1. Morality and Authority

The Socratic Method of Philosophical Inquiry

1.  Read Plato’s dialogue “Euthyphro” at http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/euthyfro.html.

2.  Define the term “morality” by answering Euthyphro’s dilemma.

If you were Euthyphro, how would you have responded when Socrates inquired:

“Is an action morally good because God commands it,
or does God command it because it is morally good?”

3. Read Euthyphro’s Dilemma at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euthyphro_Dilemma

4. Read Divine Command Theory at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divine_command_theory.

“EUTHYPHRO”

by Plato

Written 380 B.C.E

Translated by Benjamin Jowett

Persons of the Dialogue
Socrates
Euthyphro

Scene
The Porch of the King Archon.

Euthyphro. Why have you left the Lyceum, Socrates? and what are you doing in the Porch of the King Archon? Surely you cannot be concerned in a suit before the King, like myself?

Socrates. Not in a suit, Euthyphro; impeachment is the word which the Athenians use.

Euth. What! I suppose that some one has been prosecuting you, for I cannot believe that you are the prosecutor of another.

Soc. Certainly not.

Euth. Then some one else has been prosecuting you?

Soc. Yes.

Euth. And who is he?

Soc. A young man who is little known, Euthyphro; and I hardly know him: his name is Meletus, and he is of the deme of Pitthis. Perhaps you may remember his appearance; he has a beak, and long straight hair, and a beard which is ill grown.

Euth. No, I do not remember him, Socrates. But what is the charge which he brings against you?

Soc. What is the charge? Well, a very serious charge, which shows a good deal of character in the young man, and for which he is certainly not to be despised. He says he knows how the youth are corrupted and who are their corruptors. I fancy that he must be a wise man, and seeing that I am the reverse of a wise man, he has found me out, and is going to accuse me of corrupting his young friends. And of this our mother the state is to be the judge. Of all our political men he is the only one who seems to me to begin in the right way, with the cultivation of virtue in youth; like a good husbandman, he makes the young shoots his first care, and clears away us who are the destroyers of them. This is only the first step; he will afterwards attend to the elder branches; and if he goes on as he has begun, he will be a very great public benefactor.

Euth. I hope that he may; but I rather fear, Socrates, that the opposite will turn out to be the truth. My opinion is that in attacking you he is simply aiming a blow at the foundation of the state. But in what way does he say that you corrupt the young?

Soc. He brings a wonderful accusation against me, which at first hearing excites surprise: he says that I am a poet or maker of gods, and that I invent new gods and deny the existence of old ones; this is the ground of his indictment.

Euth. I understand, Socrates; he means to attack you about the familiar sign which occasionally, as you say, comes to you. He thinks that you are a neologian, and he is going to have you up before the court for this. He knows that such a charge is readily received by the world, as I myself know too well; for when I speak in the assembly about divine things, and foretell the future to them, they laugh at me and think me a madman. Yet every word that I say is true. But they are jealous of us all; and we must be brave and go at them.

Soc. Their laughter, friend Euthyphro, is not a matter of much consequence. For a man may be thought wise; but the Athenians, I suspect, do not much trouble themselves about him until he begins to impart his wisdom to others, and then for some reason or other, perhaps, as you say, from jealousy, they are angry.

Euth. I am never likely to try their temper in this way.

Soc. I dare say not, for you are reserved in your behaviour, and seldom impart your wisdom. But I have a benevolent habit of pouring out myself to everybody, and would even pay for a listener, and I am afraid that the Athenians may think me too talkative. Now if, as I was saying, they would only laugh at me, as you say that they laugh at you, the time might pass gaily enough in the court; but perhaps they may be in earnest, and then what the end will be you soothsayers only can predict.

Euth. I dare say that the affair will end in nothing, Socrates, and that you will win your cause; and I think that I shall win my own.

Soc. And what is your suit, Euthyphro? are you the pursuer or the defendant?

Euth. I am the pursuer.

Soc. Of whom?

Euth. You will think me mad when I tell you.

Soc. Why, has the fugitive wings?

Euth. Nay, he is not very volatile at his time of life.

Soc. Who is he?

Euth. My father.

Soc. Your father! my good man?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And of what is he accused?

Euth. Of murder, Socrates.

Soc. By the powers, Euthyphro! how little does the common herd know of the nature of right and truth. A man must be an extraordinary man, and have made great strides in wisdom, before he could have seen his way to bring such an action.

Euth. Indeed, Socrates, he must.

Soc. I suppose that the man whom your father murdered was one of your relatives-clearly he was; for if he had been a stranger you would never have thought of prosecuting him.

Euth. I am amused, Socrates, at your making a distinction between one who is a relation and one who is not a relation; for surely the pollution is the same in either case, if you knowingly associate with the murderer when you ought to clear yourself and him by proceeding against him. The real question is whether the murdered man has been justly slain. If justly, then your duty is to let the matter alone; but if unjustly, then even if the murderer lives under the same roof with you and eats at the same table, proceed against him. Now the man who is dead was a poor dependent of mine who worked for us as a field labourer on our farm in Naxos, and one day in a fit of drunken passion he got into a quarrel with one of our domestic servants and slew him. My father bound him hand and foot and threw him into a ditch, and then sent to Athens to ask of a diviner what he should do with him. Meanwhile he never attended to him and took no care about him, for he regarded him as a murderer; and thought that no great harm would be done even if he did die. Now this was just what happened. For such was the effect of cold and hunger and chains upon him, that before the messenger returned from the diviner, he was dead. And my father and family are angry with me for taking the part of the murderer and prosecuting my father. They say that he did not kill him, and that if he did, dead man was but a murderer, and I ought not to take any notice, for that a son is impious who prosecutes a father. Which shows, Socrates, how little they know what the gods think about piety and impiety.

Soc. Good heavens, Euthyphro! and is your knowledge of religion and of things pious and impious so very exact, that, supposing the circumstances to be as you state them, you are not afraid lest you too may be doing an impious thing in bringing an action against your father?

Euth. The best of Euthyphro, and that which distinguishes him, Socrates, from other men, is his exact knowledge of all such matters. What should I be good for without it?

Soc. Rare friend! I think that I cannot do better than be your disciple. Then before the trial with Meletus comes on I shall challenge him, and say that I have always had a great interest in religious questions, and now, as he charges me with rash imaginations and innovations in religion, I have become your disciple. You, Meletus, as I shall say to him, acknowledge Euthyphro to be a great theologian, and sound in his opinions; and if you approve of him you ought to approve of me, and not have me into court; but if you disapprove, you should begin by indicting him who is my teacher, and who will be the ruin, not of the young, but of the old; that is to say, of myself whom he instructs, and of his old father whom he admonishes and chastises. And if Meletus refuses to listen to me, but will go on, and will not shift the indictment from me to you, I cannot do better than repeat this challenge in the court.

Euth. Yes, indeed, Socrates; and if he attempts to indict me I am mistaken if I do not find a flaw in him; the court shall have a great deal more to say to him than to me.

Soc. And I, my dear friend, knowing this, am desirous of becoming your disciple. For I observe that no one appears to notice you- not even this Meletus; but his sharp eyes have found me out at once, and he has indicted me for impiety. And therefore, I adjure you to tell me the nature of piety and impiety, which you said that you knew so well, and of murder, and of other offences against the gods. What are they? Is not piety in every action always the same? and impiety, again- is it not always the opposite of piety, and also the same with itself, having, as impiety, one notion which includes whatever is impious?

Euth. To be sure, Socrates.

Soc. And what is piety, and what is impiety?

Euth. Piety is doing as I am doing; that is to say, prosecuting any one who is guilty of murder, sacrilege, or of any similar crime-whether he be your father or mother, or whoever he may be-that makes no difference; and not to prosecute them is impiety. And please to consider, Socrates, what a notable proof I will give you of the truth of my words, a proof which I have already given to others:-of the principle, I mean, that the impious, whoever he may be, ought not to go unpunished. For do not men regard Zeus as the best and most righteous of the gods?-and yet they admit that he bound his father (Cronos) because he wickedly devoured his sons, and that he too had punished his own father (Uranus) for a similar reason, in a nameless manner. And yet when I proceed against my father, they are angry with me. So inconsistent are they in their way of talking when the gods are concerned, and when I am concerned.

Soc. May not this be the reason, Euthyphro, why I am charged with impiety-that I cannot away with these stories about the gods? and therefore I suppose that people think me wrong. But, as you who are well informed about them approve of them, I cannot do better than assent to your superior wisdom. What else can I say, confessing as I do, that I know nothing about them? Tell me, for the love of Zeus, whether you really believe that they are true.

Euth. Yes, Socrates; and things more wonderful still, of which the world is in ignorance.

Soc. And do you really believe that the gods, fought with one another, and had dire quarrels, battles, and the like, as the poets say, and as you may see represented in the works of great artists? The temples are full of them; and notably the robe of Athene, which is carried up to the Acropolis at the great Panathenaea, is embroidered with them. Are all these tales of the gods true, Euthyphro?

Euth. Yes, Socrates; and, as I was saying, I can tell you, if you would like to hear them, many other things about the gods which would quite amaze you.

Soc. I dare say; and you shall tell me them at some other time when I have leisure. But just at present I would rather hear from you a more precise answer, which you have not as yet given, my friend, to the question, What is “piety”? When asked, you only replied, Doing as you do, charging your father with murder.

Euth. And what I said was true, Socrates.

Soc. No doubt, Euthyphro; but you would admit that there are many other pious acts?

Euth. There are.

Soc. Remember that I did not ask you to give me two or three examples of piety, but to explain the general idea which makes all pious things to be pious. Do you not recollect that there was one idea which made the impious impious, and the pious pious?

Euth. I remember.

Soc. Tell me what is the nature of this idea, and then I shall have a standard to which I may look, and by which I may measure actions, whether yours or those of any one else, and then I shall be able to say that such and such an action is pious, such another impious.

Euth. I will tell you, if you like.

Soc. I should very much like.

Euth. Piety, then, is that which is dear to the gods, and impiety is that which is not dear to them.

Soc. Very good, Euthyphro; you have now given me the sort of answer which I wanted. But whether what you say is true or not I cannot as yet tell, although I make no doubt that you will prove the truth of your words.

Euth. Of course.

Soc. Come, then, and let us examine what we are saying. That thing or person which is dear to the gods is pious, and that thing or person which is hateful to the gods is impious, these two being the extreme opposites of one another. Was not that said?

Euth. It was.

Soc. And well said?

Euth. Yes, Socrates, I thought so; it was certainly said.

Soc. And further, Euthyphro, the gods were admitted to have enmities and hatreds and differences?

Euth. Yes, that was also said.

Soc. And what sort of difference creates enmity and anger? Suppose for example that you and I, my good friend, differ about a number; do differences of this sort make us enemies and set us at variance with one another? Do we not go at once to arithmetic, and put an end to them by a sum?

Euth. True.

Soc. Or suppose that we differ about magnitudes, do we not quickly end the differences by measuring?

Euth. Very true.

Soc. And we end a controversy about heavy and light by resorting to a weighing machine?

Euth. To be sure.

Soc. But what differences are there which cannot be thus decided, and which therefore make us angry and set us at enmity with one another? I dare say the answer does not occur to you at the moment, and therefore I will suggest that these enmities arise when the matters of difference are the just and unjust, good and evil, honourable and dishonourable. Are not these the points about which men differ, and about which when we are unable satisfactorily to decide our differences, you and I and all of us quarrel, when we do quarrel?

Euth. Yes, Socrates, the nature of the differences about which we quarrel is such as you describe.

Soc. And the quarrels of the gods, noble Euthyphro, when they occur, are of a like nature?

Euth. Certainly they are.

Soc. They have differences of opinion, as you say, about good and evil, just and unjust, honourable and dishonourable: there would have been no quarrels among them, if there had been no such differences-would there now?

Euth. You are quite right.

Soc. Does not every man love that which he deems noble and just and good, and hate the opposite of them?

Euth. Very true.

Soc. But, as you say, people regard the same things, some as just and others as unjust,-about these they dispute; and so there arise wars and fightings among them.

Euth. Very true.

Soc. Then the same things are hated by the gods and loved by the gods, and are both hateful and dear to them?

Euth. True.

Soc. And upon this view the same things, Euthyphro, will be pious and also impious?

Euth. So I should suppose.

Soc. Then, my friend, I remark with surprise that you have not answered the question which I asked. For I certainly did not ask you to tell me what action is both pious and impious: but now it would seem that what is loved by the gods is also hated by them. And therefore, Euthyphro, in thus chastising your father you may very likely be doing what is agreeable to Zeus but disagreeable to Cronos or Uranus, and what is acceptable to Hephaestus but unacceptable to Here, and there may be other gods who have similar differences of opinion.

Euth. But I believe, Socrates, that all the gods would be agreed as to the propriety of punishing a murderer: there would be no difference of opinion about that.

Soc. Well, but speaking of men, Euthyphro, did you ever hear any one arguing that a murderer or any sort of evil-doer ought to be let off?

Euth. I should rather say that these are the questions which they are always arguing, especially in courts of law: they commit all sorts of crimes, and there is nothing which they will not do or say in their own defence.

Soc. But do they admit their guilt, Euthyphro, and yet say that they ought not to be punished?

Euth. No; they do not.

Soc. Then there are some things which they do not venture to say and do: for they do not venture to argue that the guilty are to be unpunished, but they deny their guilt, do they not?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Then they do not argue that the evil-doer should not be punished, but they argue about the fact of who the evil-doer is, and what he did and when?

Euth. True.

Soc. And the gods are in the same case, if as you assert they quarrel about just and unjust, and some of them say while others deny that injustice is done among them. For surely neither God nor man will ever venture to say that the doer of injustice is not to be punished?

Euth. That is true, Socrates, in the main.

Soc. But they join issue about the particulars-gods and men alike; and, if they dispute at all, they dispute about some act which is called in question, and which by some is affirmed to be just, by others to be unjust. Is not that true?

Euth. Quite true.

Soc. Well then, my dear friend Euthyphro, do tell me, for my better instruction and information, what proof have you that in the opinion of all the gods a servant who is guilty of murder, and is put in chains by the master of the dead man, and dies because he is put in chains before he who bound him can learn from the interpreters of the gods what he ought to do with him, dies unjustly; and that on behalf of such an one a son ought to proceed against his father and accuse him of murder. How would you show that all the gods absolutely agree in approving of his act? Prove to me that they do, and I will applaud your wisdom as long as I live.

Euth. It will be a difficult task; but I could make the matter very dear indeed to you.

Soc. I understand; you mean to say that I am not so quick of apprehension as the judges: for to them you will be sure to prove that the act is unjust, and hateful to the gods.

Euth. Yes indeed, Socrates; at least if they will listen to me.

Soc. But they will be sure to listen if they find that you are a good speaker. There was a notion that came into my mind while you were speaking; I said to myself: “Well, and what if Euthyphro does prove to me that all the gods regarded the death of the serf as unjust, how do I know anything more of the nature of piety and impiety? for granting that this action may be hateful to the gods, still piety and impiety are not adequately defined by these distinctions, for that which is hateful to the gods has been shown to be also pleasing and dear to them.” And therefore, Euthyphro, I do not ask you to prove this; I will suppose, if you like, that all the gods condemn and abominate such an action. But I will amend the definition so far as to say that what all the gods hate is impious, and what they love pious or holy; and what some of them love and others hate is both or neither. Shall this be our definition of piety and impiety?

Euth. Why not, Socrates?

Soc. Why not! certainly, as far as I am concerned, Euthyphro, there is no reason why not. But whether this admission will greatly assist you in the task of instructing me as you promised, is a matter for you to consider.

Euth. Yes, I should say that what all the gods love is pious and holy, and the opposite which they all hate, impious.

Soc. Ought we to enquire into the truth of this, Euthyphro, or simply to accept the mere statement on our own authority and that of others? What do you say?

Euth. We should enquire; and I believe that the statement will stand the test of enquiry.

Soc. We shall know better, my good friend, in a little while. The point which I should first wish to understand is whether the pious or holy is beloved by the gods because it is holy, or holy because it is beloved of the gods.

Euth. I do not understand your meaning, Socrates.

Soc. I will endeavour to explain: we, speak of carrying and we speak of being carried, of leading and being led, seeing and being seen. You know that in all such cases there is a difference, and you know also in what the difference lies?

Euth. I think that I understand.

Soc. And is not that which is beloved distinct from that which loves?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. Well; and now tell me, is that which is carried in this state of carrying because it is carried, or for some other reason?

Euth. No; that is the reason.

Soc. And the same is true of what is led and of what is seen?

Euth. True.

Soc. And a thing is not seen because it is visible, but conversely, visible because it is seen; nor is a thing led because it is in the state of being led, or carried because it is in the state of being carried, but the converse of this. And now I think, Euthyphro, that my meaning will be intelligible; and my meaning is, that any state of action or passion implies previous action or passion. It does not become because it is becoming, but it is in a state of becoming because it becomes; neither does it suffer because it is in a state of suffering, but it is in a state of suffering because it suffers. Do you not agree?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Is not that which is loved in some state either of becoming or suffering?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And the same holds as in the previous instances; the state of being loved follows the act of being loved, and not the act the state.

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. And what do you say of piety, Euthyphro: is not piety, according to your definition, loved by all the gods?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Because it is pious or holy, or for some other reason?

Euth. No, that is the reason.

Soc. It is loved because it is holy, not holy because it is loved?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And that which is dear to the gods is loved by them, and is in a state to be loved of them because it is loved of them?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. Then that which is dear to the gods, Euthyphro, is not holy, nor is that which is holy loved of God, as you affirm; but they are two different things.

Euth. How do you mean, Socrates?

Soc. I mean to say that the holy has been acknowledge by us to be loved of God because it is holy, not to be holy because it is loved.

Euth. Yes.

Soc. But that which is dear to the gods is dear to them because it is loved by them, not loved by them because it is dear to them.

Euth. True.

Soc. But, friend Euthyphro, if that which is holy is the same with that which is dear to God, and is loved because it is holy, then that which is dear to God would have been loved as being dear to God; but if that which dear to God is dear to him because loved by him, then that which is holy would have been holy because loved by him. But now you see that the reverse is the case, and that they are quite different from one another. For one (theophiles) is of a kind to be loved cause it is loved, and the other (osion) is loved because it is of a kind to be loved. Thus you appear to me, Euthyphro, when I ask you what is the essence of holiness, to offer an attribute only, and not the essence-the attribute of being loved by all the gods. But you still refuse to explain to me the nature of holiness. And therefore, if you please, I will ask you not to hide your treasure, but to tell me once more what holiness or piety really is, whether dear to the gods or not (for that is a matter about which we will not quarrel) and what is impiety?

Euth. I really do not know, Socrates, how to express what I mean. For somehow or other our arguments, on whatever ground we rest them, seem to turn round and walk away from us.

Soc. Your words, Euthyphro, are like the handiwork of my ancestor Daedalus; and if I were the sayer or propounder of them, you might say that my arguments walk away and will not remain fixed where they are placed because I am a descendant of his. But now, since these notions are your own, you must find some other gibe, for they certainly, as you yourself allow, show an inclination to be on the move.

Euth. Nay, Socrates, I shall still say that you are the Daedalus who sets arguments in motion; not I, certainly, but you make them move or go round, for they would never have stirred, as far as I am concerned.

Soc. Then I must be a greater than Daedalus: for whereas he only made his own inventions to move, I move those of other people as well. And the beauty of it is, that I would rather not. For I would give the wisdom of Daedalus, and the wealth of Tantalus, to be able to detain them and keep them fixed. But enough of this. As I perceive that you are lazy, I will myself endeavor to show you how you might instruct me in the nature of piety; and I hope that you will not grudge your labour. Tell me, then-Is not that which is pious necessarily just?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And is, then, all which is just pious? or, is that which is pious all just, but that which is just, only in part and not all, pious?

Euth. I do not understand you, Socrates.

Soc. And yet I know that you are as much wiser than I am, as you are younger. But, as I was saying, revered friend, the abundance of your wisdom makes you lazy. Please to exert yourself, for there is no real difficulty in understanding me. What I mean I may explain by an illustration of what I do not mean. The poet (Stasinus) sings-

Of Zeus, the author and creator of all these things,
You will not tell: for where there is fear there is also
reverence. Now I disagree with this poet. Shall I tell you in what respect?

Euth. By all means.

Soc. I should not say that where there is fear there is also reverence; for I am sure that many persons fear poverty and disease, and the like evils, but I do not perceive that they reverence the objects of their fear.

Euth. Very true.

Soc. But where reverence is, there is fear; for he who has a feeling of reverence and shame about the commission of any action, fears and is afraid of an ill reputation.

Euth. No doubt.

Soc. Then we are wrong in saying that where there is fear there is also reverence; and we should say, where there is reverence there is also fear. But there is not always reverence where there is fear; for fear is a more extended notion, and reverence is a part of fear, just as the odd is a part of number, and number is a more extended notion than the odd. I suppose that you follow me now?

Euth. Quite well.

Soc. That was the sort of question which I meant to raise when I asked whether the just is always the pious, or the pious always the just; and whether there may not be justice where there is not piety; for justice is the more extended notion of which piety is only a part. Do you dissent?

Euth. No, I think that you are quite right.

Soc. Then, if piety is a part of justice, I suppose that we should enquire what part? If you had pursued the enquiry in the previous cases; for instance, if you had asked me what is an even number, and what part of number the even is, I should have had no difficulty in replying, a number which represents a figure having two equal sides. Do you not agree?

Euth. Yes, I quite agree.

Soc. In like manner, I want you to tell me what part of justice is piety or holiness, that I may be able to tell Meletus not to do me injustice, or indict me for impiety, as I am now adequately instructed by you in the nature of piety or holiness, and their opposites.

Euth. Piety or holiness, Socrates, appears to me to be that part of justice which attends to the gods, as there is the other part of justice which attends to men.

Soc. That is good, Euthyphro; yet still there is a little point about which I should like to have further information, What is the meaning of “attention”? For attention can hardly be used in the same sense when applied to the gods as when applied to other things. For instance, horses are said to require attention, and not every person is able to attend to them, but only a person skilled in horsemanship. Is it not so?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. I should suppose that the art of horsemanship is the art of attending to horses?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. Nor is every one qualified to attend to dogs, but only the huntsman?

Euth. True.

Soc. And I should also conceive that the art of the huntsman is the art of attending to dogs?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. As the art of the ox herd is the art of attending to oxen?

Euth. Very true.

Soc. In like manner holiness or piety is the art of attending to the gods?-that would be your meaning, Euthyphro?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And is not attention always designed for the good or benefit of that to which the attention is given? As in the case of horses, you may observe that when attended to by the horseman’s art they are benefited and improved, are they not?

Euth. True.

Soc. As the dogs are benefited by the huntsman’s art, and the oxen by the art of the ox herd, and all other things are tended or attended for their good and not for their hurt?

Euth. Certainly, not for their hurt.

Soc. But for their good?

Euth. Of course.

Soc. And does piety or holiness, which has been defined to be the art of attending to the gods, benefit or improve them? Would you say that when you do a holy act you make any of the gods better?

Euth. No, no; that was certainly not what I meant.

Soc. And I, Euthyphro, never supposed that you did. I asked you the question about the nature of the attention, because I thought that you did not.

Euth. You do me justice, Socrates; that is not the sort of attention which I mean.

Soc. Good: but I must still ask what is this attention to the gods which is called piety?

Euth. It is such, Socrates, as servants show to their masters.

Soc. I understand-a sort of ministration to the gods.

Euth. Exactly.

Soc. Medicine is also a sort of ministration or service, having in view the attainment of some object-would you not say of health?

Euth. I should.

Soc. Again, there is an art which ministers to the ship-builder with a view to the attainment of some result?

Euth. Yes, Socrates, with a view to the building of a ship.

Soc. As there is an art which ministers to the housebuilder with a view to the building of a house?

Euth. Yes.

Soc. And now tell me, my good friend, about the art which ministers to the gods: what work does that help to accomplish? For you must surely know if, as you say, you are of all men living the one who is best instructed in religion.

Euth. And I speak the truth, Socrates.

Soc. Tell me then, oh tell me-what is that fair work which the gods do by the help of our ministrations?

Euth. Many and fair, Socrates, are the works which they do. Soc. Why, my friend, and so are those of a general. But the chief of them is easily told. Would you not say that victory in war is the chief of them?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. Many and fair, too, are the works of the husbandman, if I am not mistaken; but his chief work is the production of food from the earth?

Euth. Exactly.

Soc. And of the many and fair things done by the gods, which is the chief or principal one?

Euth. I have told you already, Socrates, that to learn all these things accurately will be very tiresome. Let me simply say that piety or holiness is learning, how to please the gods in word and deed, by prayers and sacrifices. Such piety, is the salvation of families and states, just as the impious, which is unpleasing to the gods, is their ruin and destruction.

Soc. I think that you could have answered in much fewer words the chief question which I asked, Euthyphro, if you had chosen. But I see plainly that you are not disposed to instruct me-dearly not: else why, when we reached the point, did you turn, aside? Had you only answered me I should have truly learned of you by this time the-nature of piety. Now, as the asker of a question is necessarily dependent on the answerer, whither he leads-I must follow; and can only ask again, what is the pious, and what is piety? Do you mean that they are a, sort of science of praying and sacrificing?

Euth. Yes, I do.

Soc. And sacrificing is giving to the gods, and prayer is asking of the gods?

Euth. Yes, Socrates.

Soc. Upon this view, then piety is a science of asking and giving?

Euth. You understand me capitally, Socrates.

Soc. Yes, my friend; the. reason is that I am a votary of your science, and give my mind to it, and therefore nothing which you say will be thrown away upon me. Please then to tell me, what is the nature of this service to the gods? Do you mean that we prefer requests and give gifts to them?

Euth. Yes, I do.

Soc. Is not the right way of asking to ask of them what we want?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. And the right way of giving is to give to them in return what they want of us. There would be no, in an art which gives to any one that which he does not want.

Euth. Very true, Socrates.

Soc. Then piety, Euthyphro, is an art which gods and men have of doing business with one another?

Euth. That is an expression which you may use, if you like.

Soc. But I have no particular liking for anything but the truth. I wish, however, that you would tell me what benefit accrues to the gods from our gifts. There is no doubt about what they give to us; for there is no good thing which they do not give; but how we can give any good thing to them in return is far from being equally clear. If they give everything and we give nothing, that must be an affair of business in which we have very greatly the advantage of them.

Euth. And do you imagine, Socrates, that any benefit accrues to the gods from our gifts?

Soc. But if not, Euthyphro, what is the meaning of gifts which are conferred by us upon the gods?

Euth. What else, but tributes of honour; and, as I was just now saying, what pleases them?

Soc. Piety, then, is pleasing to the gods, but not beneficial or dear to them?

Euth. I should say that nothing could be dearer.

Soc. Then once more the assertion is repeated that piety is dear to the gods?

Euth. Certainly.

Soc. And when you say this, can you wonder at your words not standing firm, but walking away? Will you accuse me of being the Daedalus who makes them walk away, not perceiving that there is another and far greater artist than Daedalus who makes them go round in a circle, and he is yourself; for the argument, as you will perceive, comes round to the same point. Were we not saying that the holy or pious was not the same with that which is loved of the gods? Have you forgotten?

Euth. I quite remember.

Soc. And are you not saying that what is loved of the gods is holy; and is not this the same as what is dear to them-do you see?

Euth. True.

Soc. Then either we were wrong in former assertion; or, if we were right then, we are wrong now.

Euth. One of the two must be true.

Soc. Then we must begin again and ask, What is piety? That is an enquiry which I shall never be weary of pursuing as far as in me lies; and I entreat you not to scorn me, but to apply your mind to the utmost, and tell me the truth. For, if any man knows, you are he; and therefore I must detain you, like Proteus, until you tell. If you had not certainly known the nature of piety and impiety, I am confident that you would never, on behalf of a serf, have charged your aged father with murder. You would not have run such a risk of doing wrong in the sight of the gods, and you would have had too much respect for the opinions of men. I am sure, therefore, that you know the nature of piety and impiety. Speak out then, my dear Euthyphro, and do not hide your knowledge.

Euth. Another time, Socrates; for I am in a hurry, and must go now.

Soc. Alas! my companion, and will you leave me in despair? I was hoping that you would instruct me in the nature of piety and impiety; and then I might have cleared myself of Meletus and his indictment. I would have told him that I had been enlightened by Euthyphro, and had given up rash innovations and speculations, in which I indulged only through ignorance, and that now I am about to lead a better life.

THE END

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50 Responses

  1. God commands it because it is morally good.
    The God in the premise refers to the authority, the powerful people in the community. The love also means the gods endorse morality to the people. Morality is a code of conduct put forward by a society, or some other group such as religions.
    God endorses morality to the people because they found it right and love it. Morality is an independent idea. It does not need the authority or the gods to be the reason for an action to be moral. The authority just endorses it because they knew that it is morally good, but not it is morally good because the authority commands it.
    If it is morally good because God commands it, then if God tells us to kill our love ones, therefore it is morally good to kill our love ones, which we all knew that it is immoral. The authority just endorse an action that they believe is morally good, but not it is morally good because the command it. Even though there is no authority, morality is already there.

  2. Conclusion:

    An action is moral whether God commands it or not.

    Terms:

    Moral –> Relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior

    Command –> To Direct Authoritatively

    Action –> Relating to an act of will

    Premise:

    An action cannot be moral unless stated by God or authority.

    Any action is moral only when it complies with the will of God.

    An action is moral when it is commanded by God for it to be moral.

    Opposite:

    An action is moral even if the act itself does not complies to will of God as long as it is free of causing suffering or pain to others.

    An act is moral even it is commanded by God or not.

    Any act, whether moral or not, may apply as moral or not even if any authority consider it as moral or not.

  3. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    If I were to answer that question, I would say that God commanded it because it is morally good. For me, the term “moral” means that it is the right thing to do, in accordance to justice and the term “good” means it gives benefits to someone. Most of the time, people will consider that the commands of God is morally good because He is the supreme authority. It means that if God gave a command, it should be practiced because it is the command of the authority to maintain order. But what if God said to a man that he should kill his neighbor? Would it mean that it is alright for us to kill our neighbors? NO! I came up with that answer because even if God didn’t tell me anything about what is morally good or not, I have my own beliefs if something is right or wrong. It is “right” if you don’t treat another being as an instrumental worth for your own benefits. It is “wrong” if you use another being like he is your own property. The same thing goes for all of us. We are humans and we can think. Even if nobody told us what is right, of course we have still an idea about it. It is still up to us to think what should we consider right and wrong because it is our lives, we control it. For that, we become independent and we could tell if something is morally good even if God didn’t command it.

    If I were to argue for the opposite premise that I chose, I could say that many people said that God commanded things that are morally good so that we could live in this world in peace and harmony. Knowing God by the terms given to Him by man, He is perfect and just. Meaning, He wouldn’t give incorrect commands which will harm us. But based on what they said, He didn’t command everything which we consider today as morally good. In fact, we are not sure if it was really God who commanded things to them because they don’t have solid proof of God’s communication to humans. If it was really God, then it will never be wrong because He is perfect. The human authority is a different case for us. I could say that sometimes we should consider actions as morally good because the authority says so and it is their job to make us live fair and equal to everyone. But sometimes our authority, like our government, is implementing commands so that it will be good for them and bad for us. It benefits them, at the same time, it harms us. Because of that, we can’t depend on authority all the time. We have to be independent and have a correct reasoning about the actions we do. It is correct if it is right.

    -Julius Macalintal
    1cs-2

  4. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?” Choosing between the two, I will choose “God commands it because it is morally good.”

    God is the one Supreme Being, the creator and ruler of the universe; he is not just a powerful being but also a role model to all of us; also known as the Perfect One. What is morality? Morality is the character being in accord with the principles or standards of right conduct, examples of this is doing good things to others.

    God divided the light from the darkness as he divided what is right and wrong. God wanted to improve the group of people living together with a common purpose and interest in one another, also known as the human community; because of his agenda he endorses to us the right things, which will help us to be better persons of our society. As a Roman Catholic I believe in these things, that God has a reason for everything and he will always be with us, inside us. God is good, he will guide as through the right path of life.

    “Morally good because God commands it” For some reason, most of the people will follow God because they all know that God is right but what if he commands us to kill someone we love? Will we do it? Of course not, because even though God commands it, we know that it is immoral. Maybe if he will command us to do this thing, it is just a test of faith. Therefore not all authorities have morality. Authority is not the basis at all times.

  5. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”, If i were asked to answer this kind of question, i would choose “God commands it because it is morally good.”

  6. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    Morality is a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong.
    It is the border between right or wrong.
    Morality needs not to be authorized or be ordered to make it moral, for it is in ourselves that makes it moral.

    For me “God commands it because it is morally good.” for God is an intelligent designer that designs good things in the world, so if he is an intelligent designer, He would order things
    the way it should be.
    The act will still be moral even though it is not ordered by God.
    What if God ordered you to kill? will you do it?. my answer is no, for I know in myself that it is immoral.
    And also God will not order something that will make break the peace and order of something.

    Opposite
    an act will still be moral even though it is not commanded by God, for God will not do anything immoral to make something bad.
    Something moral is not in the authority but it is the man itself.

  7. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    God commands an action because it is morally good.

    Here are the definitions of terms I used. God is a being conceived as the perfect omnipotent and omniscient originator and ruler of the universe. Action is defined as behavior, conduct or the act of doing. Command is defined as “to give orders, to exercise authority or control”. Moral means conforming to standards of what is right or just in behavior.

    Morality does not depend on the commands of God because morality has its own criteria, a certain condition. Morality does not depend on the command of God since some actions are considered moral without being commanded by God because of the definitions of “action” and “moral”. If morality depends on God’s will, then there is a possibility that its meaning can change. Morality can exist without God because actions can be moral even if God does not command them.

    Just like in the bible where God commanded Abraham to kill, his only son as a sacrifice, this is clearly not moral because it is not right or just, because Abraham is using his son as a means to his own end which is proving his loyalty to God. In this situation, God commanded something immoral, which means that not all commands of God are moral, making morality independent of God’s commands.

    -Tan, Adrian William B.
    1cs-2

  8. Note: “Sir, sorry, wrong post(incomplete), na-enter ka-agad.”

    “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”, If i were asked to answer this kind of question, i would choose “God commands it because it is morally good.”

    The term “God” refers to the greatest conceivable existent. Command refers to a certain kind of action ordered by someone. Good is defined as the quality of whatever we ought to try to produce. Good may be the same to “desire”, for instance, when we do something that is good, we mean it is desired.

    Action can be something morally good if ever commanded by God. God gives command to everyone for they are to do things that are right and morally good. God wants us to be some kind of a rightful person under his will. Morality can be something free, we often do things that has nothing to do with authority.

    If i were asked to argue for the opposite premise, i would say that some of us christians believe and trust in God in order to do things that are morally good. But what if we were asked by Him to do such as killing and murder? should we try? No! because killing is the same way as sinning and it is considered immoral. Probably, if we are really told to do such things like this, we are just like being deceived but God doesn’t do that actually. Authority may sometimes make mistakes because there are times that it commands to do things that are immoral to us and to others.

    -magsz

    “Sir, sorry ulit…”

  9. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    My answer to the question is that, certain actions are morally good, because God commands it.

    The terms I used to answer this question are the following: First is God, which is the supreme or ultimate being. He is the being perfect in power, wisdom, and goodness who is worshiped as creator and ruler of the universe. Second is Action, being an act of will. Third is Moral, which is expressing or teaching a conception of right behavior. And lastly Good, which is a favorable character or tendency.

    Actions can be considered morally good if and only if God tells us so. I know for a certain that we are created in the image and likeness of God. That is why I chose the latter statement, for it explains that God wants us to do what he knows what’s good. But it is still our choice if we want to obey his command.

    On the other hand, if ever i choose the former, then without God, there will be no morality. Hence, no one could determine if something is good or evil. Everything would seem to be so self-reliant, and it will be our choice if that certain action will be considered good or evil.

  10. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God commands it because it is morally good?”

    God commands an action because it is morally good.

    God is good and morally perfect, the creator and ruler of the universe. Command is like, giving an order, direct with authority. Action is the act of doing something; being in motion. Morality refers to the principles of right and wrong in conduct.

    Morality does not depend on God. If morality depends on God then if God says that we should be dishonest then this is what we should do. But morality is not bound by this rule. God is good and morally perfect and so he would not command such a thing. There is no reason why God cannot do such commands, since there are no additional moral constraints on what he should command. Morality can exist without the God because actions can be moral even if the God does not command to do such.

    The only reason why God will does not require us to be dishonest is that there are independent reasons why those things are wrong, and God knows this. If God commanded me to be to kill my parents to see my loyalty to Him and so He’ll give to me what I want, why should I do that? And why should God do that? That is not moral because it is not right, and so, it is immoral. If God commanded that to me then it means that not all commands of God are moral.

  11. –*Oh my God. Here I go…*–

    “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    –*I acknowledge the challenge that follows upon choosing a conclusion and supporting it with a rational premise. The challenge may be hard but it is possible to pass it.*–

    I chose: “God commands an action because it is morally good.”

    –*For my premise to be fully and clearly understood and also be logical, I must define the terms by its subjective connotation and denotation.*–

    GOD is nearly analogous to what is all-good and omniscient. If God is omniscient then he does things that are logical for a God to do. Then if God is logical, he is consistent, and it would be inconsistent and futile if he goes against his predetermined laws. MORALITY pertains to a code of conduct. The action can only be moral if and only if it is appropriate from the universal perspective of men. GOOD is the desire of the universe and which passes the absolute standards. Standards then for the approval of whether it is good are revered to love, life and the flourishing of humanity.

    An action is moral when it is favorable to the side of men. God is only a passer-by of morality. God created the world for it to be forever existent; the things that contribute for its lasting existence is the harmony of the beings that protect it. The action is commanded for the benefit of both God and men. It is then for God, His creations, the world, to be of value; for men, they to be guided by the all-knowing, which holds the knowledge of the possibilities and denies men the chaos that might harm the existence or shorten the prolonging of the world. If this holds true then the action that was commanded is morally good. It appeases both.

    –*In the defense of genre of the opposing conclusion:*–

    “The action is morally good because God commands it.”

    This is totally dependent of what is the connotation of God. As I’ve stated, God is nearly the definition of goodness. The action is moral because it is commanded by ‘goodness’. Ergo, it is in approval of the universal perspective.

    d(^0^)b (o^-^)b
    –*I thank Adrian William B. Tan for he supported my frail intellect and his tolerance of my stupidity. HAHA.*–

  12. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    I think that what God commands and what is morally good cannot be separated for one is just a mere standard for the other.

    If actions are morally good because God commands it, therefore, it asserts that morality cannot be evaluated apart from God, and that “good” is by definition what God says is good, and “evil” is by definition whatever God says is evil. It holds that “morally good” means “commanded by God” and that “morally wrong” means “forbidden by God”.

    If the statement “actions are morally good because God commands it” is true, it follows that God’s moral choices are arbitrary. By that I mean that there is no outside definition or judgment of good or evil that can be used to evaluate God’s decision. So, if God had decided that murder, rape and torture are morally good, and then they would be considered good. I cannot deny the possibility that God could have ordained so, because then I would have to admit that my moral judgments are really independent of God’s. At this point, I understand that this statement would be practically absurd.

    It generally holds that God commands certain things because these are good. But under this argument, it’s the other way around. Before God commands that helping old ladies cross a street is good, it is not good. Before God says that raping young girls is wrong, it is not wrong. Further, it follows from this statement that God cannot justify his moral decisions. If God gives a reason for moral decisions, then there are objective reasons beyond God’s arbitrary decisions, and there are standards beyond God’s command on which His moral decisions are founded.

    -end-

  13. Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?

    In my opinion, God command it because it is morally good.

    Before I start let us first define some terms for us to fully understand some things with regards to this dilemma. First of all who is or what do you mean by God? GOD is the principal or sole deity or supernatural being, who is always of significant power, worshiped, and thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings in religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. HE has also been conceived as being incorporeal, a personal being, and the “greatest conceivable existent”. GOD is the being whose divine reasons have infinite acts, like infinite goodness has an infinite act, infinite magnitude has an infinite act of magnificence, etc. and the being whose intrinsic goodness has an infinite act, etc. is GOD.

    On the other hand, when we say morality what does it really mean? MORALITY means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong, morals are created by and define society, philosophy, religion, or individual conscience.

    By these facts gathered, I can now fully state that “God command it because it is morally good”. This is because morality is independent of God and, indeed, that God is bound by morality just as his creatures are. This is due to that morality is authoritative in matters of right and wrong based on the perception and the independent knowledge of the society. It is higher than God’s power thus it is not dependent on God’s will. In lieu with this, another proof that morality is totally and clearly independent of God is that, for an example, is the story in the Bible at Genesis 22:2-13 that contains cruelty and violence about Abraham and his son Isaac wherein God orders Abraham to kill Isaac as a burnt offering. Abraham shows his love for God by his willingness to murder his son. With that immoral act, we could therefore conclude that the base of morality is thoroughly independent with God for we all know that killing someone is definitely immoral and it is also stated on the Ten Commandments given by God which is “though shall not kill” but even so, He still ordered someone to do this injustice or immoral action and if we read the Bible once more and focus on the cruelty and violence stated there we would find that this kind of action was done not only once but repeatedly and most of them are orders from God. And if god being essentially omnibenevolent why would He order such a thing that he knows that would hurt other people? Its simple this is because God, Himself, is undoubtedly autonomous of morality.

    On the other hand, if I were to defend the other side wherein “An action is morally good because God commands it” I could say that, it implies that what is good is arbitrary, based merely upon God’s whim; if God had created the world to include the values that rape, murder, and torture were virtues, while mercy and charity were vices, then they would have been. Also, it implies that calling God good makes no non-tautological sense or, at best, that one is simply saying that God is consistent and not hypocritical. For that reason, if an action is morally good because God commands it then morality is relative. If that’s the case then right and wrong would be totally dependable to God’s will and His likes. And so, if He orders someone to slain his family it would be moral for it follows God’s will and it doesn’t violate any other basis for morality. Therefore, nothing is wrong with it for people would think that since God is perfect and omniscience, then everything that He do and instruct is right.

    -Julirose M. Supremo
    1CS-2

  14. “God command it because it is morally good”

    These are the definitions of the terms in this dilemma. Morality is an action or an act of goodness. God is the supreme being in all of us. He is our creator and the one we worship.

    In my opinion, the things commanded by God are the moral things in life, so these things are the right thing to do. Our God is a loving God. He would not command anything that will harm or make us regret what we obeyed in him.

    On the other hand, some people believe that not all of the commandments of God is moral. Like for example, the terrorists kill many people believing that the the thing the have done is right. In their point of view, the thing they do is good. But is it right? Its because of these events some people believe that not all commandments of God is moral.

    +winkŸ+

  15. “God command it because it is morally good”

    These are the definitions of the terms in this dilemma. Morality is an action or an act of goodness. God is the supreme being in all of us. He is our creator and the one we worship.

    In my opinion, the things commanded by God are the moral things in life, so these things are the right thing to do. Our God is a loving God. He would not command anything that will harm or make us regret what we obeyed in him.

    On the other hand, some people believe that not all of the commandments of God is moral. Like for example, the terrorists kill many people believing that the the thing the have done is right. In their point of view, the thing they do is good. But is it right? Its because of these events some people believe that not all commandments of God is moral.

    +winkŸ+

  16. “Is an action morally good because God commands it or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    In my opinion, God commands an action because it is morally good.

    Morality means an authoritative code of conduct in matters of right and wrong. God is often conceived of as the creator and overseer of the universe

    Firstly, God is the source of all knowledge or all-knowing. Secondly, all things whether right or wrong, good or evil, moral or immoral comes from God. Lastly, God is perfect. Therefore, God would know what the nature of an action is especially if it is wrong, evil or immoral. And that is why whatever God does is ALWAYS morally good.

    On the other hand, there are so-called examples of God giving commands which are deemed immoral. Considering the story of Abraham in the Bible at Genesis 22:2-13, the other side may argue that God commited or considered doing an immoral act even if it was to test Abraham’s faith.

    But if we look at it at another angle, God firmly believed that Abraham knew that He wouldn’t do such immoral acts. So God planned all of it to happen and knew the outcome which proves that God is all-knowing
    and is always morally good.

    –>Christian Adrian C. Aguilar
    1CS-2

  17. “God command it because it is morally good”

    These are the definitions of the terms in this dilemma. Morality is an action or an act of goodness. God is the supreme being in all of us. He is our creator and the one we worship.

    In my opinion, the things commanded by God are the moral things in life, so these things are the right thing to do. Our God is a loving God. He would not command anything that will harm or make us regret what we obeyed in him.

    On the other hand, some people believe that not all of the commandments of God is moral. Like for example, the terrorists kill many people believing that the the thing the have done is right. In their point of view, the thing they do is good. But is it right? Its because of these events some people believe that not all commandments of God is moral.

    +winkŸ+

  18. My opinion between the argument: “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?” is God command it because it is morally good as a better concept

    Before discussing my opinion let us first define the terms. Morality is the ideal code of conduct held to be authoritative in such matters. God, when defined, means the supreme being, the one who created us which knows everything in this world.

    Yes, we may think that God will never command things w/c is not moral because he is a supreme being. But God as the one who commands things is only a part of the so called act of morality. An act to be moral doesn’t need affirmation of an authority like God to be confirmed as moral because if God said that rape and killing is just and moral, then we people may object of God’s standard of morality. God may have different standards for himself as well as human being but, for all means, morality is the standard for all. Morality is never dependent to both God and human beings.

    If I’m in the opposite side, as a person who is solely dependent to god, I would say that God can never be wrong. God knows all and he knows what is best for us. Even if he says that an act like killing raping and torturing others is moral, then he may have better plans for us. If people will use God’s basis for morality, Then even act of evil can never be wrong if God will say it is good.

    Ryan Christopher S. Reyes [1cs-2]

  19. “God commands an action because it is morally good.”

    Basically, we use the term “God” for someone we acknowledge as the Divine Creator of all things and the source of all living knowledge in the world. We regard of him as the “Supreme Being” who teaches us no wrong. “Morality” may be defined as human conduct in so far as it is freely subordinated to the ideal of what is right and wrong.When it is said that He “commands something”, it means that He wants us to do something or live our lives in particular to what He wants to achieve eternal salvation and the like.

    Our God is definitely right at all times. We perceive Him as a perfect being, who infused us with faith in Him so that we may live as to how He wants us to be. But we must always remember that we differ from any living creature, for God gave us freewill. We humans are free to think what our senses would perceive, and we have the power to think greater than the human senses and reasons could explain. Thus, morality, as it follows, depends not basically on God or belief in God, but in the beliefs and thoughts of humans themselves. The faith infused by God to us only serves as a guide whether we must think of something as right or wrong, good or evil, or moral or immoral. To the human perceptions, therefore, God only commands something because it is moral and good.

    On the other hand, when we say, “ An action is morally good because God commands it”, whatever God says, even if for us it is immoral, then it would “turn out” to be moral. This side would show that morality is dependent on what God commands. It would be supported by the facts that He is the Supreme Being, the Great One, so whatever He says is definitely true, moral, and good. This would be true I think depending on what we, humans, would see or perceive on what God thinks. Because He has the highest intelligence and authority, He may decide what is moral or good. Therefore, all of His commands would be then correct and morally good. But if we, humans would misinterpret what He likes or what He thinks,(because man will never have the power to surpass His thoughts) then it would look like God taught or commanded something immoral, which would then be a wrong notation.
    -Faye Beatriz C. Tumaliuan
    ICS-2

  20. Hope this makes sense.

    “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    If I were Euthyphro, I would have said that god commands it because it is morally good. I would define moral as conforming to a standard of right behavior, or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior. Morality is defined as a doctrine or system of moral conduct.

    I believe that morality exists independently from authority, because whether god commands something or not, a person can still distinguish if an action performed is right or wrong. This ability to distinguish right from wrong is natural to humans since it is inherent in human reason (i.e. everyone KNOWS what is right and wrong; there is a reason why it is so, not just because authority imposes it to be) therefore making it universal. Universal because it is possessed by everyone and it appears the same to everyone regardless of where they are situated in the world. To illustrate: one may argue that killing one person in order to save the lives of two others is for the greater good, however, it is still considered wrong because it violates the person’s rights. He is used merely as a means to an end which may not have been chosen by him. Right always precedes good.

    **According to Kant, all humans have access to an innate “moral law” just as they have access to reason. He postulates that the moral law is a “categorical imperative”: categorical because it not only tells what people should do in certain situations, it tells what people OUGHT TO DO in ALL situations; imperative because it is commanding and therefore absolutely authoritative. Kant states the moral law as such: “Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”

    On the other hand, if something only becomes moral when god commands it, then morality would become arbitrary. It would be subject to the whims, fantasies, likes, dislikes etc. of god. People would become puppets while god becomes their puppeteer. If god commands something wrong, people would have no choice but to follow, even if it is against their will since god is absolute. Perhaps if god could be proven as a perfect entity (omniscient, omnipotent, omni-benevolent), then the possibility of god commanding something wrong would be nil.

    But until then, I rest my case. Whew.

    ————————————–
    **Read Sophie’s World. pp. 277

  21. If I were to choose from the argument “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God commands it because it is morally good?” I would choose God commands it because it is morally good.

    Let’s define the terms first. GOD is the ultimate creator that created goodness. God is also said to be a perfectly good benevolent God. This means that God fulfils every possibility of the goodness it has created. MORALITY is the intuitive but nonetheless arbitrary restraint placed by members of society on one another. It is often not law or decree, but forged from organic societal rules.

    The statement “God commands it because it is morally good” seems to imply that the divine command is irrelevant to ethics and that ethical standards are established independent of religious considerations. It also sets limits on divine omnipotence by suggesting that God is compelled to act in a certain way because that is what is ethical. As a human being, we are free; it means we have our choices. We have to choose what we think is moral and right for us.

    On the other side, “An action is morally good because God commands it”. It seems to imply that God’s command sets an arbitrary standard which we have no moral reason for following. We may indeed only follow it out of fear of the consequences of failing to do so.

  22. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God commands it because it is morally good?”

    For me, an action is morally good because God commands it.

    Who is God? God is the supreme one, self existent and eternal ruler, the infinite creator,sustainer and ruler of the Universe. The word moral means pertaining to character and behavior from the point of view of right and wrong, an obligation of duty. While command means to order,require or enjoin with authority.

    God alone determines what is right from what is wrong. Something might be good for you, but if its not good for God then it is wrong. And we only determine that the action is good because that’s what we learn from the Bible. And we implement that learning in real life.

    On the other hand, “God commands it because it is morally good”. God loves us we know that. For that reason, we know that God would not command things that would harm us. Only God knows what’s right and what’s wrong. If there’s no God who would determine what’s right and what’s wrong? There would be no morality at all. Then its our choice to think what’s right and what’s wrong.

    ♥..pish..♥

  23. Conclusion:
    “God command it because it is morally good”
    Define the Terms:
    God-any supernatural being worshiped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force
    Morality/Moral- The ability to distinguish good and evil or right and wrong, right or good conduct; Motivation based on ideas of right and wrong
    Premises:
    I think that God commands it because it is morally good is because the goodness or the rightness(morality) of a thing is the one that causes God to command it. God as our “ideal model” and good and forgiving God would not command us to do the wrong things but the right things. Lastly, I think that when a moral action is needed to be done somehow, God commands you to do it because it is the right thing to do.

    Argue for the opposite:
    “An action is morally good because God commands it”

    This proposition can also be true because having God defined as our leader,overseer and our creator he can never be wrong. We may do things that God commands that may seem immoral to us but maybe it is for the greater good. A great example is the Story of Abraham sacrificing his son Isaac. At first it may seem to be immoral(killing his son) but in the end it was just a test, A test to test Abraham’s faith of God. Another great point is having a God,the supreme being/leader means having to follow whatever he says or command.

    -Angelo Degollado, 1CS2

  24. If I was Euthyphro, I would have responded that God commands it because it is morally good.

    “Morally good” means right. We can say that a right thing to do is treating someone as a person, not as a thing. As a person, which means free and not using someone as a means to an end.

    I think “God commands something because it is morally good” because God is a God that gives us freedom. God won’t command us a thing for us to think that is morally good. God wants us to decide for ourselves if an action is morally good or not. God commands something because it is morally good for us.

    For example, if God commanded you to kill a person does that make it morally good because God commands it? No, it doesn’t make it morally good. Based on the definition of “morally good”, killing a person contradicts it.

  25. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    Between the two stated above I picked: An action is morally good because God commands it.

    God, action, moral (morality; morally), command and good are the terms I used to respond to the inquiry of Socrates. I would define the said terms the way I understand them. “God” is the creator and ruler of the universe, he is someone who knows what is right from what is wrong. “Action” is something that is done or performed. “Moral” to me is of, pertaining to, or concerned with the principles or rules of right conduct while “morally” is something in a moral manner; “morality” is defined as conformity to the rules of right conduct. “Command” means to give order. Lastly the term “good” is a satisfactory in quality, quantity, or degree.

    If we are to live the life that God wants us to, we have to sacrifice the worldly things and desires that human beings usually long for. In his commandments to us we could already see how pure his heart and his intentions for the entire humanity, though for the people it is very hard to obey and stick to these commandments which are all morally good. And this is also the reason why God said that the door to his kingdom is very narrow because it is much easier for an elephant to pass in the eye of the needle than for a rich man. Isn’t it a great privilege to enjoy the worldly thing life has to offer than to be always fair to everyone? Can a person willingly share his blessings to the less fortunate? These are only one of the few things that people find it hard to deal with.

    As I said earlier everything else in this world started with God. The gauge to what is right and what are wrong are the commandments which God has given us. If people judge a person their basis is the standard set by God. God wants us to live a life free from sins so that eventually we would enjoy eternal life. That’s why such actions are morally good because God commanded it.

    Lia Nadine P. Tinio
    1-CS2

  26. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    An action is morally good because God commands it.
    For clarity let us define first some important terms.
    1. Moral – concerned with the principles of right and wrong
    2. Morality – a doctrine or system of moral principles or conduct
    3. Action – the thing done or the deed
    4. Command – to order, require or enjoin with authority

    In the argument of good and evil, if something is not willed by God, even though it is good it is still considered wrong or evil. Hence we could say that an action is morally good because God commands it.
    Many of us will say that an action may still be moral even without God. Can we really say that God is not involve in all the actions of mankind? Isn’t it God is the center of all of our actions? Isn’t it we have the what we call voice of God deep within ourselves which we considered conscience? We are doing actions which are good because our conscience dictates it……..it’s the proper thing to do……it’s what we are ought to do……..it’s for the good of everybody. These things alone are manifestations that
    we are doing an action because somebody is telling us to do it. And whether we are aware of it or not its
    the voice of God that were listening to every time we take an action.

    God is the source of all good. It is therefore logical to think that since He is the source of all goodness, what He commands is morally good.

    God commands an action because it is morally good.
    God is good. He will never order an action which will be detrimental to man. Therefore whatever action He commands, He commands it because it is morally good.

    Hardeep Singh
    1CS-2

  27. I was a bit confused when reading the dialogue, but i get it now, somehow……………………

    My answer is: “God commands an action because it is morally good.”

    * Morality – The ability to distinguish good and evil or right and wrong, right or good conduct.

    We all know that God is the Creator, the supreme being of all things. So, in that case, He is “omniscient”, meaning “all-knowing”. He knows all things, everything in this world and everything that happens, He knows all.

    We humans beings are given the capacity to think. We have the capacity to judge actions, distinguish good from evil, and right from wrong. If an action is right in our eyes, then it is moral. If it is wrong, then it is immoral. Knowing that, and knowing that we came from God, that He created us, brings us to the conclusion that God also has the same capacity to judge actions and determine right from wrong. We may not be perfect beings like God, but we are made into the image and likeness of God, thus God also has all the traits and attributes that we possess.

    For example, doing a good deed, i.e. giving respect for everything around us is right, therefore it is moral. But an action such as, for example, disrespect for people around us, is a wrong action, therefore it is immoral. God also sees our actions, and He can also tell if it is moral or immoral, right or wrong.

    On the other side, though, ‘If an action is moral because God commanded it’ , it means that every action God commands us is moral, even if it is right or wrong. We do not have the power to go against the will of God, because he is powerful above all. Even if an action is immoral for us, it is moral when God says it is moral. Morality depends on what God commands us to do. Therefore, what is something immoral, i.e. premarital sex, becomes moral because God commands it be moral. We begin to think that, “wait, this isn’t right” or “this doesn’t seem right”…

  28. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    “God commands it because it is morally good.”
    Since the word “God” that was used was not specified, it may pertain to an authority or someone who has the lead over many people, mainly a leader. The term “command” may refer to as an instruction of any sorts to another person or anything that tells what the other people will do. The word “moral” may mean manners, proper behavior.
    An action is moral because it is what the other person thinks of it, that it is the right thing to do. God (our Creator) gave us the ability to think by ourselves. A moral action does not have to come from others; it is like an invisible rule that each of us have a character. If an authority commands us to do something wrong, like killing someone or stealing from someone, then for some reasons a person will think that the action is immoral because each of us knows whether an action is proper or not. Morality can exist without having an authority to command us, because morality relies on our own judgment.
    Certain actions may depend on the authority to be moral, for example if an authority ordered us to do something which is immoral, it must be for a certain reason that is for our betterment. In the first place, we appoint an authority because we, for some reasons, think that they are the role model for our society. We elected or appoint authority because we think that their decisions or actions are the right thing to do.

    Jayson Wu, 1cs-2

  29. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    For me, God commands it because it is morally good.

    Being moral is concerned to being right or wrong and it is also being ethical on actions. To be good is to be kind, virtuous and benevolent. An action is a deed or a process of doing something. God is the Supreme Being; he is creator and the ruler of the universe.

    The morality of our acts depends on our good intention. If we intend to do something good then God loves what we do. We know that every act that is in accordance to the will of God is good because God is the final norm of morality. He will never order us to do evil things and avoid good. Rather, He will always tell us to do good things and avoid what is evil. God created the Ten Commandments for us to have a guide on how to live our lives. If God commanded us to do bad things, then what we do is against morality itself. Even if there is no God, people will still do good things because they know that there is morality and immorality. We people have freedom. Freedom is often misunderstood and overused by so many people. God gives and respects our freedom. But He wants us to do what is only good for our own sake and for the sake of others.

    If I were to answer that an action is morally good because God commands it, I would say that we should always do what God says and we must not think of morality. If God says that we must kill, then we must kill. Everything that He says, even if it’s immoral, we must follow. Even if we have our own minds, we cannot use our freedom to have our own decision on doing things. We could always do wrong things because we must always follow God’s decision.

    -Sartre Genesis R. Padilla
    =1CS2… tsssss=

  30. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    For me, God commands it because it is morally good.

    First let me define the terms. Morality is described as a code of conduct in knowing what is right and wrong. God is the creator and supreme being of the universe and is worshiped the most.

    God is the creator of everything and thus knows all. It is through His experience that He knows what is moral or not. We cannot tell which is moral on our own so God taught us about it to guide us to a better life.

    On the other hand, people view some of God’s commands immoral in their point of view. But no matter how much they deny it, it is moral because God commands it. And we do not have the authority to decide what is moral or not.

  31. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    For me, God command because it is morally good.

    Morality means conformity to the rules of right conduct; moral or virtuous conduct.
    God is the Supreme Being, the creator and ruler of the universe.

    “God command it because it is morally good “means that God is the moral one that give us freedom, because he will not command us bad things. He let us decide what we want to do. There is moral even there is no authority, because morality is on ourselves.

    If I were to answer that an action is morally good because God commands it, then we should always follow what God command us. When he tells us that we need to kill someone or to do even if it is bad, we must follow it. Even if we have our own decision, we cannot follow that, because we should always follow God.

    -Chug, Neal Aldrich R.
    1 cs2

  32. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    For me, the answer is both

    For me being morally good is doing actions that will not put harm to anyone or anything.

    Is an action morally good because God commands it?
    I am a religious person, I believe that God is perfect. Everything he commands is morally good, he will not command anyone to purposely harm his own creations.

    God commands it because it is morally good.

    God surely commands actions that are morally good. As I have said in my last, statement God is perfect he will not purposely harm his creations. Immorality comes from us. God
    gave us free will, we decide on what we do and what we wont do. We were given the idea of morality by God and he left us to decide if we will act morally or immorally. So my answer is. An action is morally good because God commands it, and God lets us decide if we will do his commands which are all morally good.

    HeHe
    Hi Sir!!!! (^L^,)

  33. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    For now, I play as the devil’s advocate. Morality is a code of conduct based on the principles of right and wrong in conduct. Being said it is independent, it doesn’t need God to exist. However many say that God is almighty, Omniscient, and omnipotent. So if God does something couldn’t be wrong or evil. So everything comes to this equation if A=B and C=B then B = B… Ok this still doesn’t answer the question but it helps.

    Let us not based this to much on the text “EUTHYPHRO” for this essay may become a book. “Is an action morally good because God commands it?” It is impossible to say that “What if God said that murder is morally acceptable then it would be morally good”. This could never happen for God is omniscient everything he does is based on what is good for everyone. As seen in Genesis 22:2-13 or the story of Abraham God told him to sacrifice his only son for him. Murder is immoral but still God asked him to do it. God is omnipotent and almighty he is above all, even the rules we all follow. Even through he chooses what is good from what is right.

    If I were Euthyphro, I would choose “God command it because it is morally good?” indeed this is true. Almost all of us know the difference of right and wrong which practically the basics of morality. Some of these were thought to us by our mentors but for some by our basic instinct. An Action whether it is moral or not is based on its own tenets not because God says so. If moral law is based on what commands then the meaning will change. It would be dependent to God and it wouldn’t have rules and conditions to follow. Morality should be independent for everyone not only because God say so. It would be awkward if we have a law which doesn’t have a concrete or specific rule to follow, wouldn’t it?

    Hardest Quiz ever…..!!!! Seriously…
    thanks Sir for the brain exercise I really need it for college
    Sorry, if I rushed this essay I thought the deadline will be tomorrow
    —Chill—

    thanks 4 adrian for reminding me

  34. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    Morality means the ability to distinguish good and evil or right and wrong; so “morally good” means that it is right. God is the creator of all things, a Supreme Being, and the source of all knowledge in the universe. It is also said that He is a perfectly good benevolent God.

    I would say that my answer will be both. It is because God won’t command anything bad or something that will harm his creations. Even though he commanded to kill someone’s own son, it came out that it was a test of Abraham’s faith. He leaves us the choice to choose or to determine that the action is good.

    Sir tama ba?o mali?haha. bahala na!haha.
    (^_^)

  35. Question: “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God commands it because it is morally good?”

    Before answering this question, let me first define the terms.

    Morality, for me , it is the quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct.

    God he is a being conceived as the perfect, omnipotent, omniscient originator and ruler of the universe, the principal object of faith and worship in monotheistic religions.

    “God commands it because it is morally good.”

    Many people says that “what if God commands us to rape, steal or even kill people would it still be moral?” but I don’t believe them and I will never believe in them because no one have proven that they have seen or hear God so how can God commands us to do that kind of things? I have a lot faith in God and I know that God will never command something that can harm or hurt his creations (us). In that case all of the things that God commands us are morally good. We should have faith that God really exist, that’s why we should obey all the rules that God implements to us. We are the chosen ones by God to take care all of his creations. We should think of the consequences of our actions and i know that all of us know what is right and what is wrong but it will be a hard decision for us
    if the time will come that we will encounter God and He is telling us to do something and we think that the thing that God is commanding is wrong, you first think if what will happen if you follow God. Will there be something good that will result if you follow him? Of course. because as i have said all the things that God commands us are morally good, so if you think that God’s commandment to you is immoral, you are wrong, all the bad things that you are thinking about God’s commandment will turn out into good things or moral things.

    We are all created by God, all the things we see around us are all created by God, He is is the Supreme Being, The Greatest and all the things He commands are morally good.

    😛

  36. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    Conclusion:
    God commands it because it is morally good

    Define the terms:
    God is the Supreme Being, the creator,ruler and overseer of the universe.

    Morality is how to distinguish good and evil or right and wrong, right or good conduct.

    Good having desirable or positive qualities

    Premises:
    God taught good to humanity

    Morality is good

    God is good

    God taught morality to people because He is good. In other words, God will never command something evil or bad to humanity because God knows what morality really means.

    Opposition:
    “The action is moral because the God commands it.”
    If God commanded something it will be right.
    If God’s will is to kill, it will be legal.
    If God commanded that killing is legal, it will be right?

  37. _________________________________________
    _________Morality and Authority__________
    _________________________________________

    If you were Euthyphro, how would you have responded when Socrates inquired:

    “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    If I were Euthyphro, I conclude that God commands something because it is morally good by itself but not because it is morally good because God commands it.

    Or simply, “God commands it because it is morally good.”

    We define God as the divine authority who communes human beings to act accordingly to mortality.
    Morality is the condition in which intellectual being think, organize, and evaluate their values to act for something whether it is right or wrong, good or evil.
    Moreover, morally good is the affirmative quality of morality where the application of values satisfies an end.
    Authority is an intellectual being that ought to implement what is morally good or right.

    Therefore, morality is situated prior to God, and if not, to His commands. Since God is an authority, then He only commands what is something morally good or right, or if not, what is something under morality.

    From the other point of view, the truth or falsity of what is morally good depend on God’s commands. So if God says you to kill someone then it’s under morality, but not morally good itself. But since God is an authority who always commands what is morally good, then we may also answer “yes” to the question, “Is an action morally good because God commands it?”

    _________________________________________

  38. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    I would respond to Socrates is God command it because it is morally good.

    We should first define the terms that were used in this statement. Morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong, morals are created by and define society, philosophy, religion, or individual conscience. God is our Father who gave us everything and the One we worship.

    I chose that answer because God knows everything, every little or big thing in this world. Since He is the One we call our Father, we should follow him. He knows what is right and what is wrong. It’s just a test of faith. It will test if you have trust in God and you will just do what He will command, even though, sometimes you know it’s somehow wrong.


    Goodluck sa sagot ko ;p

  39. ———————————————-

    “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    God commands an action because it is morally good.

    First, what is morality? How can we say that an action is morally good and wrong? Morality is defined as principles or accepted standards of human conduct. An action is morally good if it is in accordance with the norms. An action is morally wrong or immoral if it does not act in conformity on how people should act. What is the meaning of being free? We are free people because we are free to do what is good. Being free is a great responsibility because this becomes a gift from God and at the same time, a burden because what limits our freedom is the freedom of other people.

    If an action is based on the approval of God, then an action is dependent on Him. What if God said to us that murder is a rightful act? Would killing be a way to express our anger to another person? Is murder a righteous act until God forbids it? If something is good because God says it is, then God might change his mind about what is good. Thus, morality becomes arbitrary or subjective to God’s decision. Our moral principles are something that evolved from us being social and rational beings. We learn that an action is wrong or right on our experiences and on the consequences of our actions. We are given free will and intellect. We have freedom of choice and it is necessary to do good or evil because every action is a product of one’s choice.

    In Aristotle’s time, they have many Gods and Goddesses. These Gods have different preferences and likes. These differences determine if an action is right or wrong. For example, Zeus likes to have many women. In order for the people not to think that Zeus is praiseworthy, he said that adultery is right to cover up his actions.

    On another point of view, God will never command us to do something evil because God is good. God is good in His own nature. If God commanded us to kill each other, then He is not God because killing is a wrong action and therefore is not good. Why would God command such things if He is all-knowing and all-powerful? God is all-
    Knowing and powerful so He forbade these things because He knows that it have an effect on our rights as a human being. God commanded us to do morally right things because He knows that it is fair and beneficial for us.

  40. I will have to respond and conclude that God commands it because it is morally good.

    Morality speaks of a system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior. God loves us all. Almost all of us believe us, including me. So I believe that our God says that a thing is moral because without us knowing it, it is really moral. God is just guiding us. God is teaching us what things are moral because he loves us, not that everything he says is moral because of the condition that he is God.

    If a thing is moral because God commands it, it means that everything that our God will say is moral because of his authority. It is like a corrupt government official. If he/she makes a law, people can make a mistake of obeying the law without knowing that it is not moral. But I do not believe that that is true because our God loves us all and He will not teach us anything that is not moral.

    note: ang hirap magisip sir, muntik na sumabog utak ko.. ^_^

  41. NOTE: sir may mga grammatical error, inayos ko lng po, sori T_T

    I will have to respond and conclude that God commands it because it is morally good.

    Morality speaks of a system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior. God loves us all. Almost all of us believes, including me. So I believe that our God says that a thing is moral because without us knowing it, it is really moral. God is just guiding us. God is teaching us what things are moral because he loves us, not that everything he says is moral because of the condition that he is God.

    If a thing is moral because God commands it, it means that everything that our God will say is moral because of his authority. It is like a corrupt government official. If he/she makes a law, people can make a mistake of obeying the law without knowing that it is not moral. But I do not believe that that is true because our God loves us all and He will not teach us anything that is not moral.

    note: ang hirap magisip sir, muntik na sumabog utak ko.. ^_^

  42. “Is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?” For me,i would choose “God command it because it is morally good”.

    Morality refers as means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong, morals are created by and define society, philosophy, religion, or individual conscience.Morality is used as the basis of choosing between good and evil.God is the center of our life.He is perfect,he is also all-knowing.God can see everything we do,may it be good or evil.

    Something is moral because God commands it. His higher authority overwhelms us of His wisdom of what is moral and what is immoral.Through His teachings,we become aware of things that are right and wrong.We are able to justify that something good done is a moral act.He shared with us His wisdom and knowledge to be closer to Him,and to make better decisions in our everyday life.We are all imperfect,we can only do acts whether right or wrong,but we can never change what is moral and what is not.
    ________
    kamusta nlng sa sagot ko…T_T

  43. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    Morality is a code of conduct. It is the one held authoritative in choosing matters between right and wrong. We base our decisions on how we understand it, thus this is the border between Right and Wrong, Good and Evil

    God is supreme and the only perfect being, the source of all moral obligations, and the “greatest conceivable and imaginable existent”.

    Action is an act of will. It is something to be done or performed.

    Command is to direct with specific authority or prerogative; an order. To be able to command someone, you have to be in charge; have authority.

    Good means to be morally excellent; virtuous; righteous; pious. It is to be right; proper.

    I choose “God command it because it is morally good”.

    God gave each and every person their own “Free Will”, our Morality. Thus, it is up to us to distinguish and choose right from wrong, good from evil. An action is not only morally good when it is beneficial to mankind but when it is the “right” thing to do

    Moral codes are created and defined by the society of man though God is the source of all moral obligations. We can differentiate Good from Evil ourselves without the further help of God but that does not mean that we don’t need God anymore because he still guides us in every decision and action that we make. We don’t need God every time we make a decision that concerns choosing between good and evil. It is only up to us to make the right choice and action.

    “An action is morally good because God commands it”

    God is the perfect being, the source of all moral obligations. Because he is the perfect being, he is omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence, omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity will never command us something immoral.

    Every word that comes out of God’s mouth is pure goodness. There’s and instance when God ordered Abraham to kill his son; God was just testing his faith. Of course God would not allow that to happen.
    ___________
    Goodluck sa sagot natin lahat >_<

    -kyonitot

  44. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    If I’m asked with the same question. I would choose the first line. .

    “An action is morally good because God commands it”

    Define the Terms:

    Action – and a bodily movement something done by one, one may refer to a person.

    Morality – a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong, morals are created by and define society, philosophy, religion, or individual conscience.

    Good – evaluation of objects whether it is positive or negative.

    God – is most often conceived of as the creator and overseer of the universe.

    Command – an order, a compelling task given.

    Before giving my premise I would like to ask, is there a command which God has given which is not good??

    First of all as aproved by majority, God is the highest being of all, creator of all things. Therefore higher than being moral. All that he commands is morally good, its NOT that he commands it because it is morally good. When we choose the 2nd line, it would just give us a picture of morality being higher than God himself!!!!!
    Its against christianity! >.<

    `none`

  45. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?

    Let me first define the term:

    -Morality means treating someone as a person with a capability to think and freedom.

    -God he is a being conceived as the perfect, omnipotent, omniscient originator and ruler of the universe, the principal object of faith and worship in monotheistic religions.

    My answer in that is both,,

    An action is morally good because God commands it and God commands an action because it is morally good,,, because for me as I said in my definition of terms God is a perfect and omniscient being He has an infinite understanding so He will not command such thing that is against morality…

    “hahaha,, gulo ng sagot koh sana maka 10 points”

    Sir salamat sa quiz ah!!!
    mabaliwbaliw ako!!!!!

  46. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    conclusion: “God commands it because it is morally good.”

    morality means the ability to distinguish good and evil or right and wrong;right or good conduct.

    God meaning a supernatural, typically immortal being with superior powers.

    Good acting in the interest of good and proper or useful for a particular purpose.

    I chose the conclusion because God in line with being the creator of the world and mankind is the basis of every rule and standard ever known. Without God morality would not have been known. And if god created the world he would have loved it and protected it, as human beings were created in his own image. Thus if god commanded a human being to kill for sacrifice in his orders , he would have also gave the sacrifice a better place to stay because he loved his creation. We cannot base this on morality alone, because God, a greater being is the only one who created the standards of morality thus he is the authority. If God ordered us to kill a person. And done so. We did right, because we followed God’s orders as what we were taught in Christianity. thus bringing us back to the meaning of morality, by distinguishing right from wrong. So we did right, because we followed God’s orders, who in God alone is all that is good and perfect.

    Though we have to argue if God orders us to kill a person, wont that be against his rule of being moral? And if he created morality why would he do so to go against it by giving a task like killing? if given? But the answer should rely on our faith in God and being a good Christian.

  47. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God commands it because it is morally good?”

    In my perspective, God commands us of something,
    because it is morally good.

    Definition of the Terms:

    God is our father who brought us to life, is the
    creator of all the things we see, and is the one
    who conquers all by making our destiny.

    Morality is a word that we use to extend right and wrong
    from the factual realm to the realm of conduct.

    Command is a word that pertains to directing something
    with sufficient authority.

    Premises:

    God loves us equally as his sons.

    Morality is the weighing scale of the world, which judges
    our deeds.

    Command is to spread the good news.

    Argue for the Opposite:

    If God proclaimed that He will discriminate all the Blacks in His kingdom,
    it will be right because
    He commanded it,
    even if deep in ourselves we think that it is wrong.

    If that is what He wants, it should be accepted, because
    God always and will command only what is morally good.

    Kakagutom pala magisip, sir. ^_^
    Buti na lang may binibigay kayong break sa amin.

  48. Fixed some error/s.
    “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God commands it because it is morally good?”

    In my perspective, God commands us of something,
    because it is morally good.

    Definition of the Terms:

    God is our father who brought us to life, is the
    creator of all the things we see, and is the one
    who conquers all by making our destiny.

    Morality is a word that we use to extend right and wrong
    from the factual realm to the realm of conduct.

    Command is a word that pertains to directing something
    with sufficient authority.

    Premises:

    God loves us equally as his sons.

    Morality is the weighing scale of the world, which judges
    our deeds.

    Command is to spread the good news.

    Argue for the Opposite:

    If God proclaimed that He will discriminate all the Blacks in His kingdom,
    it will be right because
    He commanded it,
    even if deep in ourselves we think that it is wrong.

    If that is what He wants, it should be accepted, because
    God always did and always will command only what is morally good.

    Kakagutom pala magisip, sir. ^_^
    Buti na lang may binibigay kayong break sa amin.

  49. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”

    For me I will choose the “An action is moral good because god commands it”.

    First of all let as talk about God we know that
    He is the most often conceived of as the creator and overseer
    of the universe. The Theologians have ascribed a variety of
    attributes to the many different conceptions of God. The most
    common among these include the “omnibenevolence”.
    If we say Omnibenevolence it means “unlimited or infinite benevolence”
    or “moral perfection”.

    In this kind of situation we can say that the
    action is “morally good” if it is “Commanded by God” Because what god have commanded before or in
    the past we can say that it is Right for example “Abortion is act of an being evil”. because your
    killing someone. Else if you will say “God command it because it is morally good” it is wrong.
    If now God will say that abortion or to abort is right the action is “morally evil”. because what
    god have say before is all true and right. Like god gave us the ten commandment were we can say it
    is the rule and there are equality and right in that commandment.

    A word expressing good in the sense of “having the right or desirable quality”
    and bad in the sense “undesirable”, the notion of “good and evil” in an absolute moral
    or religious sense is not ancient, but emerges out of notions of ritual purity and impurity.

    Morality in this absolute sense solidifies in the dialogues of Plato, together with the emergence of monotheistic thought (notably in Euthyphro which ponders the concept of piety as a moral absolute).

    PAWANJOT SINGH 1CS2

  50. “Is an action morally good because God commands it,
    or does God command it because it is morally good?”
    In my own perspective, I believe that an action is morally good because God commands it.

    According to a website, morality is a concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong; right or good conduct. Going back to the statements above, morality is somewhat connected to God, but what is God and who is God? God is a supernatural being and God is the one we worship.

    Morality is being set by the society based on what God commands. They will submit to what their God commands because they know that the God that they worship knows what is good and what is right. Eventually, these statements imply that the society is the one held responsible on setting the parameters and limitations of life.

    If God commands something because it is morally good then it implies that God knows what morality is. But, who is this God that tells you the epitome of a moral doing. If you are a Christian and the God of Islam or the God of Buddhism laid their cards down on you and tell you their own perspective of morality, can you accept it? This example will create conflicting ideas on the concepts seen on the second statement. It is not specified that only a certain God knows the definition of morality. It really depends whom the people believe and worship that will eventually come up to the idea that I said in my premise.

    -sr, umabot poh ba?-

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