from the start. Why you still follow the command of your leader?
    Shinigami Captain: You fool! We should follow orders of our leaders. It is an honor in following the commands of high ranking shinigami.” (Bleach)
    -The shinigami attempts to capitalize upon the feelings of respect or familiarity with their leaders. There is no legitimate claim to authority.

    Argumentum ad Populum
    “Hiten Mitsurugi Style is presumably the best that I have learned from Seijuro. I know it because many before him said so.” (Samurai X)
    -It doesn’t mean that it is really the best. It is only the judgement of many.

    False Cause
    “They say that anyone who wears this pendant would die and so that what happened to my brother” (Naruto)
    -This is truly a fallacious statement from Tsunade-sama because she already gave a reason to such death of her brother which is not proven to be the real cause. It’s might be something else.

    Converse Accident
    “I have observed that 3 of them were killed so it’s not a genjutsu. If it was a genjutsu, I haven’t seen someone who can manipulate such technique! Therefore, Pein can’t be using genjutsu.”
    -This is fallacious because during the conversation between Shikamaru and the Decoder, they hastily conclude that Pein can’t do a genjutsu because no one ever did such technique that good.

  31. 1. Amphiboly (Quoted from One Tree Hill, Brooke Davis)

    “Here’s my philosophy on dating. It’s important to have somebody that can make you laugh, somebody you can trust, somebody that, y’know, turns you on…”

    (It is uncertain whether the ‘somebodies’ pertained within the text is just one person or different people)

    2. Begging the Question (Quoted from different Muslim apologists)

    “Allah and Muhammad including the whole Islam Religion can be proven by the Qur’an. The Qur’an is most probably true because it is from Allah, handed down to Muhammed and then used for the Muslim religion since forever.”

    (The premise, Allah, Muhammad and the whole Islam religion was proven through the Qur’an and the Qur’an was also proven through the three)

    3. Red Herring (Quoted from different Muslim apologists)

    “The Qur’an must be true! And is the Bible even reliable?”

    (The arguer opens a somewhat related issue that is not relevant to the original argument)

    4. False Cause (Sourced from Traditional Beliefs and Old People)

    “Seeing a black cat crossing a street causes extreme bad luck.”

    (Seeing a black cat crossing a street is in no way related to luck, chance or probability)

    5. Argumentum ad Misericordiam (Quoted from jeepney drivers)

    “We will do a transport strike so that there will be a fair hike. Our wives are starving at home and we also have kids to feed!”

    (Though the proof may be related in a way to the premise, it doesn’t justify why a transport strike is needed. This is an appeal to pity and sympathy)

    6. Accent (Quoted from Harry Potter, Half Blood Prince, Snape to Harry)

    “Do you remember me telling you we are practicing nonverbal spells, Potter?”
    “Yes,” said Harry stiffly.
    “Yes, sir.”
    “There’s no need to call me ‘sir,’ Professor.”

    (Apparently, Snape’s statement (3rd line) didn’t make it clear whether he was asking Harry to show him some respect, or he showing Harry some respect)

    7. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Quoted from Harry Potter, Half Blood Prince, Luna to Harry)

    “Did you hear, there’s supposed to be a vampire coming?”
    “Rufus Scrimgeour?” asked Luna.
    “I – what?” said Harry, disconcerted. “You mean the Minister of Magic?”
    “Yes, he’s a vampire,” said Luna matter-of-factly. “Father wrote a very long article about it when Scrimgeour first took over from Cornelius Fudge, but he was forced not to publish by somebody from the Ministry. Obviously, they didn’t want the truth to get out!”

    (Luna is committing ad Verecundiam since Luna’s father is in no authority to know or say that Rufus Scrimgeour is a vampire so she shouldn’t really impose the belief to others as well)

    8. Argumentum ad Populum (Quoted from the Pantene “Juday” Commercial)

    “90% of women agree that Pantene reduces hairfall.”

    (The number of people asserting to a product doesn’t prove its effectiveness)

    9. Equivocation (Quoted from Heroes, Ando to Hiro)

    “Every hero is on a journey to find his place in the world, it is a JOURNEY, you don’t start at the end, otherwise they can’t make a movie about it later.”

    (Ando assumes that the term hero meaning a person noted for feats of courage or nobility of purpose to a hero meaning a person noted for special achievement in a particular field)

    10. False Dilemma (Quoted from Heroes, Alejandro to Maya)

    Maya: Are they really gone?
    Alejandro: For now. We’ve got to keep going.
    Maya: We’ve been running for eight hundred miles. I can’t run anymore.
    Alejandro: We have no choice.

    (Alejandro imposes on Maya that they only have two choices left, either to keep running or be caught by their pursuers but in reality, they may still do other things)

    11. Composition (Quoted from Seto no Hanayome, Mawari to Machisio Nagasumi)

    “Your such a pervert! Men are the worst. That is why I Hate Men!”

    (Machisio Nagasumi’s being a pervert doesn’t prove that all men, which Machisio is a part of, are perverts)

    12. Argumentum ad Baculum (Quoted from various sectors which originated from Christianity, eg. Ellie Soriano, Iglesia ni Cristo Elders, etc)

    “You should believe in my God, because if you do not you will go to Hell.”

    (The speakers justify that the belief in this God should be because of the fear from hell which should not be the case)

    13. False Analogy (Quoted from the Watchmaker Analogy)

    “The universe is like an intricate watch.
    A watch must have been designed by an intelligent watchmaker.
    Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.”

    (While the universe and watch has their similarities, this doesn’t imply that they also originated in the same way)

    14. Accident (Quoted from my English teacher in third year when he was trying to give an example for Fallacy of Accident or Dicto Simpliciter)

    “Exercise is good for everybody’s health therefore a person with heart ailments should exercise.”

    (The argument overlooks the possibility of an exception which should not be the case)

    15. Slippery Slope (Quoted from a Filipino Teacher who states why the University is against contraception)

    “The University is against the Contraception Bill because now, it might just be contraception, but soon enough, they will also allow abortion.”

    (The argument assumes that abortion being allowed will follow soon after contraception and there is no other way than that which is not the case)

    16. Argumentum ad Hominem (Quoted from Accepted, a PhD Professor to a public school teacher)

    “Do not listen to this man. We studied from the same college and he is a kick out!”

    (The facts given by the argument is not in any way connected to the credibility of what the public school teacher is going to say)

    17. Complex Question (Quoted from a text-message joke hovering over the networks here in the Philippines)

    “Have you told your mother that you are gay?”

    (The question restricts the interrogated person from really answering the question. He is faced with a question where in whatever he answers will be disadvantageous to him. Several questions have been rolled into the questions that are yet to be answered: “Are you gay?” then followed by “Have you told your mother that you are gay?”)

    18. Converse Accident (Quoted from Index Journal)

    “Former Brooklyn Dodger Joe Black, speaking in Clinton, helped put the drug situation in professional athletics in better perspective. The former pitcher, a black man, said he has no sympathy for the argument that pressures of the professional athlete’s lifestyle can lead to drug abuse. ‘There are no pressures in professional sports that make you use drugs or booze. Jackie Robinson didn’t use drugs. Willie Mays didn’t use drugs. I didn’t use drugs. That’s a cop out,’ Black said.”

    (The conclusion on all professional athletes was just based on three exceptionally good players which is not enough to support the conclusion)

    19. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Quoted from skeptics and scientists)

    “Ghosts cannot be proven by science, therefore ghosts do not exist.”

    (The fact that ghosts cannot be proven by science does not assert that ghosts do not exist; they MAY exist, just that their existence cannot be proven)

    20. Division (Quoted from popular Filipino belief and culture)

    “All La Sallians are rich since their school is.”

    (This argument overlooks the fact that there might be scholars or people who are just aided or crawling to make it to the school. The property of the whole doesn’t necessarily imply the property of the part)

  32. Begging the Question
    “Jane has telepathy,” says Susan. “How do you know?” asks Jill. “Because she can read my mind,” replies Susan. Since telepathy is, by definition, the ability to read someone’s mind, all Susan has told us is that she believes that Jane can read her mind because she believes that Jane can read her mind. Her reason merely reiterates her claim in different words. Her reason provides no additional justification for her claim.
    False Dilemma
    “Either have your horoscope charted by an astrologer or continue to stumble through life without knowing where you’re going. You certainly don’t want to continue your wayward ways. So you should have your horoscope charted by an astrologer.” If someone is concerned about the direction her life is taking, there are other things she can do about it than consult an astrologer. Since there are other options, the argument ins fallacious.

    Equivocation
    “It’s the duty of the press to publish news that’s in the public interest. There is a great public interest in UFOs. Therefore the press fails in its duty if it does not publish articles on UFOs.” In the first premise, the phrase public interest means the public welfare, but in the second, it means what the public is interested in. The switch in meaning invalidates the argument.

    Composition
    “Subatomic particles are lifeless. Therefore anything made of them is lifeless.” This argument is fallacious because a whole may be greater than the sum of its parts; that is, it may have properties not possessed by its parts.

    Division
    “Society’s interest in the occult is growing. Therefore Joe’s interest in the occult is growing.” Since groups can have properties that are not had by their members, such an argument is fallacious.

    Appeal to the Person
    “You can’t believe Dr. Jones’s claim that there is no evidence for life after death. After all, he’s an Atheist.” The flaw in these arguments is obvious; an argument stands or falls on its own merit; who proposes it is irrelevant to its soundness. Crazy people can come up with perfectly sound arguments, and sane people can talk nonsense.

    Appeal to Ignorance
    “There is no proof that the parapsychology experiments were fraudulent, so I’m sure they weren’t.”The claim is that since there is no proof that something is false, it must be true.

    Straw Man
    Ron Kline provides an example of this fallacy when he summarizes the case against animal research as essentially saying that researchers are no more than sadists and opportunists. This is hardly an accurate portrayal of the most responsible arguments against such research.

    Red Herring
    Richard Nixon employs a red herring in his famous “Checkers speech” when he suggests that critics who suspect him of taking bribes also want to take away his family’s dog. In fact, they had never expressed any such intention, but implying that they wanted to directed attention away from Nixon and toward his accusers.

    Slippery Slope
    Once conservatives have succeeded in passing the “three strikes” law they will not stop there. They will then set their sights on stiffer sentences for other offenders. Pretty soon we will have a “two strikes” law, then a “one strike” law. Eventually we’ll have a “pre-emptive strike” law, whereby anyone looking remotely suspicious of committing a crime will be hauled before a judge. This argument fails to plausibly explain why conservatives would continue to pursue more and more punitive legislation.

    Appeal to Pity
    “You don’t know what it is like to lose a child. My son was murdered when he was still so very young – he never really had a chance to live and enjoy life. There are so many things he will now miss out on which he should have had a chance to experience. Well, I think that his killer should be executed. If you don’t agree, then you don’t really sympathize with my position.”Clearly, the family of a victim of murder go through tremendous suffering and grief – nothing can replace a lost human being. But however much these relatives are suffering, our pity for their plight in no way serves as a rational basis to believe their claim that the murderer should be executed. No matter how serious their grief, that does not make it more likely that it is moral to use capital punishment.

    Appeal to Force
    “If I “persuade” you of something by means of threats, I have not given you a reason for thinking the proposition is true; I have simply scared you into thinking, or at least into saying, it is true.”The fallacy need not involve actual physical force or violence. It is committed whenever any sort of threat is used, and nonphysical threats are probably more common than physical ones.

    Complex Question
    E.g., a prosecutor demands from a defendant, “Did you commit the murder before or after you bought the soft drink?”
    No argument is being given, so no fallacy occurs. Obviously, the whole sense of the question changes if the prosecutor is asking the question just after the defendant confessed to the murder.

    False Cause
    “Every severe recession follows a Republican Presidency; therefore Republicans are the cause of recessions.” Accidental generalizations need not always be causal relations.

    Converse Accident
    “Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.” informal fallacy occurred because the statement is made on the basis of only a few examples.

    Accident
    “Thou shalt not kill; therefore, you should not try to control termites in your home or fight for your country.” The fallacy using a statement which has a qualified meaning as if it had no qualification whatsoever.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    The brilliant William Jenkins, the recent Nobel Prize winner in physics, states uncategorically that the flu virus will be controlled in essentially all of its forms by the year 2,050. The opinion of such a great man cannot be disregarded. The fallacy of appealing to the testimony of an authority outside William Jenkins special field.

    Argumentum ad Populum
    “Man could alleviate his misery by marriage. This close companionship enhances the joys of one and mitigated the sorrow of the other, and anyone knew God always provided for married people.” The fallacy of attempting to win popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the feeling and enthusiasms of the multitude.

    Amphiboly
    “A reckless motorist Thursday struck and injured a student who was jogging through the campus in his pickup truck. Therefore, it is unsafe to jog in your pickup truck.”In this example, the premise (actually heard on a radio broadcast) could be interpreted in different ways, creating the possibility of a fallacious inference to the conclusion.

    Accent
    “Jorge turned in his assignment on time today.Therefore, Jorge usually turns in his assignments late.”Here the premise may be true if read without inflection, but if it is read with heavy stress on the last word seems to imply the truth of the conclusion.

  33. 1. Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to fear)

    “… i have the mean to expose your subterranean existence, and you are powerless to stop me. So, basically, whatever i ask for is a small price to pay.”
    -Artemis to Commander Root, Artemis Fowl
    It’s fallacious because Artemis threatened Root so that Root may justify his conclusion.

    2. False dilemma

    “You’re either with us, or against us…”
    -Gaston to fellow citizens of his village,Beauty and the Beast
    In this situation Gaston presumes that there are only two alternatives that are considered, when in fact there are other options. if you’re not either with them it does not follow that they are against them.

    3. Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity)

    “Please don’t kill me. I only did it because the Dark Lord will kill me if I don’t.”
    -Peter Pettigrew, Harry Potter
    pettigrew is trying to persuade harry by arousing pity.

    4. Complex Question

    “How does someone just start drooling? Chase? Were you wearing your short shorts?”
    -Dr. Gregory House
    the question is asked to which all answers appear to endorse that assumption.

    5. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)

    Dr. Gregory House: J’ever notice, how all the self-sacrificing women in history, Joan of Arc, Mother Teresa… can’t think of any others, they all die alone? The men, on the other hand, get so much fuzz it’s crazy.
    Dr. Wilson: It’s an unfair world.
    Wilson draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough.

    6. Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)

    “I’m the most terrific liar you ever saw in your life. It’s awful. If I’m on my way to the store to buy a magazine, even, and somebody asks me where I’m going, I’m liable to say I’m going to the opera. It’s terrible. ”
    -J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye, Chapter 3
    the situation is the person is arguing with itself. The person verbally abuses itself.

    7. Accent

    “Oh no she did not…”
    -Damien, Mean Girls
    the statement creates unnecessary ambiguity because of a shift of emphasis. If the stress is on the last word it could imply that the statement is really true unlike if the stress is on the first word only.

    8. Composition

    Jesus was a wise individual who was close to God, thus his followers (Christians) are also wise and close to God.
    -eli
    these characteristics of Jesus are only a few parts, what about the influence of the other parts on the whole?

    9. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to inappropriate Authority)

    Shane Oman: Why are you eating a Kalteen bar?
    Regina: I’m starving.
    Shane Oman: Man, I hate those things. Coach Carr makes us eat those when we want to move up a weight class.
    Regina: What?
    Shane Oman: They make you gain weight like crazy.
    Regina: Motherf –
    [she spits out the bite of the bar that she was chewing, and then she lets out a high-pitched scream]
    Regina: Aaaaaaaah!
    -Mean Girls
    regina and shane lets other person reason on their behalf. being said by coach carr does not proves the conclusion.

    10. False Cause (non causa pro causa)

    “Wanna know how I know you’re gay? Because you like Coldplay.”
    -Cal, 40 year old virgin
    does it follow if you like Coldplay you are a gay?? it does not.

    11. Straw Man

    “Environmentalists often think that only government action can solve a crisis”
    -Sanera, Michael and Jane S. Shaw, Facts not Fear: A Parent’s Guide to Teaching Children About the Environment.
    This neglects the large amount of advice on how individuals and companies can protect the environment. and the large number of lawsuits that environmental groups have filed against government agencies.

    12. Amphiboly

    “Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth.”
    -Macbeth; Act 4, Scene 1
    Macbeth’s enemy Macduff had been born by Caesarian section – “ripped untimely from his mother’s womb” – and thus was not “of woman born” in the normal sense.

    13. Petitio Principii (Begging the question)

    “Murder is morally wrong. Therefore, abortion is morally wrong.”
    – Hurley, p. 143
    the statement presumes the truth of a premise that isn’t stated: that abortion is murder. As this premise is far from obvious, is closely related to the point in question (is abortion immoral?), and the arguer doesn’t bother mention it (much less support it), the argument begs the question.

    14. Division

    “Paramore were one of the most successful rock music band in music mainstream. Therefore, each of the members will be highly successful when the band splits up.”
    -irog
    it is not necessarily!

    15. Red Herring (missing the point)

    “No, no, he’s a friend of mine. He’s not a moron at all — he’s a friend. I had a good time with him today.”
    -Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien, responding to reports that his chief spokesman had called President George W. Bush a moron.
    Perhaps it’s true that Bush is his friend. Perhaps it’s true that they had a good time together. This information has nothing to do with answering the charge that Bush is a moron. Chretien is changing the subject instead of talking about Bush’s intelligence, which is the issue.

    16. Slippery Slope

    “If we legalize marijuana, the next thing you know we’ll legalize heroin, LSD, and crack cocaine.”
    -Glen Whitman
    there is no reason has been provided for why legalization of one thing leads to legalization of another. Tobacco and alcohol are currently legal, and yet other drugs have somehow remained illegal.

    17. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance)
    “Ghost exist since no one has as yet proved that there are not any.”
    -ghost busters
    it does not necessarily prove about existence of ghost.

    18. Equivocation

    “All child-murderers are inhuman, thus, no child-murderer is human.”
    -From Barker, p. 164
    The word child-murdere is obviously used with two different meanings.

    19. Argumentum ad Populum (appeal to popular prejudice)

    “But officer, I don’t deserve a ticket; everyone goes this speed.
    If I went any slower, I wouldn’t be going with the stream of traffic.”
    -driver
    the driver is proving a conclusion on the grounds that most people are doing. That is fallacious because the fact that many people agree on something does not imply that what they agree on is true.

    20. False Analogy

    “Education cannot prepare men and women for marriage. Trying to educate them for marriage is like trying to teach them to swim without allowing them to go into the water. It can’t be done.”
    -A self-proclaimed expert
    Educating someone about life issues (like respect, responsibility, and communication) is essential to preparing that person for the commitment of marriage. Training someone to move muscles and breathe without fear of drowning are important skills
    to master to become a good swimmer, but these are entirely different skills than those needed for marriage. Some people make great spouses and lousy swimmers because they differ in their physical and mental skills, respectively. Some people are faster learners in some areas and slower in others. Some people learn only from experience, but knowledge can still assist them along the way. This analogy cannot be considered valid.

  34. 1.”That’s a girl. Her soft lips, cute cheeks..”
    -Argumentum ad ignorantiam
    he didnt know that the girl he sees is really a guy.
    from Baseketball

    2.”Only you could be more important than what i wanted… what i needed. What i want and need is to be with you..”
    -Petitio Principii
    from New moon.

    3.” Maybe if i looked like a girl from Phoenix should, I could work this for my advantage. But physically, id never fit in anywhere. i should be tan sporty and blonde, a volleyball player or a cheerleader perhaps all the things that go with living in the valley of the sun”
    -converse accident
    from Twilight

    4.”When I heard what you told alice- what she saw herself when I realized that you have to put your life in the hands of werewolves,immature,volatile, the worst thing out there besides Victoria herself. Please know I had no idea of any of this”
    -Agrumentum ad Hominem
    from New moon

    5.The whole story of Da Vinci code.
    -Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    6.The situation in the story is killing the people who they think of has a threat on them.
    -false Cause
    From Wanted

    7. “Saving your own family or to kill the person you dont actually know”
    -Argumentum ad baculum
    from saw

    8.”You are excited! press this nipples” (the guy announced said)
    -ignorantio elenchi
    from Baseketball

    9.”I know we will, you donht have to be afraid. ive known lots of people who have done it.”
    -Argumentum ad Populum
    from hills are like white elephants

    10.”You must face this. if you dont neither will the rest of us and it just goes on..”(wonderwoman)
    -False dilemma
    from kingdom come

    11.”Please save me im being haunted by the guy!!!”
    -Argumentum Misericordiam
    from spongebob squarepants

    12.” ‘Edward cullen is staring at you’ Jessica giggled my ear ‘He doesn’t look angry doesn’t he ?”
    -Complex question
    from twilight

    13.” The experiment is multiplying! If it multiplies it will be very plent, and then if its too much, it will conquer the world!”
    -Slippery slope
    from Galaxy angels

    14. “These shirts were great. thanks mom.”
    The kid didnt expressed the his real feeling.
    -Accent
    from The Joseph sheep

    15.”Is the food is ready?”
    “sure you can help.”
    -Red Herring
    from Zits

    16. “The red agents are the robot’s enemies, I’m a robot. And you are my enemy.”
    -Equivocation
    from the robots club

  35. i love the Bazooka of Megatron, i don’t understand why they did not include it on the movie ”;

  36. Hello! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in
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