2. Informal Fallacies

Love is a Fallacy

by Max Shulman

Cool was I and logical. Keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, and astute–I was all of these. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel. And–think of it!–I was only eighteen.

It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect. Take, for example, Petey Bellows, my roommate at the university. Same age, same background, but dumb as an ok. A nice enough fellow, you understand, but nothing upstairs. Emotional type. Unstable. Impressionable. Worst of all, a faddist. Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along, to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing it–this, to me, is the acme of mindlessness. Not, however, to Petey.

One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis. “Don’t move,” I said. “Don’t take a laxative. I’ll get a doctor.”
“Raccoon,” he mumbled thickly.

“Raccoon?” I said, pausing in my flight.

“I want a raccoon coat,” he wailed.

I perceived that his trouble was not physical, but mental. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?”

“I should have known it,” he cried, pounding his temples. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks, and now I can’t get a raccoon coat.”

“Can you mean,” I said incredulously, “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?”
“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where’ve you been?”

“In the library,” I said, naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus.
He leaped from the bed and paced the room. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat,” he said passionately. “I’ve got to!”

“Petey, why? Look at it rationally. Raccoon coats are unsanitary. They shed. They smell bad. They weigh too much. They’re unsightly. They—“

“You don’t understand,” he interrupted impatiently. “It’s the thing to do. Don’t you want to be in the swim?”

“No,” I said truthfully.

“Well, I do,” he declared. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. Anything!”
My brain, that precision instrument, slipped into high gear. “Anything?” I asked, looking at him narrowly.

“Anything,” he affirmed in ringing tones.

I stroked my chin thoughtfully. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. My father had had one in his undergraduate days; it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. I refer to his girl, Polly Espy.

I had long coveted Polly Espy. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. She was, to be sure, a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated, entirely cerebral reason.

I was a freshman in law school. In a few years I would be out in practice. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. The successful lawyers I had observed were, almost without exception, married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women. With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Beautiful she was. She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. She already had the makings. Gracious she was. By gracious I mean full of graces. She had an erectness of carraige, an ease of bearing, a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding. At table her manners were exquisite. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the specialty of the house–a sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast, gravy, chopped nuts, and a dipper of sauerkraut–without even getting her fingers moist.
Intelligent she was not. In fact, she veered in the opposite direction. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. At any rate, it was worth a try. It is, after all, easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful.

“Petey,” I said, “are you in love with Polly Espy?”

“I think she’s a keen kid,” he replied, “but I don’t know if you’d call it love. Why?”

“Do you,” I asked, “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?”

“No. We see each other quite a bit, but we both have other dates. Why?”
“Is there,” I asked, “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?”

“Not that I know of. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. “In other words, if you were out of the picture, the field would be open. Is that right?”

“I guess so. What are you getting at?”

“Nothing, nothing,” I said innocently, and took my suitcase out of the closet.

“Where are you going?” asked Petey.

“Home for the weekend.” I threw a few things into the bag.

“Listen,” he said, clutching my arm eagerly, “while you’re home, you couldn’t get some money from your old man, could you, and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?”

“I may do better than that,” I said with a mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.

“Look,” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge, hairy, gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925.

“Holy Toledo!” said Peter reverently. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times.

“Would you like it?” I asked.

“Oh yes!” he cried, clutching the greasy pelt to him. Then a canny look came into his eyes. “What do you want for it?”

“Your girl,” I said, mincing no words.
“Polly?” he asked in a horrified whisper. “You want Polly?”

“That’s right.”

He flung the coat from him. “Never,” he said stoutly.

I shrugged. “Okay. If you don’t want the be in the swim, I guess it’s your business.”

I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book, but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey. He was a torn man. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. Then he looked back at the coat, with even more longing in his face. Then he turned away, but with not so much resolution this time. Back and forth his head swiveled, desire waxing, resolution waning. Finally, he didn’t turn away at all; he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat.

“It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly,” he said thickly. “Or going steady or anything like that.”

“That’s right,” I murmured.

“What’s Polly to me, or me to Polly?”

“Not a thing,” said I.

“It’s just been a casual kick–just a few laughs, that’s all.”

“Try on the coat,” said I.

He complied. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons. “Fits fine,” he said happily.

“Is it a deal?” I asked, extending my hand.

He swallowed. “It’s a deal,” he said and shook my hand.

I had my first date with Polly the following evening. This was in the nature of a survey; I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required. I took her first to dinner.

“Gee, that was a delish dinner,” she said as we left the restaurant. Then I took her to a movie. “Gee, that was a marvy movie,” she said as we left the theater. And then I took her home. “Gee, I had a sensaysh time,” she said as she bade me goodnight.

I went back to my room with a heavy heart. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of information was terrifying. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information. First she had to be taught to think. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions, and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork, and I decided to make an effort.

I went about it, as in all things, systematically. I gave her a course in logic. It happened that I, as a law student, was taking a course in logic myself, so I had all the facts at my fingertips.

“Polly,” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date, “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk.”

“Oo, terrif,” she replied. One thing I will say for this girl: You would go far to find another so agreeable.
We went to the Knoll, the campus trysting place, and we sat down under an oak, and she looked at me expectantly: “What are we going to talk about?” she asked.

“Logic.”

She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. “Magnif,” she said.

“Logic,” I said, clearing my throat, “is the science of thinking. Before we can think correctly, we must first learn to recognize the common fallacies of logic. These we will take up tonight.”

“Wow-dow!” she cried, clapping her hands delightedly.

I winced, but went bravely on. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simpliciter.”

“By all means,” she urged, batting her eyelashes eagerly.

“Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. For example: Exercise is good. Therefore everybody should exercise.”

“I agree,” said Polly earnestly. “I mean exercise is wonderful. I mean it builds the body and everything.”

“Polly,” I said gently, “the argument is a fallacy. Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. For instance, if you have heart disease, exercise is bad, not good. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. You must qualify the generalization. You must say exercise is usually good, or exercise is good for most people. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. Do you see?”

“No,” she confessed. “But this is marvy. Do more! Do more!”

“It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve,” I told her, and when she desisted, I continued. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty Generalization. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I can’t speak French. Petey Bellows can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French.”

“Really?” said Polly, amazed. “Nobody?”

I hid my exasperation. “Polly, it’s a fallacy. The generalization is reached too hastily. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion.”

“Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly. “This is more fun than dancing even.”
I fought off a wave of despair. I was getting nowhere with this girl, absolutely nowhere. Still, I am nothing if not persistant. I continued.

“Next comes Post Hoc. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic. Everytime we take him out with us, it rains.”

“I know somebody just like that,” she exclaimed. “A girl back home–Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic–“

“Polly,” I said sharply, “it’s a fallacy. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. She has no connection with the rain. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.”

“I’ll never do it again,” she promised contritely. “Are you mad at me?”
I sighed. “No, Polly, I’m not mad.”

“Then tell me some more fallacies.”
“All right. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.”

“Yes, let’s,” she chirped, blinking her eyes happily.

I frowned, but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything, can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?”

“Of course,” she replied promptly.

“But if He can do anything, He can lift the stone,” I pointed out.

“Yeah,” she said thoughtfully. “Well, then I guess He can’t make the stone.”

“But He can do anything,” I reminded her.

She scratched her pretty, empty head. “I’m all confused,” she admitted.

“Of course you are. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other, there can be no argument. If there is an irresitible force, there can be no immovable object. If there is an immovable object, there can be no irresistible force. Get it?”

“Tell me some more of this keen stuff,” she said eagerly.
I consulted my watch. “I think we’d better call it a night. I’ll take you home now, and you go over all the things you’ve learned. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.”

I deposited her at the girl’s dormitory, where she assured me that she had had a perfectly terrif evening, and I went glumly home to my room. Petey lay snoring in his bed, the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. The girl simply had a logic-proof head.

But then I reconsidered. I had wasted one evening; I might as well waste another. Who knew? Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind a few embers still smoldered. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope, but I decided to give it one more try.
Seated under the oak the next evening I said, “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam.”

She quivered with delight.

“Listen closely,” I said. “A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming.”

A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. “Oh, this is awful,” she sobbed.

“Yes, it’s awful,” I agreed, “but it’s no argument. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.

Do you understand?”

“Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered.

I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes. “Next,” I said in a carefully controlled tone, “we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?”

“There now,” she said enthusiastically, “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.”

“Polly,” I said testily, “the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.”

“I still think it’s a good idea,” said Polly.

“Nuts,” I muttered. Doggedly I pressed on. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact.”

“Sounds yummy,” was Polly’s reaction.

“Listen: If Madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende, the world today would not know about radium.”

“True, true,” said Polly, nodding her head. “Did you see the movie? Oh, it just knocked me out. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy. I mean he fractures me.”

“If you can forget Mr. Pidgeon for a moment,” I said coldly, “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. Maybe Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Maybe somebody else would have discovered it. Maybe any number of things would have happened. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusions from it.”

“They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures,” said Polly. “I hardly ever see him anymore.”
One more chance, I decided. But just one more. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well.”

“How cute!” she gurgled.

“Two men are having a debate. The first one gets up and says, ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’… Now, Polly, think. Think hard. What’s wrong?”

I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligence–the first I had seen–came into her eyes. “It’s not fair,” she said with indignation. “It’s not a bit fair. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?”

“Right!” I cried exultantly. “One hundred percent right. It’s not fair. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start… Polly, I’m proud of you.”

“Pshaw,” she murmured, blushing with pleasure.

“You see, my dear, these things aren’t so hard. All you have to do is concentrate. Think–examine–evaluate. Come now, let’s review everything we have learned.”

“Fire away,” she said with an airy wave of her hand.

Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin, I began a long, patient review of all I had told her. Over and over and over again I cited instances, pointed out flaws, kept hammering away without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At first everything was work, sweat, and darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the light, or even if I would. But I persisted. I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright.

Five grueling nights this took, but it was worth it. I had made a logician out of Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was done. She was worthy of me at last. She was a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-heeled children.

It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl. Quite the contrary. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned, so I loved mine. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic.

“Polly,” I said when we next sat beneath our oak, “tonight we will not discuss fallacies.”

“Aw, gee,” she said, disappointed.

“My dear,” I said, favoring her with a smile, “we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched.”

“Hasty Generalization,” said Polly brightly.
“I beg your pardon,” said I.

“Hasty Generalization,” she repeated. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?”

I chuckled with amusement. The dear child had learned her lessons well. “My dear,” I said, patting her head in a tolerant manner, “five dates is plenty. After all, you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.”

“False Analogy,” said Polly promptly. “I’m not a cake. I’m a girl.”

I chuckled with somewhat less amusement. The dear child had learned her lesson perhaps too well. I decided to change tactics. Obviously the best approach was a simple, strong, direct declaration of love. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words.

Then I began: “Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk.”

There, I thought, folding my arms, that ought to do it.
“Ad Misericordiam,” said Polly.

I ground my teeth. I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein, and my monster had me by the throat.

Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“Well, Polly,” I said, forcing a smile, “you certainly have learned your fallacies.”

“You’re darn right,” she said with a vigorous nod.

“And who taught them to you, Polly?”

“You did.”

“That’s right. So you do owe me something, don’t you, my dear? If I hadn’t come along you would never have learned about fallacies.”

“Hypothesis Contrary to Fact,” she said instantly.

I dashed perspiration from my brow. “Polly,” I croaked, “You mustn’t take all these things so literally. I mean this is just classroom stuff. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.”

“Dicto Simpliciter,” she said, wagging her finger at me playfully.

That did it. I leaped to my feet, bellowing like a bull. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?”

“I will not,” she replied.

“Why not?” I demanded.

“Because this afternoon I promised Petey Bellows that I would go steady with him.”

I reeled back, overcome with the infamy of it. After he promised, after he made a deal, after he shook my hand! “That rat!” I shrieked, kicking up great chuncks of turf. “You can’t go with him, Polly. He’s a liar. He’s a cheat. He’s a rat.”

“Poisoning the Well,” said Polly, “and stop shouting. I think shouting must be a fallacy too.”

With an immense effort of will, I modulated my voice. “All right,” I said. “You’re a logician. Let’s look at this thing logically. How could you choose Petey Bellows over me? Look at me–a brilliant student, a tremendous intellectual, a man with an assured future. Look at Petey–a knot-head, a jitterbug, a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Bellows?”

“I certainly can,” declared Polly. “He’s got a racoon coat.”


Informal Fallacies

1. Read Module 4: Informal Fallacies.

2. Choose twenty (20) informal fallacies.

3. Quote twenty (20) examples of informal fallacies from movies, books, manga of your choice.

4. Explain why each one is an informal fallacy, why each has an error in reasoning.

46 Responses

  1. ???

  2. Fallacies of relevance

    1. Argumentum ad Hominem

    Friend: Cornelius suggested last time in the science fair that the secret in turning a piece of scrap into an invention is to be determined and keep moving forward.

    Goob: I don’t care about his opinion. I’d be surprised if any of his invention has ever been placed in an exhibit. Have you ever seen any of his junk?
    A day with Wilbur Robinson
    Explanation: The fact that Goob is very envious about Cornelius is not relevant to a judgement about Cornelius’ insights in which Goob ignores.

    2. Argumentum MIsericordian

    Invent Co. Manager: Why would we want to buy your brain scanner invention?
    Goob: As a child, I grew up to be a very lonely boy. I went to an orphan house, being outshined by others. I want to prove to myself that I can be great too just like my friends.

    A day with Wilbur Robinson
    Explanation: Goob did not answer the question directly. He played around the emotions of the manager. The question now is whether the manager should let those feelings play a significant role in deciding whether to accept Goob’s invention.

    3. Argumentum ad Baculum

    Dash: Dad, why do we have to behave like ordinary people when we have special powers?
    Mr. Incredible: Because I’m your father, and I say so, that’s why.

    Mr. Incredible
    Explanation: It implicitly gives a threat of force in place of relevant reasons for not showing their super powers.

    4. Ignoranto Elenchi

    Little John: You know Robin, I think what we’re doing is, you know, stealing. It’s wrong.
    Robin Hood: My dear John, how could you think of such things when our people all suffer from hunger while the king bathe himself in gold. That’s called borrowing.

    Robin Hood
    Explanation: The current status of Robin Hood and his people is another issue. The question is answered incorrectly because Robin Hood based his answer on a different situation.

    5. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Radio Reporter: In spite of all the talk, not a single flying saucer report has been authenticated. We may assume, therefore, there are not such things as flying saucers.

    The War of the Worlds
    Explanation: If one argues UFO’s do not exist because their existence has not been proven beyond a shadow of doubt, then this fallacy occurs.

    6. Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    Professor Lockhart: Well, Madam Pompfrey said you should go straight to hospital – I guess she knows best

    Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
    Explanation: It becomes the fallacy of appealing to the testimony of an authority outside his special field. Lockhart based his belief that experts cannot be wrong.

    7. Argumentum ad Populum
    Lightning Mcqueen: But officer, I don’t deserve a ticket; everyone goes this speed. If I went any slower, I wouldn’t be going with the stream of traffic

    Cars
    Explanation: The main problem with this fallacy is the fact that many people agree on something does not imply that what they agree on is true; nevertheless, the fact that many people agree, can be relevant evidence for the truth in some instances.
    Fallacies of presumption

    1. Complex question

    The Chef: Eh, Linguini? How is your mother? Is she dead?

    Ratatouille
    Explanation: The question used unsupported assumptions or premises on conclusion. The chef based his conclusion on insufficient evidence.

    2. False Cause

    Cornelius: Why are you doing this to me?
    Goob: Well… I can’t help but think that you are the cause of my problems. I never had any problems until you became the greatest scientist.

    Meet the Robninsons
    Explanation: Goob based his conlusion on no stated grounds other than the temporal priority of Cornelius’ success

    3. Petitio Principii
    Langdon: We know that God exists, since the Bible says God exists

    The Da Vinci Code
    Explanation: Langdon assumes as a premise a statement which has the same meaning as the conclusion. The premise is merely a restatement of the conclusion

    4. Accident

    Snape: All persons are created equal, Potter, so since you made a failure in this class, you haven’t been working as hard as you should.

    Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
    Explanation: Even though people are supposedly created equally, it does not follow that they are created equal in academic pursuits.

    5. Converse Accident
    Mater: Wow! Did you see that race car run that red light? Race cars are really pathetic.

    Cars
    Explanation: He is considering certain exceptional cases and generalizing to a rule that fits them alone. A general statement is made on the basis of insufficient evidence.
    Fallacies of Ambiguity

    1. Equivocation
    Peter Parker: But officer, the sign said “fine for parking here”, and since it was fine, I parked there.

    Spiderman
    Explanation: The same word is used with 2 different meanings. The 1st word fine means a penalty. The second one means in good condition.

    2. Amphiboly
    Aslan: Good boys and girls are the ones to be rewarded when the time comes.

    Chornicles of Narnia, The Doctor’s Nephew
    Explanation: An adjective is used with two nouns, boys and girls, making it unclear whether the adjective applies to the second noun or only to the first.

    3. Accent
    Hermione: I wonder if you really want to do this, Harry ( The emphasized word could be want or really)

    Harry Potter and The Prisoner of Azkaban
    Explanation: The emphasis put on words in a sentence changes the meaning, often radically, which is one reason why the spoken word can communicate so much more than the written word. Emphasis is used to suggest a meaning different from the actual

    4. Composition
    Bugs Bunny: Every player on the team is a superstar and a great player, so the team is a great team.

    Space Jam
    Explanation: This is fallacious since the superstars might not be able to play together very well and hence they could be a lousy team.

    5. Division
    Professor Brainard: A living cell is organic material, so the chemicals making up the cell must also be organic material

    Flubber
    Explanation: The professor infers that what is true of a whole must also be true of its constituents and justification for that inference is not provided.

    Fallacies of distraction
    1. Straw Man
    Sgt. Byrd: Major Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenceless like that.

    Thin Red Line
    Explanation: The statement shows that the opposition’s argument has been misrepresented by showing that the opposition has a stronger argument.

    2. Slippery Slope
    Professor Escalante: If I make an exception for you then I have to make an exception for everyone.

    Stand and Deliver
    Explanation: There is no reason to believe that one event must inevitably follow from another without an argument for such a claim.

    3. False Analogy
    Escobar: We are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must students.

    Stand and Deliver
    Explanation: An analogy fails when the two objects, nails and students, are different in a way which affects whether they both have the same property. There are other ways to influence a student to study.

  3. “Patrick Zala has stated that naturals must be taken very serious to pursue peace. But then, no one could even possibly take the Chairman very serious. Zala’s claims about naturals, therefore, are all piece of s***. ZAFT civilian, Gundam Seed Destiny.
    Ad hominem abusive, The civilian challenges someone’s argument on account of real or alleged character flaws of the other.

    “Chairman Durandal claimed that power is necessary to bring peace. He’s just saying those for pursuing fame and power, so none of us should believe in his words!” Cagalli Eula Atha, Gundam Seed Destiny.
    Ad hominem circumstantial, claiming that one only holds an opposing position because of vanity, self-interest, or other similar causes of bias. Cagalli, therefore, does not believe in Durandal’s words since it’s only for his own benefits.

    “The Atlantic Federation said that no one should make use of nukes. They used nukes to assault ZAFT. No one as of now, could even believe in whatever they’re saying, what a pity.” ORB official, Gundam Seed Destiny.
    Ad hominem tu quoque, challenging an opponent’s argument on grounds of hypocrisy. It is against a certain leader, since AF stated that nukes must not be used, they already did.

    “It is alike to social security that may run into financial difficulties around cosmic era 71, to avoid difficulties, it’s necessary that we get rid of social security.” Civilian, Gundam Seed.
    Ignoratio elenchi, it’s missing the point. In this latter sense, this is a kind of argumentative “unsportsmanlike conduct”–a catch-all for that bad behavior that has no name.

    “I’m certain that the officials will find ultra-liberal arguments against EA persuasive besides, your life’s on the line.” -Patrick Zala, Gundam Seed.
    Ad baculum, it threatens directly or indirectly the secretary in order to get her or him to affirm on what he just said.

    “No one has ever has told me that there isn’t Genesis, as for this result of destruction, it must be real that there is one.” -Kisaka, Gundam Seed.
    Argumentum ad ignorantiam, it claims that the absence of a clear answer to the question from Kisaka implies either an affirmative or negative answer and not simply ignorance about the right answer.

    “Naturals’ researchers have argued for the theory of evolution in such institutes, but then many disagreed with them, many also doubt the cogency of this theory. For those reasons we ought not to teach evolution to many.” Rau La Creuset, Gundam Seed.
    Argumentum ad populum, the fact that the naturals argued about evolution led Rau to disagree due to its cogency.

    “conservatives claim that high taxes impede economic growth. But that’s a silly argument. Taxes pay for roads, police, national defense, national parks and much else. These things are requisite for economic growth. Such conservatives arguments are therefore poppycock.” Sanosuke Sagara, Samurai X.
    Straw man, He offends a weak version of his adversary’s argument and claiming victory over his real argument.

    “Many have said that oil the government produces caused many local fishing companies of Japan to deplete. But oil that we’re having is good for economy and its growth. Oil and the likes provide fuel for improvement and such.” Shishio, Samurai X.
    He distracts us with this(that is against the related), he mentioned the good and bad that the oil caused or whatsoever/this is what one might call a “fallacy of criticism.” That is to say, it’s a fallacy typical of attempted refutations.

    “The amendment to the Consitution says that “the right of people to bear arms should not be infringed”- which part of “shall not be” do sword-control advocates not understand? sword-control, such as background checks against watch lists, obviously violates the constitutional right to bear arms.” Heiko Seijuro, Samurai X.
    Accident, Heiko applied such a general rule to a case which the rule should not apply.

    “It is easy to see that goodness is in the world and not just in our minds, because as we look at the world, some things are obviously not evil or indifferent in themselves.” Heiko Seijuro, Samurai X.
    Although ”good” and ”evil” are not complementary classes, this passage can be anaylzed as petitio principii, since ceteris paribus the meanings are similar enough to be circular reasoning. If this analysis is acceptable then, in a sense, this fallacy turns of the fallacy of false dichotomy

    “Maybe there is such a truth in what you are saying regarding me being rude to vendors, but I heard many sales people complaining about your manners, so you are not the one pointing this out to me.” Saito, Samurai X.
    The ad hominem variation of ”you’re another” or tu quoque is offered by Saito.

    “Hiten Mitsurugi is presumably the best that i have learned from Seijuro. I know it because many before him said so.
    Although many before him said so, that doesn’t make it so. The fallacy committed is ad populum.

    “I made such a mess. I must be really stupid.” Kaoru, Samurai X.
    Too few examples are used to justify such a conclusion. Fallacy of converse accident is committed.

    “When i was at the market, no one even gave me supporting things for me to carry more things easily. I guess it may be speculated that the market’s such not friendly place to go.” Soujiro Seta, Samurai X.
    Soujiro is generalizing from one experience. More evidence would be necessary to reach the conclusion that the market isn’t a good place to go. Soujiro commits the fallacy of converse accident.

    “As i drew my sword earlier, not one at the dojo which was swinging kendo stick had to guard himself. So, i assume that students here in this dojo are not well-trained since they can’t even guard themselves.” Student, Samurai X.
    The number of examples cited and the method of selection are not reliable methods of generalization. Hence, the fallacy of converse accident occurs.

    “Sanosuke, a brawler of the woods, ignorant man who never learned but fighting, says that miso soup is good for cold. What does he think he knows? He’s ignorant of such proofs.” Kaoru, Samurai X.
    The attack on Sanosuke and circumstances is characteristic of the ad hominem fallacy.

    “I think that this miso soup Kenshee is cooking is delicious. I think you’ll do agree, because if you’re not, you’re a risk, Yahiko.” Kaoru, Samurai X.
    The threat of a being a risk is logically unrelated to the tastiness of miso soup kenshee is cooking. So, ad baculum fallacy is committed.

    “I can see that you are very impressed by the Hiten Mitsurugi. So, are you willing to be my student, Kenshee?” Heiko Seijuro, Samurai X.
    Seijuro’s question presupposes that Kenshee is willing to be his student. Fallacy of complex occurs at this situation.

    “Destiny Plan incredibly made impact and i do agree that it is the best because our comrades said so, Shinn.” Rey Za Burrel, Gundam Seed Destiny.
    Although their comrades said so, that doesn’t make it so. Ad populum fallacy is committed.

  4. kevin dominic de guzman

    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    • [Joe McCarthy] “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”

    Source: Irving M. Copi, Introduction to Logic (Fourth Edition) (1972), p. 88.
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    • College is obviously a waste of money and time. Why, many of the richest men on earth, including Bill Gates, Steve Ballmer and Larry Ellison, all in the top ten, are college dropouts.
    He’s Doing Well, article by Leone Powe.

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    • [Stone Cold Steve Austin] why Brucie? He’s a dumbsh*t ,he can’t kick balls?
    Longest Yard Movie.
    Argumentum ad Populum
    • My classmates said Harry Potter is a good book, so I bought the whole set, Aryanna said.
    K-Zone magazine
    Argumentum ad baculum
    • “God exists, because if you don’t believe in him you will go to Hell.’’
    O.k. God it’s you and me.

    Argumentum ad misericordiam
    • “Think of all the poor, starving Ethiopian children! How could we be so cruel as not to help them?”
    Mongolian Chopsquad.

    Ignorantio elenchi
    • “George W. Bush made a mistake in Iraq, therefore, George W. Bush is stupid.”
    Article from, The Philippine Star.
    Complex Question
    • “Why do you want to kiss MRs. Connelly ?”
    Duplex.
    False Cause
    • “I can’t play without the shoes, I only play like a superstar because of the shoes”
    Like Mike.
    Petitio Principii
    • “The elemental composition of Jupiter is known to be similar to the sun… The core would be composed mainly of iron and silicates, the materials that make up most of the earth’s bulk. Such a core is expected for cosmogonic reasons: If Jupiter’s composition is similar to the sun’s, the the planet should contain a small portion of those elements.”
    J. Wolfe, “Jupiter,” Scientific American (Vol. 230 No. 1), 119.
    Accident
    • Birds normally can fly.
    Tweety the Penguin is a bird.
    Therefore, Tweety can fly.
    Introduction to Logic I.
    Converse Accident
    • Because we allow terminally ill patients to use heroin, we should allow everyone to use heroin.
    Trainspotting
    Equivocation
    • The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life…strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed, at least. Without laying out all the evidence here, it is fair to conclude from medicine that the humanity of the life growing in a mother’s womb is undeniable and, in itself, a powerful reason for treating the unborn with respect. [Helen M. Alvaré, The Abortion Controversy (Greenhaven, 1995)]
    Ambhiboly
    • The anthropologists went to a remote area and took photographs of some native women, but they weren’t developed.
    Source: Marilyn vos Savant, The Power of Logical Thinking (St. Martin’s Press, 1996)

    Accent
    • Helicopter powered by human flies
    Source: Jay Leno (compiler), More Headlines: Real but Ridiculous Samplings from America’s Newspapers (Warner Books, 1990)
    Composition
    • Atoms are colorless. Cats are made of atoms, so cats are colorless. [Cats and Dogs]

    Division
    • “Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be large.” [Duplex]
    Red Herring
    • “We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.” [ evans Almighty]
    Slippery slope
    • “The US shouldn’t get involved militarily in other countries. Once the government sends in a few troops, it will then send in thousands to die.” [ Call of Duty]
    False Analogy
    • Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must employees. [ Wanted]

    Straw Man
    • “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.” [ brainwash]
    False Dilemma
    • “Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.”
    [School of Rock]

  5. 1.) Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on The Person)
    Two-Face, Dark Knight: The Joker’s just a mad dog. I want whoever let him off the leash.
    2.) Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)
    Harry Osborn, Spider-man 2: Kill Spider-Man, I’ll give you all the tritium you need. On second thought, bring him to me, alive.
    3.) Petitio Principil (Begging the Question)
    Dr. Curt Connors, Spider-man 3: It has the characteristics of a symbiote, which needs to bond to a host in order to survive. And once it binds… it can be hard to Unbind.
    4.) False Clause
    Calvin Cambridge, Like Mike: “I can’t play without the shoes, I only play like a superstar because of the shoes”
    5.) Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to the Inappropriate Authority)
    Pope John Paul II and philosopher, Peter Singer, Abortion Immoral because God said so (Ten Commandments thou shall not kill).
    6.) Argumentum ad Ignorantian (Appeal to Ignorance)
    BBC NEWS: A confidential Ministry of Defense Unidentified Flying Objects has concluded that there are no aliens because there is no proof of alien life forms.
    7.) Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    Gabe, Little Manhattan : Look at them all. Rats in their cages, their lives destroyed by love. I’m done with it. I won’t be like them. The fools.(Generalizing that all the rats that lived in the cage is destroyed by love).
    8.) Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)
    Little Nicky: Reporter: And what brought you out to the game today?
    Boy At Game: I came for the beer and the bi*****.

    9.) Amphiboly
    King Leonidas, 300: The world will know that free men stood against a tyrant, that few stood against many, and before this battle was over, even a god-king can bleed.(Who were the free men and who is the god king?)
    10.) Accent
    Tanya, Mama Mia!: I’m old enough to be your mother!(This could mean she is just older than the person she is speaking to or this could mean that she does not want to be her mother)
    11.) Red Herring (Missing the point)
    The Joker, Dark Knight: “It’s a funny world we live in, speaking of which, you wanna know how I got these scars?”
    12.) Division
    Phantom Of Opera
    Raoul: I love her! Does that mean nothing, I love her! Show some compassion!
    The Phantom: [furiously] The world showed no compassion to me!(The world did not give the phantom compassion therefore he must not give compassion to others)
    13.) Complex Question
    Robbie,Wedding Singer: Are you drinking, too? (Assuming that the person he is taking to is a drinker)
    14.) Accident

    Dunham(Steve Austin), Longest Yard: That’s how a white man plays guitar.(Meaning if you are a white man, you can play guitar)

    15.) Straw Man

    Source: Nizkor Project
    Prof. Jones: “The university just cut our yearly budget by $10,000.”
    Prof. Smith: “What are we going to do?”
    Prof. Brown: “I think we should eliminate one of the teaching assistant positions. That would take care of it.”
    Prof. Jones: “We could reduce our scheduled raises instead.”
    Prof. Brown: ” I can’t understand why you want to bleed us dry like that, Jones.”

    16.) False Analogy
    US Journalist: “Bill Clinton has no experience of serving in the military. To have Bill Clinton become president, and thus commander in chief of the armed forces of the United States, is like electing some passer-by on the street to fly the space shuttle.”
    17.) Slippery Slope
    The Joker, Dark Knight: You’ll see, I’ll show you, that when the chips are down, these uh… civilized people, they’ll eat each other.(When the chips are down, civilized people MAY NOT eat each other(or bring each other down)..)
    18.) Argumentum Misericordian (Appeal to pity)
    Jenny Johnson, My Super Ex-Girlfriend: I will die if you leave me!

    19.) Equivocation
    Irving Marmer Copi : Criminal actions are illegal, and all murder trials are criminal actions, thus all murder trials are illegal

    20.) False Dilemma
    Flint Marko(Sandman), Spider-man 3: My daughter was dying, I needed money.(Either he let her daughter die or steal money to be able to afford the medical bills.)

  6. 1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    “Another legend claims that we descend from wolves – and that the wolves are our brothers still.” – Jacob Black, Twilight.

    Explanation: Many old age people tend to say that wolves are our ancestors; yet, many of us still don’t believe that such legends exist.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    “I am the world’s best predator, aren’t I?” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: Here, he claims that he is the worlds greatest predator, though the authority doesn’t know something like them resides in the town.

    3. Red Herring Fallacy

    “Don’t you see, Bella? It’s one thing for me to make myself miserable, but a wholly other thing for you to be so involved” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: He takes about him being so miserable, then suddenly, blabbed out that Bella seems to be so involved.

    4. Argumentum ad Hominem

    “Don’t underestimate James. He’s got a brilliant mind and unparallel senses” –Laurent, Twilight.

    Explanation: In this, Laurent answered Dr. Carlisle Cullen that they should not underestimate what James could do, because aside from his fierce look resides a very dangerous character.

    5. Argumentum ad Populum

    “Angela and Jessica are hunting dresses tonight, Maybe I could do a little clothes shopping as well” –Bella Swan, Twilight.

    Explanation: Bella decided to do a little shopping just because Angela and Jessica would do it as well.

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum

    “Don’t be!” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: He is forcing Bella not to feel grateful that he is always around her.

    7. Argumentum ad Misericordiam

    “I would rather die than stay away from you” -Bella Swan, Twilight.

    Explanation: Bella, having been pity to her, would rather want to die with Edward having by her side rather than live without him.

    8. Ignorantio Elenchi

    “I spent two days in Alaska, with some old acquaintances. I was homesick. I hated knowing I’d upset Esme, and the rest of them, my adopted Family. In the pave air of the mountains it was hard to believe you were so irresistible.” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: Edward telling his story to Bella that he was then in Alaska jumped into another topic that Bella was so irresistible.

    9. Complex Question

    “I’m not used to feeling so human. Is it always like this?” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: This question can’t just be answered with a simple Yes or No, but rather, an explanation is needed to answer it fully.

    10. False Cause

    “You said you were sad when it’s raining” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: Edward told Bella that he heard her talking in her sleep, another thing, raining doesn’t really cause any sadness, at least for me.

    11. Petitio Principii

    “I can feel what you’re feeling right now – and you’re worth it.” –Jasper Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: Jasper argued with Bella in a friendly manner, because she’s thinking wrong.

    12. Accident

    “The south side of the street had no side-walk, only a chain link fence topped with barbed wire protecting some kind of engine parts storage yard, maybe all the streets are like those.” –Bella Swan, Twilight.

    Explanation: She’s sweeping generalization, though she haven’t seen the other streets yet, she’s thinking that those maybe like the one she’s looking at right now.

    13. Converse Accident

    “Vampires couldn’t come out in daytime, the sum would burn them to a cinder. They slept in coffins all day and come out only at night.” –Bella Swan, Twilight.

    Explanation: Having seen movies with vampires that sleeps in coffins, scared of the sun makes Bella think that all vampires are like that.

    14. Composition

    “James is a hunter, once he committed to a hunt, he’s unshakeable, and we’d have to kill him.” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: It lies in assuming that what’s true to the parts is true to the whole.

    15. Amphiboly

    “It’s the one place we never have to hide.” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: It was not mentioned what was that thing they would never have to hide, but in the scene proved that, that thing would be their property.

    16. Accent

    “You are intoxicated by my very presence, now.” –Edward Cullen, Twilight.

    Explanation: The premise may be true if read without inflection. But if it is read with heavy stress on the last word seems to imply the truth of the conclusion.

    17. Division

    “If you’re an African, then why are you white?” –Mean Girls

    Explanation: To argue this way is to ignore the very real difference between parts and wholes.

    18. Slippery Slope

    “In that one hour, I thought of a hundred different ways to lure you from the room with me, to get you alone.”

    Explanation: Committed when the conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction.

    19. False Analogy

    “I said it would be better if we weren’t friends, not that I didn’t want to be. It would be more prudent not to be my friend.”

    Explanation: when to things are presumed to be more similar than they really are. It’s reaching its conclusion by comparing two significantly incomparable cases.

    20. False Dilemma

    “You take me back. I tell my dad I want to go home to Phoenix. I pack my bags. We wait till this tracker is watching and then we run. He’ll follow us and leave Charlie alone. Charlie won’t call the FBI on your family. Then you can take me to any damned place you want.”

    Explanation: Committed when one claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable, so we should choose the other.

  7. Naruto

    Uchiha Itachi: You aren’t even worth killing, foolish little brother. (To Sasuke)
    -Attack on the person. Itachi verbally attacks Sasuke without an argument if Sasuke is really worth killing.

    Hatake Kakashi: A cute girl stopped me on the way, so I danced.
    -Missing the point. Dancing and Kakashi’s like for a cute girl may be related to his personality but it doesn’t follow saying that he danced after seeing a cute girl. He is putting another topic after the original and leads the listener off track.

    Haruno Sakura: On that day, you taught me that solitude is painful! I understand that so well right now. I have family, and I have friends but if you’re gone… To me… It will be the same as being alone. (To Sasuke)
    -Appeal to pity. Sakura is saying that bad things will happen to her if Sasuke will not stay. She makes herself look pitiful so that Sasuke will change his mind.

    Uchiha Obito: Those in the ninja world who break the rules and regulations are called filth, but those who don’t care about their companions… are even lower than filth
    -Attack on the person. Obito discredited the people who break the rules in the ninja world.

    Music and Lyrics
    Alex Fletcher: People wait their whole lives to see an ex when things are going really good. It NEVER happens. You could make relationship history!
    -Hasty Generalization. Maybe Alex has seen so many kinds of relationships. But he must not conclude that everything is the same saying that “It NEVER happens.”

    Alex Fletcher: Now remember your blood pressure. You’re a tall man; you need all the pressure you can get!
    – Missing the point. Alex is talking about blood pressure at first then says to his chat mate something about height which is not really related to blood pressure.

    Chris Riley: Is that true? Plants make women comfortable? Well, maybe if I had plants I’d still be married.
    – False Analogy. If it is true that plants make women comfortable, it doesn’t conclude that it would make his relationship with wife work. Plants making women comfortable has nothing to do with marriage.

    Scary Movie

    Homeless Man: You got a dollar?
    Buffy Gilmore: Get away from me, you bum.
    Cindy Campbell: Buffy, can’t you see he’s hungry? Here you go, sir, a nice sandwich.
    Homeless Man: I said a dollar
    – Missing the point. The homeless man is begging for a dollar but Cindy gave a sandwich. She didn’t give what the homeless man was begging leading to another subject.

    Cindy Campbell: Ray, if you see Bobby, will you tell him that I love him?
    Ray: Okay, if I see Bobby, I’ll tell him I love him.
    -Amphiboly. It was not clear to Ray whether Cindy wants him to tell Bobby that she loves Bobby or she wants Ray to say “I love you” to Bobby.

    Buffy Gilmore: Hey do you think the press is gonna talk to us?
    Brenda: Oh please. The press only wanna interview the most ignorant person they find.
    -Attack on the person. Brenda attacked the press even before the they had the chance to argue.

    Iron Man
    Press Reporter #1: Mr. Stark, what happened over there?
    Tony Stark: I had my eyes opened. I came to realize that I had more to offer this world than just making things that blow up. And that is why, effective immediately; I am shutting down the weapons manufacturing division of Stark Industries.
    – Missing the point. Tony didn’t answer the question. He gave another topic which is somewhat related but abstract.

    Christine Everheart: Have you ever lost an hour of sleep your whole life?
    Tony Stark: I’d be prepared to lose a few with you.
    – Missing the point. Tony (again) didn’t answer the question. He sneaked a topic related but didn’t really answer the question.

    Raza: Long ago, the bow and arrow was the ultimate technological achievement. It was used by Genghis Khan to forge an empire that stretched across Asia, from the wintry woods of Ukraine to the Eastern shores of Korea. Now, whoever holds the weapons manufactured by Stark Industries rules the world… and soon, it will be *my* turn.
    – Hasty Generalization. If the weapon bow and arrow was a success used by Genghis Khan to rule a large area, it doesn’t mean that better weapons than the bow and arrow could automatically rule the world.

    Spiderman

    Peter Parker: You don’t trust anyone, that’s your problem.
    J. Jonah Jameson: I trust my barber.
    – Hasty Generalization. If Peter knew that JJJ doesn’t trust anybody easily, it doesn’t mean that JJJ doesn’t trust anyone at all.

    Mary Jane: So you just came by?
    Peter Parker: I was in the neighborhood…
    – Missing the point. Peter didn’t answer the question which distracts the listener.

    Aunt May: Because you won’t let her. You’re so mysterious all the time. Tell me, would it be so dangerous to let Mary Jane know how much you care? Everybody else KNOWS… (To Peter)
    – Hasty Generalization. Aunt May can’t conclude that everybody knows what Peter feels because she may not be sure of what other people think.

    Green Goblin: Spider-Man. This is why only fools are heroes – because you never know when some lunatic will come along with a sadistic choice. Let die the woman you love… or suffer the little children? Make your choice, Spider-Man, and see how a hero is rewarded
    -Attack on the person. The Green Goblin verbally abuses the arguer (Spider-Man).

    Daredevil

    Bullseye: I missed… I never miss.
    -Hasty Generalization. Bullseye might have not missed in the past but he can’t conclude the he will never miss because he doesn’t know the future.

    Elektra: You sure you’re blind?
    Matt Murdock: Sure you don’t wanna tell me your name?
    – Missing the point. Matt didn’t answer the question and gave a question to Elektra which leads to a different topic.

    Fisk: You know, I’ve learned one thing in all my years in this business.
    Matt Murdock: What’s that?
    Fisk: Nobody’s innocent. Nobody.
    – Hasty generalization. Even if Fisk knew different kinds of people, he can’t generalize that nobody is innocent because he doesn’t know everybody.

    Father Everett: A man without fear is a man without hope.
    -False analogy. He can’t conclude that a man without fear is a man without hope because not is the same. Some does not fear but has hope and vice versa. Hope and fear cannot be compared in that statement.

    Matt Murdock: [stops] Does this mean you want a rematch?
    Elektra: [smiling] I knew I’d find you. How did you know I wasn’t a mugger?
    – Missing the point. Elektra didn’t answer if she would want a rematch. She threw another question which distracts Matt from the question he asked.

    Matt Murdock: So does every guy have to go through all this just to find out your name?
    Elektra: You should try asking for my number.
    – Missing the point. Elektra didn’t answer what Matt was asking. Instead, she gave a suggestion which does not clearly answer the question.

  8. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    1. “Humans have walked on the surface of the moon, but we still haven’t been to the deepest part of the ocean”
    Explanation: No one knows. It is really not proven yet.

    2. “Kissing is no big deal in America”
    Explanation: not all people in America mind kissing anywhere. There are Americans which still want privacy when it comes to that matter.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    3. “According to Mine, putting make-up will make me more attractive to boys!”
    Explanation: not all boys wanted girls with make-up. Some boys wanted simple girls / girls without make-up.

    4. “To know how to seduce a guy, Milch said that I should practice. That’s why I’m here in a club.”
    Explanation: that’s only according to Milch noh? But there can be many ways to seduce a guy. You can even seduce a guy without applying for a club.

    Argumentum ad Hominem

    5. “Why did you like Nodame?! She is not good-looking, not sexy and doesn’t even have sex appeal!”
    Explanation: this is a harsh sentence from Chiaki’s cousin. The person is talking to Chiaki, which is said to have feelings with Nodame.

    6. “She’s good in playing piano, but she doesn’t follow the notes properly. She does not deserve to join a competition. You should quit on her.”
    Explanation: the sentence was said by a great teacher from Europe to Chiaki. The one who was being talked about is Nodame.

    Argumentum ad Populum

    7. “I won 3rd place at the Buffon International Competition, please make me your concertmaster. Im better than that concertmaster”
    Explanation: the speaker wanted to join the orchestra, trying to be a concertmaster in that orchestra.

    8. “Many people think Straclivarius got a good sound. So I bought it. I also want to buy Amaty for 300,000,000 yen.”
    Explanation: Straclivarius and Amaty are great and old violins.

    Argumentum ad Baculum

    9. “if you don’t want to review you lessons, then you’ll be dropped out again”
    Explanation: Chiaki, warning Mine. (Nodame Cantabile – manga)

    10. “if you will not memorize that piece by piece, surely, you’ll not win the competition”
    Explanation: Harisen, warning Nodame.

    11. “if you don’t have much money to study for college, if you don’t have time for music. Then you should quit.”
    Explanation: Chiaki, saying these words to Sakura (orchestra’s contrabass player, which is indeed, in line of poverty)

    Argument of Misericordiam

    12. “Mine: I need to practice my violin.
    …all of you are good players.
    …im so awful compared to you.
    …would you mind lending me your sheets?
    …I didn’t win any competitions unlike you. That’s why, It’s like there’s a big gap between us”
    Explanation: Mine, talking to Sagojo, a great violinist. (appeal to pity)

    13. “I pity Nodame-chan, youre not good in reading notes but youre good in listening to music. Maybe its better if you’ll just listen to music”
    Explanation: Nodame can memorize a piece of a song when she listens to music. She’s not good in reading notes, instead, she’s good in listening in music.

    Complex question

    14. “did you really study your notes?”
    Explanation: Chiaki, talking to Nodame. Nodame did not review the notes but she said to Chiaki she reviewed her notes.

    15. “is it true that you won 3rd place in Japan’s Violin Competition?”
    Explanation: Noriyuki Takahashi, talking to Kiyora, a concertmaster. (Nodame Cantabile – manga)

    False Cause

    16. “Sakura(contrabass): My dad’s business went well after he sell his violins. I think he got a cursed-violin because we got bankrupt that time.
    Chiaki: ooo, the contrabasses are dating.
    Nodame: oh, youre right. Im jealous sakura-chan. Nodame also wants to date Chiaki-sempai.
    Chiaki: Am I cursed too?”
    Explanation: Chiaki and Nodame saw Sakura and a contrabass player dating from 2nd-4th sentence.

    Converse Accident

    17. “I actually copied Chiaki’s hairstyle and clothes so girls liked me too”
    Explanation: Nodame Cantabile – manga

    Accident

    18. “oh.. He is Eto-sensei’s student. So he’s a good student”
    Explanation: to girls gossiping with each other, talking about Chiaki. Chiaki is indeed good. But not because he was Eto’s student. He just really love music and do study everyday.

    19. “Masumi-chan came from A-orchestra. She might be a great timpanist”
    Explanation: this sentence may be correct. But there can be other reason. Like, there are no choice of timpanist, so Masumi was chosen to be the timpanist of A-orchestra”

    Accent

    20. “Chiaki-sempai! Sakura-chan didn’t come, it’s because of you! You shouted at her last night”
    Explanation: there can be other reason why she didn’t come to practice. She might be in her part time job.

  9. Lia Nadine P. Tinio 1-CS2

    1 R1 Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    “I don’t care who’s a werewolf and who’s a vampire. If Angela turns out to be a witch, she can join the party, too.”
    –Bella Swan (Eclipse)
    Explanation: In fictional books like Eclipse, this statement is acceptable but it does not mean that werewolves, vampires and witches are true in the real world. Obviously our scientific knowledge today does not prove the existence of vampires and werewolves.

    2 R2 Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    “You know a customer once told me that the best way to get over someone was to get under someone else.”
    –Karen Roe (One Tree hill)
    Explanation: Just because the customer told Karen about that statement it does not mean that it is true. Maybe the customer can prove that because he/she must have reasons for saying that. But as for Karen, she should prove that getting under someone else is the best way to get over someone.

    3 R3 Argumentum Ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)
    “Bella, you are utterly absurd.”
    –Edward Cullen (Twilight)
    Explanation: Edward directly attacked Bella through his words. His statement is abusive. He attacked the character of Bella.

    4 R4 Argumentum Ad Populum (Appeal to popular Prejudice)
    “If you’re from Africa, why are you white?”
    — Karen Smith (Mean Girls)
    Explanation: When Cady told them that she was from Africa, Karen quickly asks her regarding her color. It is a popular held belief for people to expect that you’re black if you are from Africa, which is why Karen assumed that Cady should be black because she just moved from Africa.

    5 R5 Argumentum ad Bacalum (appeal to force)
    “You have to give it to me, or somebody might get hurt.”
    –Lu Yan (Forbidden Kingdom)
    Explanation: The silent monk is threatened by Lu Yan, it’s either they give it to him or someone might get hurt. It is basically just forcing the monk to give it to him because the other choice he gave is not desirable.

    6 R6 Argumentum Misericordiam (appeal to Pity)
    “I’d rather die than be with anyone but you.”
    –Bella Swan (New Moon)
    Explanation: The statement implies that Bella’s reasoning is replaced with insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of her conclusion that the only person she wants to be with is Edward.

    7 R7 Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)
    “We just heard Principal Turner read a list of Erica’s accomplishments. I could try to do that for Brooke but it would be kind of a short speech. As you know, Brooke’s probably one of the most popular people in school.”
    –Mouth (One Tree Hill)
    Explanation: In the TV series, everyone may agree to Mouth that Brooke is one of the most popular people in school but that is just another issue. The question at hand is if Mouth’s gonna talk about Brooke’s accomplishment to the student body. The accomplishment of the candidates is the issue that is important because it is after all an election. So by Mouth saying that Brooke is popular, it is missing the point.

    8 P1 Complex Question
    [After seeing Bella alone in the forest.]
    “Have you been hurt?”
    –Sam Uley (New Moon)
    Explanation: This one question masks multiple questions. In this statement, Sam Uley jumped to a conclusion as to what Bella feels.

    9 P2 False Cause (non Causa pro Causa)
    [After Anna left the Orange County, Seth assumed he is the reason for Anna’s departure]
    “I can’t believe I caused a girl to leave the state… the county, maybe, sure.”
    — Seth Cohen (The O.C.)
    Explanation: Just because he picked Summer over Anna, it doesn’t mean that Anna left because of him. In this statement Seth treats himself as the cause of Anna’s departure which is not really it’s cause. FYI: Anna left Orange county because she misses Pittsburgh. (It is proven by Anna through a letter he sent to Seth stating the reason she left.)

    10 P3 Petitio Principii ( Begging the Question)
    “There was a hot, hot yard guy who was in the yard and was hot.”
    –Summer Roberts (The O.C.)
    Explanation: The premise “There was a hot, hot yard guy” is exactly the same thing as the conclusion “Who was in the yard and was hot” – [still referring to the yard guy]. This argument is arguing in circle.

    11 P4 Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    “When the shooting started, he was way too cool. And normally when there’s shooting’ white people aren’t that cool, man. They either run around in circles, or screaming out ‘Aaaaagh!’ “
    –James Carter (Rush Hour 2)
    Explanation: Maybe some white people really run on circles or scream when there is shooting but this is not true to all the white people.

    12 P5 Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    [After Mr. Duvall said that there’s a new student joining the class who just moved from Africa, Ms. Norbury quickly Welcomes a black girl she sees. The girl answers…]
    “I’m from Michigan.”
    –Black Michigan Girl (Mean Girls)
    Explanation: Just because the girl is black, it does not necessarily mean that she is from Africa. Ms. Norbury quickly jumps to a conclusion that the girl she saw is from Africa because of the girls color. She did not consider other things; she just looked at the color of the person’s skin.

    13 A1 Equivocation
    “To love is to suffer. To avoid suffering one must not love. But then one suffers from not loving. Therefore, to love is to suffer; not to love is to suffer; to suffer is to suffer. To be happy is to love. To be happy, then, is to suffer, but suffering makes one unhappy. Therefore, to be unhappy, one must love or love to suffer or suffer from too much happiness. I hope you’re getting this down”
    –Sonja (Love and Death)
    Explanation: Love, suffering and happy is used in the statements with multiple meanings deliberately. That is why the statements said might be irrelevant to the conclusion.

    14 A2 Amphiboly
    [After learning that the mole that they got to put up in Dr. Evil's lair literally has an enormous mole in his face.]
    “Where??? (nervously laughs) What? Where’s that mole? I… didn’t see one.”
    –Austin Powers (Austin Powers in Goldmember)
    Explanation: In the line, the word “mole” has more than one plausible meaning. It may mean that it is the spy also called mole who is Austin is referring to that he did not see, or maybe it was the birthmark mole of the spy that he said he did not see.

    15 A3 Accent
    “If there’s one thing you know how to do, it’s get money from rich old men.“
    –Jimmy Cooper (The O.C.)
    Explanation: The line could mean that the person Jimmy is referring to knows how to get money from rich people or that the person does not know how to get money from rich old men. There is a shift in meaning if Jimmy changes the emphasis of the word or parts therefore changing the meaning of the statement.

    16 A4 Composition
    “All men are mortal. Socrates was mortal. Therefore, all men are Socrates. Which means that all men are homosexuals…”
    –Boris (Love and Death)
    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because it assumes that if one of the arguments is true, therefore the other parts of the statement is true and that is why it is an error in reasoning. The truth of the statement as a whole does not depend only on the truth of one of its argument.

    17 A5 Division
    “You are so human, Bella. Ruled by your hormones.”
    –Edward Cullen (Breaking Dawn)
    Explanation: It is a fallacy because just for the reason that Bella is human, it does not necessarily mean that Bella is ruled by her hormones. Not all Humans are ruled by their hormones.

    18 D1 Red Herring (Missing the point)
    “She knows everything about everyone. That’s why her hair is so big.”
    –Janis Ian (Mean Girls)
    Explanation: The fallacy is committed because when Janis said that the person she is referring to knows everything, it doesn’t mean that it’s the same reason why the person’s hair is big. Knowing everything does not actually connects to why a person’s hair is big.

    19 D3 False Analogy
    “So, as long as I’m being… not smart, we’ll try to be friends?”
    –Bella Swan (Twilight)
    Explanation: Being not smart is not really similar to trying to be friends as presumed by Bella. It’s reaching its conclusion by comparing the two significantly incomparable cases.

    20 D5 False dilemma
    “Gentlemen, I have a plan. It’s called blackmail. The Royal Family of Britain are the wealthiest landowners in the world. Either the Royal Family pays us an exorbitant amount of money, or we make it seen that Prince Charles has had an affair outside of marriage”
    –Dr. Evil (Austin Powers: International Man of Mysteries)
    Explanation: In the statement there are two alternatives but clearly only one of the choices is acceptable.

  10. 1. Equivocation
    All men are mortal. Socrates was mortal. Therefore, all men are Socrates. Which means that all men are homosexuals. -from the movie Love and Death

    -In this statement, the word mortal was used twice and it become irrelevant to the conclusion.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    GUS: I just haven’t met the right lady yet I guess. Momma says some lady will see how special I am one day. – Somebody Famous by D. M. Bocaz-Larson

    – It does not necessarily warrant the truth of a conclusion, just because his mother said that one day some lady will see how special he is it doesn’t assure us that it will come true.

    3. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “‘Maybe there is a beast….maybe it’s only us.'” – Lord of the Flies

    – The statement lacks evidence for one things to be good evidence for another. It has not been proven true or false.

    4. Argumentum ad Hominem
    MACY: I’m so sick of you talking down to us. You’re nothing but a big, stuck up, meanie murderer. (Macy talking to Melinda) -Somebody Famous by D. M. Bocaz-Larson

    – The attack here is directly against the person that seeks to defame or discredit the person.

    5. Argumentum ad Populum
    MACY: Everyone in our town has seen the movie of Ms. Melinda Street and they think it’s great. That’s the reason why I also watched her movie. -Somebody Famous by D. M. Bocaz-Larson

    – It shows that the statement was said just because of it’s popularity. Popularity is not guarantee for quality of work.

    6. Argumentum ad Baculum
    (12006 and REGGIE rush into audience and grabs audience member)
    Trying to escape huh? Well, we’ll just have to see about that.
    (Audience member protests)
    You’re not a prisoner. Let me see some ID.
    (Gets wallet from purse)
    I’ll just keep this wallet for evidence purposes.
    (Gets keys)
    And your car keys. Give me your keys. Which car is yours? We’ll need to investigate it too. Make sure there aren’t any criminals stashed in the trunk. And we’ll check for drugs too. See her eyes. She looks like an addict. Take her away!
    (12006 grabs audience member and REGGIE follows smiling) -Somebody Famous by D. M. Bocaz-Larson

    – Obviously we can see the forcing of the two characters in the play to their audience. They are forcing them to give their car keys so that they can escape.

    7. Argumentum Misericordian
    Loneliness has followed me my whole life. Everywhere. In bars, in cars, sidewalks, stores, everywhere. There’s no escape. I’m God’s lonely man. -from the movie: Taxi Driver

    -We can clearly see here that the man is very lonely and depreseed with what’s going on with his life.

    8. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Why? Why? Why?…Why’d you do it? Why? You’re so stupid…I’m not an animal. Why do you treat me like this? I’m not so bad there are others there who are more bad and rude than me. – Jake LaMotta (Raging Bull)

    – The fallacy is committed because the premises miss the point, purporting to support one conclusion.

    9. Complex Question
    MACY: Won’t that look funny?
    -Somebody Famous by D. M. Bocaz-Larson

    -It is already jumping into conclusion without warrant.

    10. False Cause
    GUS: Sorry about that, I think the captain gets irritated when he doesn’t get his doughnuts. -Somebody Famous by D. M. Bocaz-Larson

    – The character is already reasoning for what had happened to the captain. This falls to the false cause fallacy because it treats as the cause of a thing that is not really its cause.

    11. Petitio Principii
    Now the end is coming…the end of the war. The end of our world, Scarlett…- Ashley Wilkes (Gone with the wind)

    – The conclusion is restated in other terms. The end is coming was restated to the end of the world.

    12. Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    It’s proud I am that I’m Irish, and don’t you be forgetting, Missy, that you’re half-Irish, too. And, to anyone with a drop of Irish blood in them – why, the land they live on is like their mother. Oh, but there, there. Now, you’re just a child. It will come to you, this love of the land. There’s no gettin’ away from it if you’re Irish. – Gerald O’Hara(Gone with the Wind)

    – It applies a generalization to an individual case that it does not properly govern.

    13. Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    “He is a sadists who like to play God and watch lesser people scream and he’s my doctor therefore all doctors are like him”. – Bren MacGuff (Allison Janney) JUNO

    -It presumes that what is true from a few things is true to everything of its kind.

    14. Accent
    The Birdcage
    Albert: Don’t use that tone to me.
    Armand: What tone?
    Albert: That sarcastic contemptuous tone. That means you know everything because you’re a man, and I know nothing because I’m a woman.

    – In this situation its intended tone of voice is uncertain that’s why it falls under this fallacy.

    15. Composition
    My boyfriend is useless. Boys aren’t any use to anybody. Don’t you think I’m proof of that? – Rhett Butler (Gone with the Wind)

    – The fallacy is committed because the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of an individual member of some collection to the attributes of the totality of that collection .

    16. Division
    We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English, and the English are best at everything. – Lord of the Flies

    -The fallacy is committed because the arguer reasons the attributes of the English to their selves, the arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its part.

    17. Red Herring (Missing the point)
    David Mills: Wait, I thought all you did was kill innocent people.
    John Doe: Innocent? Is that supposed to be funny? An obese man; a disgusting man who could barely stand up; a man who if you saw him on the street, you’d point him out to your friends so that they could join you in mocking him; a man, who if you saw him while you were eating, you wouldn’t be able to finish your meal. After him, I picked the lawyer and I know you both must have been secretly thanking me for that one.
    – se7en

    -The fallacy is committed it diverts the discussion from the real subject to a related but different one.

    18. Slippery Slope
    Today is history. Today will be remembered. Years from now the young will ask with wonder about this day. Today is history and you are part of it. Six hundred years ago when elsewhere they were footing the blame for the Black Death, Casimir the Great – so called – told the Jews they could come to Krakow. They came. They trundled their belongings into the city. They settled. They took hold. They prospered in business, science, education, the arts. With nothing they came and with nothing they flourished. For six centuries there has been a Jewish Krakow. By this evening those six centuries are a rumor. They never happened. Today is history. – Amon Goeth (Schindler’s List)

    -It falls under this fallacy because one move does not necessarily lead to another. This fallacy is committed when conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction.

    19. False Analogy
    That reminds me of two friends of mines. One was married, one was single. The married guy tells the single guy: ‘Oh, what’s the matter with you? What’s the matter with you? Look at me. And look at you. And look at me. And look at you. Let me get on with it. When I come home at night, my wife’s at the door with a tall drink in her hand. And she gives me a nice hot bath. Then she gives me a nice rub-down. Then she makes passionate love to me. Then she makes me a nice dinner. What more could you ask for? You oughta try that.’ The other friend says: ‘Hey, that sounds great. When does your wife get home?’
    -Jake LaMotta (Raging Bull)

    -It committed this fallacy because it presumed two things to be more similar than tey really are.

    20 False Dilemma
    No, I don’t think I will kiss you, although you need kissing, badly. That’s what’s wrong with you. You should be kissed and often, and by someone who knows how. -Rhett Butler (Gone with the Wind)

    – The fallacy is committed because there are only two alternatives but the one is unacceptable.

  11. 1.Coach Carter: Complex Question
    Coach Ken Carter: What’s your deepest fear?

    Explanation:
    Coach Carter’s question is asked in a way that he is jumping into a conclusion without warrant.

    2.The Longest Yard: Poisoning the Well
    Captain Knauer: [after Crewe starts fight in lunch room] Stand up Crewe! You think you can do anything don’t you… well you’re no different than any other piece of shit that calls this place home…

    Explanation:
    Captain Knauer’s directly attacking the character of Crewe, it is against the person. The statements he also said to Crewe, will surely affect Crew and eventually hurt him.

    3.Kill Bill Vol. 2: Hasty Generalization
    Esteban Vihaio: If I had met you forty years ago, you would have been my Number One lady.

    Explanation:
    Esteban Vihaio presumes to quickly. If they had met forty years ago, it does not necessarily mean that the woman would be Esteban’s Number One lady. There are no premises to support this fact. Esteban is jumping into conlusions.

    4.Rosemary’s Baby: Division
    Edward “Hutch” Hutchins: Pregnant women are supposed to gain, not lose weight!

    Explanation:
    edward generalizes pregnant women in whole. He does not consider the fact that pregnant women undergo different circumstances. This is what makes it fallacious.

    5.Forrest Gump: Amphiboly
    Mrs. Gump: Life’s a box of chocolates, Forrest. You never know what you’re gonna get.

    Explanation:
    In Mrs. Gump statement, some of her words have more than one plausible meaning that is why its conclusion might be not supported because of the wrong interpretation of an ambiguous statement.

    6.Back To The Future: False Cause
    Marty McFly: Marvin, you gotta play. See that’s where they kiss for the first time on the dance floor. And if there’s no music, they can’t dance. If they can’t dance, they can’t kiss. If they can’t kiss they can’t fall in love, and I’m history.

    Explanation:
    The statement has a fallacy because Marty Mcfly treated Marvin’s playing the cause of the things that is not really its cause. His conclusion depends on nonexistent or minor causal relation.

    7.Proof: False Analogy
    Catherine: [Reading Robert's Notebook] “Let X equal the quantity of all quantities of X. Let X equals the cold. It is cold in December. The months of cold equal November through February. There are four months of cold, and four of heat, leaving four months of indeterminate temperature. In February it snows. In March the Lake is a lake of ice. In September the students come back and the bookstores are full. Let X equal the month of full bookstores. The number of books approaches infinity as the number of months of cold approaches four. I will never be as cold now as I will in the future. The future of cold is infinite. The future of heat is the future of cold. The bookstores are infinite and so are never full except in September…”

    Explanation:
    Robert’s writing has a fallacy because he writes that “Let X equal the quantity of all quantities of X. Let X equal the cold.” Quantity of all quantities of x is very different x being equal to the cold. They should not be presumed to be similar.

    8.Aeneid – Appeal to Ignorance
    Virgil: They can because they think they can.

    Explanation:
    There is an error in reasoning because not just because they think they can it does not prove that they really have the ability to do it.

    9.Desperate Housewives: Missing The Point
    Martha (about Mary Alice): “Are you saying she stole the baby?”
    Felicia: “Don’t look shocked, Martha. It makes your face look fat. The biological mother was a drug addict. If Angela is your neighbor, whom I doubt, then that child was very lucky.”

    Explanation:
    There is an error in reasoning because when martha asked her if another person [she] stole the baby, Felicia quickly diverts the conversation to martha looking all shocked when in fact she should be answering directly if the child has been stolen.

    10.Stardust: Accent
    Narrator: They ruled for 80 years. But no man can live forever, except he who possesses the heart of a star, and Yvaine gave hers to Tristan completely, when their children and grandchildren were grown, it was time to light the Babylon Candle.

    Explanation:
    When was the time to light the candle? When yvaine gave her heart to tristan or when their children and grandchildren were grown? The emphasis on the word dictates the meaning of the argument.

    11.Will and Grace: Composition
    Karen: What’s so great about a man anyway? All they do is manhandle your boobs and eat all the ham!

    Explanation:
    Karen’s statement has contains a fallacy because when she said that “All[referring to man] they do is manhandle your boobs and eat all the ham!” she referred to all the man in the world, meaning as a whole. But in reality not all man are like that, some maybe, but not all.

    12.Fight Club: Straw Man
    Narrator: A new car built by my company leaves somewhere traveling at 60 mph. The rear differential locks up. The car crashes and burns with everyone trapped inside. Now, should we initiate a recall? Take the number of vehicles in the field, A, multiply by the probable rate of failure, B, multiply by the average out-of-court settlement, C. A times B times C equals X. If X is less than the cost of a recall, we don’t do one.

    Explanation:
    The fallacy is committed in this statement when the narrator made a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position appear weaker than it really is.

    13.The Notebook: Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
    Duke: That’s my sweetheart in there. Wherever she is, that’s where my home is.

    Explanation:
    Duke is committing intellectual laziness. He is letting his ‘sweetheart’ reason on his behalf. The two of them being an item does not dictate the place where duke should be.

    14.The Notebook: Appeal to Pity
    Young Allie: So what?
    Young Noah: So it’s not gonna be easy. It’s gonna be really hard. We’re gonna have to work at this every day, but I want to do that because I want you. I want all of you, for ever, you and me, every day. Will you do something for me, please? Just picture your life for me? 30 years from now, 40 years from now? What’s it look like? If it’s with him, go. Go! I lost you once, I think I can do it again. If I thought that’s what you really wanted. But don’t you take the easy way out.

    Explanation:
    In this statement young noah’s reasoning is replaced by insinuated emotional and sympathetical reasoning to bring the acceptance of his conclusion to young allie.

    15.Grey’s Anatomy: Appeal to Force
    Desmond: Lower your gun, or I’ll blow his damn head off, brother!

    Explanation:
    Desmond uses threat. He is completely irrational. He uses force rather than reason. To blow one’s head off cannot be the consequence of not lowering a gun. Desmond’s argument is illogical.

    16.Grey’s Anatomy: False Cause
    Mark (talking to Addison): If you’d had the baby, we’d be together in New York right now; it wouldn’t be raining and even if it was, we wouldn’t care because we’d be together. We’d be together. And I’d have a family instead of walking pneumonia and an ex-best friend who hates me.

    Explanation:
    Addison having the baby is not the cause of rain. Being pregnant does not cause rain. Only nature, precipitation, weather, etcetera causes rain. This is farfetched. This is fallacious.

    17.One Tree Hill: Slippery Slope
    Chris (talking to Nathan): “Why?.. Can’t you trust her? I mean, isn’t that what this is about? You love her.. you married her.. But can you trust her? ‘Cause if you can, you got nothing to worry about right? Come on, man, I don’t have a problem with you.”

    Explanation:
    In Nathan’s point of view, not trusting her does not necessarily create the conclusion that he has nothing to worry about. This is an unlikely chain of events. The conclusion is implausible because the premises hold limitless possibilities. It can create another ‘chain of reaction’ thus making the conclusion fallacious.

    18.The O.C.: Appeal to the People
    Summer: What am I thinking? Kids at Brown don’t wear sparkly scarves. Maybe on the way to the airport, I’ll stop and get some sort of angry piercing.

    Explanation:
    Summer’s statement to Taylor has a fallacy because the two choices she gave her have only 1 acceptable answer. Her given alternatives to Taylor leave Taylor to pick the one that is biased on Summer’s side.
    19.The O.C.: Red Herring
    Ryan: Are you ready? [for Seth's Brown Interview]
    Seth: Am I ready? Do me a favor.

    Explanation:
    When Seth asks himself when he’s ready, he then quickly diverts the conversation on asking Ryan for a favor. The topic is about his readiness for his Brown interview.

    20.The O.C.: False Dilemma
    Summer: Yeah. 10-4, good buddy. So what’s it going to be? You can either tell Seth’s dad the perverted truth and save your sorry ass, or you can roll the dice. Over and out.

    Explanation:
    Summer’s statement about kid’s at brown are a little abusive, she quickly judged the students at Brown. Her word directly attacked kids at brown without them even knowing.

  12. Anthony James C. Panlaqui 1CS-2

    1. Argumetum ad Verecundiam
    “One of the Ten Commandments in the Bible states that ‘You shall not kill’ . Therefore, we should not kill because the Bible says so.”

    The Ten Commandments, like this one did not come from the Bible. Rather, they came from God, and then were written on stone tablets and then through writing material. Then they were put into the BIble.

    2. Argumentum ad Hominem

    “Alliance is nothing more than an amalgamation of greedy corporations. It’s impossible for them to create a bright future.” -Warlord from Armored Core : Last Raven

    The warlord clearly attacked the character of the Alliance of corporations. They called names, saying that they are “an amalgamation of greedy corporations” .

    3. Argumentum ad Populum

    “Everyone wears the Viper shoes. I need to get one!” -Lulu from the Lulu Show

    In this statement, Lulu’s mind has been occupied with bandwagon thinking. She thinks she must “go with the flow” .

    4. Argumentum ad Baculum

    “Not one step backwards! Those that would run away are cowards and will be shot!” -Russian Officer from Enemy At The Gates

    Russia is being attacked by Germany during World War II. They are conscripting men as soldiers for their army so that they will be able to fight back. They would shoot at their own conscripted men who would run away in cowardice.

    5.Argumentum Misercordiam

    “No! Please don’t fire me! I have three kids!” -inside Spongebob’s mind from Spongebob Squarepants

    The “employee” is asking for consideration, out of pity, from his “boss” to keep him in his job and not fire him.

    6. Complex question

    C.C.: “Our futures are intertwined with one another, right?”
    Nunali: “By future, do you mean marriage?”

    Code Geass

    Having a boy’s and a girl’s futures intertwined doesn’t exactly mean they are to be married. They could just be meeting each other and getting to know each other, they could become friends, but not exactly lovers.

    7. False Cause

    “Everytime a black cat follows you, it means bad luck. If you see one following you, get away from it immediately.”

    This is an example of a superstition. Superstitions are beliefs without proof or scientific claim. This is a Post Hoc fallacy, which is under False Cause.

    8. Petitio Principii

    “Stealing is wrong because it is not right.”

    “Wrong” is the same as “Not right”. Univocal terms are present. This is a vicious circle.

    9. Accident

    “You still carry a sword until now. You must be from the Tokugawa Era.” -Kaoru Kamiya from Samurai X

    It is possible for the person to be from the Tokugawa Era without ever having to carry a sword. This is a sweeping generalization.

    10. Converse Accident

    “Hey! That’s my best friend and my girlfriend! Why are they together?! Why that jerk!

    The boy was easily jumping into conclusions. He didn’t take the time to analyze the situation well.

    11. Equivocation

    “Everything that benefits you is good. Cheating on an exam benefits you; Therefore, cheating on an exam is good.

    The premise becomes irrelevant to the conclusion. There are multiple meanings of the word “benefit”. The word “benefit” became an equivocal term.

    12. Accent

    “Anna is not here in the house right now.”

    The statement could have several reasons as to why Anna is not in the house. It could be that she went to a friend’s house, was asked to do an errand, and so on.

    13. Composition

    “Reading books about Sherlock Holmes is Furuhata’s hobby. Therefore, intelligent kids like Furuhata read books about Sherlock Holmes.” – Furuhata Chugakusei

    This is a fallacy because what is true for Furuhata may not be true to other intelligent kids.

    14. Division

    “We know the Kingdom of Britannia is strong. Since we are Britannians, we should be strong too!” -Civilian from Code Geass

    The speaker ignored the real difference between a part and a whole. This is the inverse of Composition.

    15. Red Herring

    “Why should I be arrested for just stealing bread from a bakery? Look at the politicians in our country. They steal millions of pesos right in our faces yet no one arrests them.”

    Politics and everyday living are different ideas. The speaker deliberately tried to take the argument off track.

    16. Slippery Slope

    “You should study hard or else you will not be successful in life. You’ll have no work and no place to live, soon you’ll become a street beggar.”

    The conclusions based from the premise are unlikely chain reactions.

    17. False Analogy

    “The universe is like an intricate watch. A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker. Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator.”

    You cannot compare a universe with a wristwatch because these two things are completely different from each other.

    18. Straw Man

    “Withdrawal of US troops from Iraq is cowardice. Staying on is honoring the lives of those who died.”

    The point here is that if the war should be continued further, not if the pulling out of US troops would disgrace those who sacrificed themselves for the war.

    19. False Dilemma

    “You have two options: Door # 1: you go to prison. Door # 2: you help us out to get back the Declaration of Independence, and still go to prison.”
    “Is there a door that does not lead to prison?”
    “Ben, someone has to go to prison.” – from National Treasure

    In this situation, Ben is given two choices, which arrive at the same conclusion: him going to prison. Whatever he chooses, he can’t avoid getting behind bars.

    20. Contradictory Premises

    Lloyd:”You really hate it when people die, yet you’re in the army. Why is that?”
    Suzaku:”I’m in the army so they won’t die.”
    Lloyd:”That contradiction might kill you someday.”

    – from Code Geass

    The two premises are contradictory because if you join the army, you are trained to kill people. Then you say that you hate it when people die. What’s the point in joining the army if you hate it when people die?

  13. R1: Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Frailty
    Fenton: Nothing that crazy could be real.
    Explanation: Fenton is being ignorant and close-minded. Just because something is completely absurd or far from reality does not mean it could not be real or possible.

    R2: Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    South Park
    Kyle: What I understand is that you two really screwed me over! Why should I have to listen to you?!
    Gerald: (angrily) because we’re your parents.
    Explanation: Gerald cannot use the fact of him being the father of Kyle as a reason for Kyle to listen to what he says.

    R3: Argumentum ad Hominem
    Fight Club
    Tyler Durden: People do it everyday, they talk to themselves… they see themselves as they’d like to be, they don’t have the courage you have, to just run with it.
    Explanation: Tyler Durden attacks directly on the being of people in general which is unacceptable because people cannot be generalized. We are situated beings and each of us holds differences.

    R4: Argumentum ad Populum
    Desperate Housewives
    Bree: (quietly, to herself) “I’ll wear green; everyone likes green.”
    Explanation: Bree chooses green because she based it on what everybody likes.

    R5: Argumentum ad Baculum
    One Tree Hill
    Lucas: I’m building a team. You play your part and do as I say or you are gone. So we’re clear.
    Explanation: Lucas’ given option is irrational. He uses threat rather than reason.

    R6: Argumentum Misericordiam
    Charmed
    Victor: How can you be so sure?
    Phoebe: Because he loves me as much as I love him.
    Explanation: Phoebe does not answer Victor’s question. Phoebe used emotion or love as an excuse.

    R7: Ignoranti Elenchi
    Charmed
    Piper: Why are you being so stubborn about this?
    Phoebe: Because I’m a Scorpio, what’s your excuse?
    Explanation: Phoebe being a Scorpio cannot be the reason for her being stubborn. Getting basis on zodiac signs does not hold rationality nor logic.

    P1: Complex Question
    Se7en
    David Mills: Do you like what you do for a living?
    Explanation: David Mills assumes that the person he is talking to already has ‘something to do for a living’ or a job.

    P2: False Cause
    Edward Scissorhands
    Kim: (talking about Edward) You see, before he came down here, it never snowed. And afterwards, it did. If he weren’t up there now… I don’t think it would be snowing. Sometimes you can still catch me dancing in it.
    Explanation: Edward cannot be the cause of snow, he does not hold this power. The cause of snow is water vapor.

    P3: Petitio Principii
    One Tree Hill
    Rachel: Everybody can’t be popular because if they were, no one would be popular.
    Explanation: The argument only creates a cycle.

    P4: Accident
    Pulp Fiction
    Vincent: Want some bacon?
    Jules: No man, I don’t eat pork.
    Vincent: Are you Jewish?
    Explanation: Vincent generalizes the Jews. His view is that, all Jews do not eat pork which is unlikely.

    P5: Converse Accident
    The O.C.
    Marissa: [about Ryan] I think he hates me.
    Summer: He doesn’t hate you!
    Marissa: He turned down sex!
    Explanation: Ryan turning down sex with Marissa does not necessarily mean that he hates her. It is irrelevant. There might be reasons which are best left unspoken.

    A2: Amphiboly
    Pulp Fiction
    Lance: If you’re all right, then say something.
    Explanation: What does Lance actually mean? Should word “something” be said or should a word, not necessarily something be uttered? It is unclear.

    A3: Accent
    Elizabethtown
    Claire Colburn: Men see things in a box, and women see them in a round room.
    Explanation: The emphasis on the word “them” might pertain to men or it might pertain to things in box. The meaning can shift.

    A4: Composition
    The Thirteenth Tale
    Vida Winter: I am human. Like all humans, I do not remember my birth.
    Explanation: Though this the possibility of this holds true, Vida Winter cannot sum up humanity based on herself alone.

    D1: Red Herring
    Signs
    Morgan: It’s not contaminated; you don’t even know what that word means.
    Explanation: Not knowing the meaning of “contaminated” does not make it uncontaminated. It is irrelevant.

    Slippery Slope
    Colors of Chaos
    If you do not survive what you do now, you will not reach the future. If you do not think now about where you go, you will have precious few choices when you reach next year or the years after.
    Explanation: Failing to accomplish what one does at the present does not necessarily mean one will have few or fewer choices. There are infinite possibilities of upcoming events.

    Straw Man
    Kill Bill Vol. 1
    Hattori Hanzo: [Japanese] Oh, so you’d be General, huh? If you were General, I’d be Emperor, and you’d STILL get the sake. So shut up and get the sake.
    Explanation: For Hattori Hanzo putting himself into a higher position such as Emperor, he clearly overrules the General and distorts the argument. He uses the state being of ‘Emperor’ as a right to command.

    False Dilemma
    American Gods
    It’s easy, there’s a trick to it, you do it or you die.
    Explanation: This is not the only alternative. Not doing the trick does not cause death. It can lead to other things, but not only death.

    False Analogy
    Fight Club
    Tyler Durden: Shut up! Our fathers were our models for God. If our fathers bailed, what does that tell you about God?
    Explanation: The bailing of fathers does not tell something about God. They are only models. Models cannot define the creator.

  14. Argumentum ad Hominem
    1. Valkyrie Lenneth: You’re only talking back, Lord of the Undead. This is not entertaining.
    Explanation: Valkyrie tries to defame Brahms, and claims that he is not interesting.
    2. Marla Singer: You’re the worst thing that’s ever happened to me.
    Explanation: Marla attacks a person, and claims that he is the worst thing that has happened to her.
    Converse Accident
    3. Lezard: Gods are static beings and they cannot grow.
    Explanation: Lezard jumps into conclusion that Gods are static beings and therefore, cannot grow.
    Argumentum Misericordiam
    4. Valkyrie Lenneth: Loki, you are making a terrible sin and a big mistake.
    Loki: Don’t come near me! Get away from me! What is the point of saving this world?!
    Explanation: Loki is threatening Valkyrie that if she gets near him he is going to destroy the world.
    5. Arngrim’s brother: Since my body is weak, I enjoy painting.
    Explanation: Arngrim’s brother says that since his body is weak, he enjoys painting. He tells the condition of his body then diverts the discussion to a different one.
    Argumentum ad Baculum
    6. Gabrielle: If you hurt me again, I will kill you.
    Explanation: Gabrielle tries to use threats.
    Complex Question
    7. Susan: What are you saying? You think Mike is guilty?
    Explanation: The question used unsupported premises in the conclusion.
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    8. Duo: My mama told me real men don’t scream
    Explanation: Duo’s mother reasoned on his behalf.
    Straw Man
    9. Eric Cartman: Drugs are bad because if you do drugs you’re a hippie and hippies suck.
    Explanation: This argument diverts the attention from using drugs, by making it appear that taking drugs is the same as being a hippie.
    Argumentum ad Populum
    10. Tyler Durden: People do it every day, they talk to themselves… they see themselves as they’d like to be, they don’t have the courage you have, to just run with it.
    Explanation: Since people do it every day, it is alright to do it.
    Ignorantio Elenchi
    11. Tyler Durden: This is a chemical burn. It will hurt more than you’ve ever been burned before. You will have a scar.
    Equivocation
    12. William Parrish: I loved Susan from the moment she was born, and I love her now and every minute in between. And what I dream of is a man who will discover her, and that she will discover a man who will love her, who is worthy of her, who is of this world, this time and has the grace, compassion, and fortitude to walk beside her as she makes her way through this beautiful thing called life.
    False Analogy
    13. Joe Black: I can’t believe you people. I come for you, and you want to stay, I let you stay and you want to go.
    Red Herring
    14. William Parrish: When I introduce you, and I tell them who you are, I don’t think anyone will stay for dinner.
    Explanation: the real subject is diverted to another subject.
    15. Vincent: Want some bacon?
    Jules: No man, I don’t eat pork.
    Vincent: Are you Jewish?
    Explanation: the real subject is diverted to another subject.
    Complex Question
    16. David Mills: Do you like what you do for a living? These things you see?
    17. Will: If Gay Means Happy, Why Am I So Sad?
    Argumentum ad Hominem
    18. Will: C-3PO wasn’t gay, he was British.
    Explanation: Will attacks C-3PO, by saying he is a British, which in fact he is a robot.
    Red Herring
    19. Liz: Okay, okay, true or false… I think you’re great?
    Explanation: the real subject is diverted to another subject.
    Converse Accident
    20. Jeffrey Goines: My father is God!
    Explanation: Jeffrey carelessly generalized that his father is a God.

  15. Faye Beatriz C. Tumaliuan, ICS2
    Informal Fallacies
    These passages are from the New York Times Bestseller series-Twilight Saga by Stephenie Meyer. These are sentences or claims by the characters purposely aimed to bring out their natures and do not imply fallacies made by the author.
    -It tells of a love story of a vampire(Edward Cullen) and a human (Bella Swan).

    1. ”The Cullens don’t like anybody…well, they don’t notice anybody enough to like them”
    – Jessica, new friend of Bella.
    * we can see here an intentional fallacy by Jessica ( Fallacy of Relevance: Argumentum ad Hominem/ Attack on the Person) to subtly deceive Bella on not minding the Cullens. It is an attack directly on the Cullens family to defame or discredit them. Since Bella is a newcomer in Forks, she is most likely to believe. As a matter a fact, no one should be trying to defame the Cullens, for they have not done anything wrong. They just kept away from humans because they were vampires, and it’s all for the humans’ good.

    2. “Do you have a multiple personality disorder?’’
    -Bella, when it’s the first time Edward actually talked to her after acting strange since they’ve met.
    * (Fallacy of Presumption: Complex Question) Bella here commits a fallacy because it’s like she jumped into conclusions. The question seems to imply that behind the statement, an unproven possibility is true even without discussion or evidence. It presupposes a definite answer to a previous, unstated question. She is implicating that he has a disorder somehow which explains all his bad attitudes towards her in the past.

    3. “If you’re smart, you’ll avoid me”
    – Edward on warning Bella on the dangers of being close with him. He didn’t expose himself as a vampire yet.
    * (Fallacy of Relevance: Appeal to fear) Edward threatens Bella in order to bring about the acceptance of a conclusion-that being with him is a danger, even if Bella had no idea what he is. He tells her that she definitely had a choice- and avoiding him would be best. This tends to persuade without convincing, thus commits the fallacy of the appeal to force or appeal to fear.

    4. “As I half-ran to class, my head was spinning faster than the bottle cap. So few questions had been answered in comparison to how many questions had been raised. At least the rain had stopped.”
    -Bella
    * This is fallacious ( Fallacy of Relevance: Missing the Point ) because as we see, a conclusion has been made which is different from that which are supported by the previous statements. The rain stopping at the moment is another issue, and the issue before was about her thoughts and how she’s gonna solve it; the stopping of the rain won’t solve anything of it.

    5. “You actually listened to me”
    -Edward,
    * (Fallacy of Ambiguity: Accent). There is a shift in meaning here if we emphasize some parts of the structure, like “listened” or “me”. This leads to a fallacious statement. The statement could mean, “ You don’t actually listen, why a change this time?” or “ You listen to anybody but me”.

    6. “ People can’t smell blood”
    -Edward
    * (Fallacy of Relevance: Appeal to Ignorance). Just because we cannot prove true that humans can smell blood doesn’t mean that we must believe it’s true. It must be inability to find someone who can smell blood yet or lack of evidence which claims it to be true today, but it’s not proven false also. Thus, a fallacy is committed.

    7. “It seemed that most vampire myths centered around beautiful women as demons and children as victims, they also seemed like constructs created to explain away the high mortality rates for young children, and give men an excuse for infidelity.”
    – information gotten by Bella on the internet
    * (Fallacy of Presumption: False Cause/non causa pro causa) This is committed when one treats as the cause of a thing what is not really its cause. The conclusion depends on nonexistent or minor causal relation. Two facts related or conjoined doesn’t mean that they are causally related. If vampire killings for example is somewhat related or conjoined with mortality rates and men’s infidelity, it doesn’t follow that the vampire killings definitely caused the mortality rates and men’s infidelity.

    8. “ I think…and if you ever repeat what I’m saying right now I will cheerfully beat you to death, but I think that will hurt Jessica’s feelings.”
    -Bella persuading Mike not to continue flirting/ courting her
    * (Fallacy of Relevance: Argumentum ad Baculum/ Appeal to Force or fear) Again, this tends to persuade without convincing. It is using the threat of harm to advance Bella’s position or opinions that made it fallacious in appeal to fear.

    9. “ Are you going to tell Charlie I’m your boyfriend or not?”
    -Edward to Bella
    * (Fallacy of Relevance: Argumentum ad Baculum/ Appeal to Force or fear) Edward threatens Bella to persuade her to speak the truth to her father. He uses this without convincing using this fallacious method.

    10. “ You can’t bring him down. I’ve never seen anything like him in my three hundred years. He’s been absolutely lethal. That’s why I joined his coven.”
    – Laurent, a killer vampire
    * (Fallacy of Relevance: Argumentum ad Baculum/ Appeal to Force or fear) Because of possible threats or anything that would do to Laurent, he joined James’ coven. He is forced to do so because it would do him good. He also tried to persuade that they must not interfere with James because of these circumstances without convincing, thus a fallacy on appeal to force or fear.

    11. “Since when did you hike?”
    -Charlie, Bella’s dad
    * (Fallacy of Ambiguity: Accent) If words would be emphasized in here, it would change the meaning of the statement. It could mean: “ You can’t even hike”, or “Hiking for you is impossible”. It can also be fallacy of ambiguity-complex question. There is somewhat an intended meaning behind the question.

    12. “When people get too excited, accidents happen”
    – Charlie
    * (fallacy of Presumption: false Cause) This is fallacious because it doesn’t mean that the two statements, being excited and having an accident, even these are conjoined or consequential sometimes, are causally related. Not all excited people gets an accident, and not all accidents arise because of excited people.

    13. “Some part of me, my subconscious maybe, never stopped believing that you still cared whether I lived or died. That’s probably why I was having the voices.”
    -Bella to Edward when she confessed that without him she was having some sort of delusions of him.
    * (Fallacy of Presumption: false cause) even if it’s quite true, it can come out that she just had these delusions because of insanity of any other causes. These conjoined statements maybe causally unrelated. Thus, there might be another cause of the voices in her head, although the first statement can be added or can be counted as a factor of her delusions.

    14. “ You all know what I want. And I’m sure you know what Edward thinks, too. If you decide you don’t want me, then I guess I’ll go back to Italy alone.”
    -Bella
    (Fallacy of Relevance: Argumentum Misericordiam/appeal to pity) On this fallacy, threats or motivating by appeals on pity drives the listeners to an acceptance of whatever the speaker wants. If they don’t easily accept them or her decision she threatens to leave alone.

    15. “How many times have you been a senior?”
    -Bella
    *( Fallacy of Ambiguity: Accent) On several emphasis of different parts, this could mean “How many times have you been back at being a senior?” or “How many times have you repeated school?”, which is definitely a big change in the meaning.
    *(Fallacy of ambiguity- complex question) There is an intended meaning behind the question. Without any proven statements another implied meaning is intended.

    16. Edward: “You know, I’ve never had much patience with Romeo.”
    Bella: “What’s wrong with Romeo?”
    Edward: “Well, first of all, he’s in love with this Rosaline- don’t you think it makes him seem a little fickle? And then, a few minutes after their wedding, he kills Juliet’s cousin. That’s not very brilliant. Mistake after mistake. Could he have destroyed his own happiness any more thoroughly?”

    * ( Fallacy of Relevance: Argumentum ad Hominem) Here it is clearly seen that Edward attacks the personality of Romeo. He is defaming and discrediting him directly. This is a fallacy.

    17. “Edward, look at the facts. Seventy years ago, you came here, and the werewolves showed up. You come back now, and the werewolves show up again. Do you think that’s a coincidence?”
    -Bella
    * (Fallacy of Presumption: false cause) These statements are conjoined, but it doesn’t follow that they are casually related, just like in the other examples. It may just be coincidental and some other facts are causing the comeback of the enemy werewolves.

    18. “Sam would be mad if I broke the treaty, and you probably wouldn’t like it too much if I killed your friend.”
    -Jacob
    *(Fallacy of Relevance: Argumentum ad Baculum/ Appeal to Force or fear) It clearly states a fallacy of threat wherein he doesn’t need to persuade Bella to convince her to stay away. He uses Edward as a threat, saying that he would might kill him unintentionally.

    19.” Normal humans run away from monsters, Bella. And I never claimed to be normal. Just human.”
    -Jacob
    * (Fallacy of Ambiguity) Jacob didn’t much expand the statement. We would see his conclusion is being vague.

    20.” When he left, you spent all your energy holding onto him. You could be happy if you let go. You could be happy with me.”
    -Jacob
    * (Fallacy of false dilemma) He tells that there is no other possible way for Bella to be happy. Either she would hold on to Edward and feel desperate even more, or move on with Jacob. Actually,there could be more possible ways to be happy. It this is where the fallacy is encountered.

  16. 1.)Final Fantasy VII – Advent Children

    Tifa: I’m happy you asked some help from your friends.
    Cloud Strife:”I feel lighter. I think I lost some weight.

    Distraction Fallacy – Red Herring (Missing the point)
    Cloud said that he felt lighter because of lossing weight. But the true cause is he didn’t took all the problems by himself. He shared it with his friends.

    2.)Jumper

    David Rice: [jumps into Griffin's lair] I just came through your jump scar.
    Griffin: What do you think you’re doing here? Huh? If I were you, I’d jump back. You’re not supposed to see all this stuff. Get out! So if you’d like to kindly fuck off, as in now. Maybe your girlfriend’s still alive.

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)
    Griffin wanted to be alone. He was forcing David jump back or else his girlfriend would be in danger.

    3.)Star Wars

    Obi-Wan (to Luke Skywalker): A young Jedi named Darth Vader, who is evil, helped the Empire hunt down and destroy the Jedi knights.

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the person)
    Obi-Wan attacked Vader directly using the word evil which is leveled not at the claim being made.

    4.)X-men – The Last Stand

    The Interrogator: Where is Magneto? Raven? Raven, I asked you a question.
    Raven Darkholme: I don’t answer to my slave name.
    The Interrogator: Raven Darkholme. That’s your real name, isn’t it? Or has he convinced you that you don’t have a family anymore?

    Fallacy of Presumption – Complex Question
    The Interrogator asked question about her family. He jumped into a conclusion without warrant.

    5.)X-men – The Last Stand

    Dr. Jean Grey: [sobbing] Kill me.
    Logan: What?
    Dr. Jean Grey: Kill me before I kill someone else.

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Baculum (Appeal to force)
    Dr. Jean Grey is threatening Logan to kill her before she kills someone else.

    6.)Transformers

    Optimus Prime:You all know there’s only one way to end this war: we must destroy the Cube. If all else fails, I will unite it with the spark in my chest.

    Distraction Fallacy – Slippery Slope
    It doesn’t necessarily means that if they destroy the cube, the war is over. This is a fallacy because it jumps into an implausible conclusion from a premise that does not necessarily imply it.

    7.)Transformers

    Sam Witwicky (to an agent): Where did you take my parents?

    Fallacy of Presumption – Complex Question
    He jumped into the conclusion that the agent did took his parents.

    8.)Daredevil

    Bullseye: I missed… I never miss.

    Fallacy of Presumption – Converse Accident(Hasty Generalization)
    Bullseye might have not missed in the past but he can’t conclude the he will never miss because he doesn’t know the future.

    9.)The Dark Knight

    The Joker: “It’s a funny world we live in, speaking of which, you wanna know how I got these scars?”

    Distraction Fallacy – Red Herring (Missing the point)
    A new topic is sneaked into the discussion.

    10.)You Don’t Mess with the Zohan

    James: Imma blow up this whole block, Imma blow you up, Imma blow up these puppies! And we all gone’ go to hell together, cause I hate these puppies!

    Fallacy of Presumption – False Cause (non causa pro causa)
    The reason is far related to why he will do such things.

    11.)Harry Potter

    Malfoy is disgusted with Mudbloods and he is a Slytherin. The Slytherin House is known for their obsession with their lineage, therefore, they disgust anyone lesser than pure-blood.

    Fallacy of Ambiguity – Division
    It doesn’t mean that only because Malfoy hates Muggles, everyone from his house feels the same way too.

    12.)Harry Potter

    “Harry Potter is dead because he’s not fighting.”

    Fallacy of Distraction – Red Herring (Missing the point)
    It doesn’t really mean that when a person doesn’t want to fight will die. There can be any other reasons why he isn’t fighting.

    13.)Naruto

    D and C Rank missions are the two easiest missions; easiest missions are handled by genins; Therefore, D-Rank and C-Rank missions are for genins.

    Fallacy of Ambiguity – Equivocation
    “Easiest missions” is used with two meanings in the formulation of the argument.

    14.)One Piece

    Luffy: “So you are willing to be my pirate eh? What can offer me as a pirate?”
    Kuma: “I have nowhere to stay. Our fridge is empty and i have no clothes to spare.”

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentam ad Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)
    It replaces support of a claim with an appeal to the pity of the listener. Careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of the conclusion.

    15.)Code Geass

    Lelouch Lamperouge: I am not sure what will happen. Either FREYA will be countered or we will lose the war.

    Distraction Fallacy – False Dilemma
    There are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable.

    16.)Code Geass

    “We must join Zero, he is the symbol of justice. All Elevens are joining with him.”

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to popular prejudice)
    This is committed because one appealed to popularly held beliefs. The speaker encourages bandwagon. It doesn’t mean that if your an Eleven (Japanese) you should join him.

    17.)Naruto

    Kakashi: Sorry I got late. I black cat crossed my path.

    Fallacy of Presumption – False Cause
    It is not really the cause of why he did get late.

    18.)Bleach

    Ichigo: You all know that you don’t want to kill Hitsugaya from the start. Why you still follow the command of your leader?
    Shinigami Captain: You fool! We should follow orders of our leaders. It is an honor in following the commands of high ranking shinigami.

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    The shinigami attempts to capitalize upon the feelings of respect or familiarity with their leaders. There is no legitimate claim to authority.

    19.)Samurai X

    “Hiten Mitsurugi Style is presumably the best that I have learned from Seijuro. I know it because many before him said so.”

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Populum
    It doesn’t mean that it is really the best. It is only the judgement of many.

    20.)The Dark Knight

    Two-Face: The Joker’s just a mad dog. I want whoever let him off the leash.

    Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on The Person)
    Two-Face attacked directly against Joker seeking to discredit him.

  17. Informal Fallacies ^_^

    ———————————————————————————

    Henry Lowe: A brilliant young woman I know was asked once to support her argument in favor of social welfare. She named the most powerful source imaginable: the look in a mother’s face when she cannot feed her children. Can you look that hungry child in the eyes? See the blood on his feet from working barefoot in the cotton fields. Or do you ask his baby sister with her belly swollen from hunger if she cares about her daddy’s work ethics?

    (THE GREAT DEBATERS, Misericordiam)

    ———————————————————————————

    William Wallace: Lower your flags and march straight back to England, stopping at every home you pass by to beg forgiveness for a hundred years of theft, rape, and murder. Do that and your men shall live. Do it not, and every one of you will die today.

    (BRAVEHEART, Ad Baculum)

    ———————————————————————————

    Murphy: Do not kill, do not rape, do not steal, these are principles which every man of every faith can embrace.
    Connor: These are not polite suggestions, these are codes of behavior and those of you that ignore them will pay the dearest cost.

    (THE BOONDOCK SAINTS, Ad Baculum)

    ———————————————————————————

    Agent Smith: I’d like to share a revelation that I’ve had during my time here. It came to me when I tried to classify your species and I realized that you’re not actually mammals. Every mammal on this planet instinctively develops a natural equilibrium with the surrounding environment but you humans do not. You move to an area and you multiply and multiply until every natural resource is consumed and the only way you can survive is to spread to another area. There is another organism on this planet that follows the same pattern. Do you know what it is? A virus. Human beings are a disease, a cancer of this planet. You’re a plague and we are the cure.

    (THE MATRIX, Division/Strawman)

    ———————————————————————————

    Dean Walcott: …you are not cut out to be a physician, and it is my responsibility…
    Hunter Patch Adams: Responsibility? You have one responsibility: to be a dickhead. How hard can that be? All you have to do is make sure your head is a dick, and it’s attached to your neck.

    (PATCH ADAMS, ad Hominem)

    ———————————————————————————

    Hunter Patch Adams: [imitating a skeleton] I have a boner. Wait, I am a boner. (PATCH ADAMS, Equivocation)

    ———————————————————————————

    Tom Dobbs: People say Intelligent Design, we must teach Intelligent Design. Look at the human body, is that intelligent? You have a waste processing plant next to a recreation area.

    (MAN OF THE YEAR, ad Populum)

    ———————————————————————————

    Tom Dobbs: [quoting Benjamin Franklin] Politicians are a lot like diapers. They should be changed frequently, and for the same reason. They’re always full of shi– you get the point.

    (MAN OF THE YEAR, False Analogy)

    ———————————————————————————

    Senator Mills: I support hydrogen cars…
    Tom Dobbs: That’s weird, because you’re backed by oil companies.

    (MAN OF THE YEAR, ad Hominem)

    ———————————————————————————

    Conklin: Now Jason, this only goes two ways. Either you come in and let us make this right, or we’re going to have to keep going until we’re satisfied.

    (BOURNE IDENTITY, False Dilemma)

    ———————————————————————————

    “…but if we are evil, then everything is permitted, I never took a wrong decision, we are all condemned from the start, and it doesn’t matter what we do in this life, for redemption lies beyond human thought or deed.”

    (THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM, Slippery Slope)

    ———————————————————————————

    “It’s nothing to do with you or your village. I’m simply thinking of myself; the story of one man is the story of all men.”

    (THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM, Hasty Generalization)

    ———————————————————————————

    [Cabinet has been debating putting water on the plants instead of Brawndo]
    Pvt. Joe Bowers: What *are* these electrolytes? Do you even know?
    Secretary of State: They’re… what they use to make Brawndo!
    Pvt. Joe Bowers: But *why* do they use them to make Brawndo?
    Secretary of Defense: [raises hand after a pause] Because Brawndo’s got electrolytes.

    (IDIOCRACY, Begging the Question/Circular Reasoning)

    ———————————————————————————

    Rita: You think Einstein walked thinkin’ everyone was bunch of dumb shits?
    Pvt. Joe Bowers: Yeah. Hadn’t thought of that.
    Rita: Now you know why he built that bomb.

    (IDIOCRACY, False Cause)

    ———————————————————————————

    John Smith: [angry that Benjamin had blown their cover] You burn the picture after you get the assignment! It’s the first thing you learn!
    Benjamin: Oh, I must have missed that day. Just like you missed the one about not marrying the enemy.

    (MR. & MRS. SMITH, Red Herring)

    ———————————————————————————

    Grace: Oh, God.
    Bruce: You can call me Bruce.

    (BRUCE ALMIGHTY, Amphiboly)

    ———————————————————————————

    Forrest Gump: My momma always said you can tell a lot about a person by their shoes, where the go, where they’ve been. I’ve worn lots of shoes, I bet if I think about it real hard I can remember my first pair of shoes.

    (FORREST GUMP, ad Verecundiam)

    ———————————————————————————

    Edna: Men at Robert’s age are often unstable… prone to weakness.
    Helen: What are you saying?
    Edna: Do you know where he is?
    Helen: Of course…
    Edna: Do you *know* where he is?

    (THE INCREDIBLES, Accent)

    ———————————————————————————

    “Fundamentalist Christianity is on the rise among the electorate of the world’s only superpower, right up to and including the President. If you believe the surveys, 45 percent of Americans, that’s about 135 million people, believe the universe is less than ten thousand years old.”

    (Richard Dawkins, Sweeping Generalization)

  18. 1. Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    “Our modern states are preparing for war without even knowing the future enemy.”
    ___Famous Saying___
    In this sentence, there are no proofs that there would be a future enemy or none. In addition, we don’t know yet whether there would be a war or none. It’s all because we are still ignorant to due our present lackness of ability to predict the future.
    ———————————–
    2. Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum Verecundiam
    “It’s a forbidden technique because the Hokage said so.”
    ___Naruto Series___
    This is illegitimate because the Hokage claim all the authority so as the the technique becomes forbidden without sufficient evidence and proofs.
    ———————————–
    3. Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Dumb, I mean you!”
    ___Historys Strongest Disciple Kenichi___
    It directly attacks against persons by saying dumb which disgrace the person’s dignity and rights.
    ———————————–
    4. Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Populum
    “This is the most famous Icha Icha Novel by Jiraiya-sama! Everyone loves the story so I need to read one.”
    ___Naruto: Hurricane Chronicles___
    This is a fallacy because Kakashi are going to buy it due to its popularity in the market without carefully assessing the quality of the book.
    ———————————–
    5. Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Stop this now or else!”
    ___Historys Greatest Disciple Kenichi___
    This is fallacious because the arguer is restraining the dependant from choosing his own set of choices and reasons.
    ———————————–
    6. Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum Misericordiam
    “Even if we went back, we won’t be any help to him.”
    ___Historys Greatest Disciple Kenichi___
    The speaker is appealing pity by accepting the fact that they can’t do nothing; hence, they shouldn’t go back to help him.
    ———————————–
    7. Fallacy of Relevance – Ignorantio Elenchi
    ” Love begins with a smile, grows with a kiss, and ends with a teardrop.”
    ___Famous Saying___
    The first two phrases are irrelevant to the last one, such that the speaker already assumes faulty conclusion from two positive premises. In other words, the speaker establishes a new conclusion drawn from love while not supported by its premises.
    ———————————–
    8. Fallacy of Presumption – Complex Question
    “Why can’t we catch a break?”
    ___Naruto Series___
    Multiple questions are concealed or can be extracted from the question. Naruto may mean that, “Why can’t we finish our training?” or “Why there are so many obstacles?”
    ———————————–
    9. Fallacy of Presumption – False Cause (Non causa pro causa)
    “They say that anyone who wears this pendant would die and so that what happened to my brother”
    ___Naruto Shippuuden___
    This is truly a fallacious statement from Tsunade-sama because she already gave a reason to such death of her brother which is not proven to be the real cause. It’s might be something else.
    ———————————–
    10. Fallacy of Presumption – Petitio Principii (Begging the Question)
    “Love is for real and so reality is love.”
    ___A World is An Apple___
    Love is real is restated in other terms by giving the same meaning as reality is love does.
    ———————————–
    11. Fallacy of Presumption – Accident
    “You’re from a public school. I’m from a private school. Therefore, I’m better than you.”
    ___Telenovela___
    From this example, one already implies that someone who came from private school is better than someone who came from public schools. This is not true to all students who came from public.
    ———————————–
    12. Fallacy of Presumption – Converse Accident
    “I have observed that 3 of them were killed so it’s not a genjutsu. If it was a genjutsu, I haven’t seen someone who can manipulate such technique! Therefore, Pein can’t be using genjutsu.”
    ___Naruto Shippuuden___
    This is fallacious because during the conversation between Shikamaru and the Decoder, they hastily conclude that Pein can’t do a genjutsu because no one ever did such technique that good.
    ———————————–
    13. Fallacy of Presumption – Equivocation
    “Being weak is good, and being useless is dumb. Therefore, being useless is good for someone like you.”
    ___Naruto Hurricane Chronicles___
    This is fallacious because the word useless and good has different meaning from its respective premises.
    ———————————–

    14. Fallacy of Presumption – Amphiboly
    “It’s been said that you only truly fall in love once, but I don’t believe it. Every time I see you, I fall in love all over again”
    ___Famous Saying___
    The word love is indecisive. The connotation of love may differ from the first in contrast with the second sentence. It may differently signify lust, adoration, worship, affection or passion in both sentences.
    ———————————–
    15. Fallacy of Ambiguity – Accent
    “A best friend is somebody who knows every last thing about you, yet still manages to like you anyway.”
    ___Famous Saying___
    The meaning of its content is uncertain and may vary by giving several stresses on certain words of it. Example, when you put a stress on somebody, the speaker may mean that a “best friend” is a person, a family or any body with a capability to become a best friend. Another is when you put emphasis on like you anyway. The speaker may like to clarify the characteristics of a best friend, or to pinpoint somebody whose he/she furious is and telling he/she’s not a best friend.
    It is also an Amphiboly, because we’re vaguely arguing some terms like: What last things?
    ———————————–
    16. Fallacy of Ambiguity – Division
    “You know how strong the Uchiha clan is. And, since Sasuke came from there, he must be strong too. Don’t understimate him because he’s a child.”
    ___Naruto series___
    Take note that the assassin group of sound village made a fallacy when they assumed that Sasuke is strong because he came from the Uchiha clan. It doesn’t mean that the clan is strong, Sasuke is also strong.
    ———————————–
    17. Distraction Fallacy – False Analogy
    ” It is easier to forgive an enemy than to forgive a friend.”
    ___Famous Saying___
    It is a fallacy of false analogy since it already concludes that it is easier to forgive an enemy than a friend without citing first the resemblance or implicit meaning of the words.
    ———————————–
    18. Distraction Fallacy – False Dilemma
    “To respond is positive, to react is negative. “
    ___Famous Saying___
    In this case, the anonymous writer restricts us from only two choices or alternatives: if negative, then you react; if it is positive, then you respond.
    ———————————–
    19. Distraction Fallacy – Red Herring
    “Trust in that family, when you think there are some things you can’t tell them, then that is nothing but betraying them.
    ___Historys Greatest Disciple Kenichi___
    This case is faulty because it diverts trust in betrayal to some things you can’t say. This can be also become ignoratio elenchi because the conclusion is not relevant to its premises.
    ———————————–
    20. Distraction Fallacy – Slippery Slope
    “He should not train in that way. Sooner or later he’ll become addicted. He cannot control anymore his movements. He wanted to train and train until he feels weak and die.”
    ___Baki the Grappler___
    Baki’s mother made a slippery slope fallacy when she describes Baki’s intense training in the mountain. She potrays his training as addiction and sooner he’ll die without knowing it.

  19. Sources: Harry Potter Series
    A. Fallacy of Relevance
    R1. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Cornelius Fudge: Our aurors of the ministry had searched all over the forests of Albania. Voldemort is gone now forever.
    – Maybe Voldemort moved in a different place? Fudge cannot prove that Voldemort is gone because the fact tha Voldemort wasn’t in the forests of Albania imply that he has vanished forever.
    R2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    Madame Hooch: All first years are not allowed to ride broomsticks without my presence as Professor Mcgonagall ordered.
    – Madame Hooch did not cite the real reason for her statement.
    R3. Argumentum ad Populum
    Ron: Every player in Ireland had a Nimbus 2001. I wish I had one.
    – The real reason Ron wanted the broom is because a popular icon had it.
    R4. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Voldemort: Oh, So Dumbledore will save you? That muggle-loving,mudblood champion. That fool?
    – Voldemort attacks the character of Dumbledore
    R5. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Voldemort: Give up or bow to death, Potter
    – Voldemort is threatening Harry
    R6. Argumentum ad Misericordian
    Dobby: Believe me sir. The Malfoys will kill poor Dobby if you don’t.
    – Dobby is appealing with the use of the consequence of no believing him.
    R7. Ignorantio Elenchi
    Harry: Look. I saved your life Hermione from the troll and you will not help me out?
    – Harry is missing the point. He reasoned out a different situation.
    Fallacies of Presumption
    P1. Complex question
    Malfoy: I heard that you faint in the train Potter. Been losing your mind,eh?
    – Malfoy jumps into a conclusion w/o sufficient evidence
    P2. Faulse Cause
    Uncle Vernon: Ever since Harry lived with us. We always have misfortunes.
    – It doesn’t follow that misfortunes happen because of a person
    P3. Petitio Prinicpii
    Proffesor Dumbledore: You must understand that the mission is very dangerous because you may get killed.
    – The conclusion has the same meaning as the premise
    P4. Accident
    Ron: I think Krum did it because he came from Durmstrang. Do you know that students in Durmstrang practice Dark Arts?
    – Ron’s conclusion about Krum has insufficient evidence.
    P5. Converse Accident
    Hermione: The only parseltounges known are the Dark Lord and Slytherin, himself. Harry, you are a parseltounge. It makes you the heir of Slytherin.
    – Hermione assumes that if Slytherin and Harry can speak parseltounge, then they are related.

    Fallacies of Ambiguity
    A1. Equivocation
    Ollivander: Voldemort did great things Harry. Then we expect great things from you.
    – Ollivander used the word great in 2 meanings. The great things of Voldemort are evilness and destruction. What is the meaning of great in the context of Harry? Is it evilness or goodness?
    A2. Amphiboly
    Professor Trelawney: I am sorry my dear but you don’t have the “eye”.
    – What eye is Professor Trelawney referring to? Is it the accuracy of the eye or the talent of divination?
    A3. Accent
    Harry: How’s Percy?
    Ginny: Been getting busier. A little bit disturbed if you’d ask me.
    – There is an emphasis used in the sentence.
    A4. Composition
    Professor Mcgonagall: Divination is an imprecise branch of magic. Students studying it will become careless and inaccurate.
    – Proffesor reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part to the whole
    A5. Division
    Ron: Muggles should know quidditch. Why,qudditch is the most popular sport in the whole wizarding world!
    – Ron used different situations.

  20. 1)
    “because you’re a coordinator too…you weren’t fighting seriously, were you?!”
    -fllay allster (gundam seed destiny)

    P4, Accident, the fallacy is committed when one applies a generalization to an individual case that it does not properly govern.

    in this example, flay accuses kira of not fighting ZAFT seriously because he is a coordinator, but in truth…there was just too many for kira to handle on his own. flay generalized that all coordinators would never fight ZAFT seriously.

    2)
    “if you do not antagonize them, we will treat you as our enemy”
    -EAF to ORB (gundam seed destiny)

    R5 Argumentum ad Baculum, the fallacy is committed when careful reasoning is replaced with the direct or insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of
    some conclusion. (appeal to force)

    in this example, the EAF is forcing orb to join their alliance, if they did not, the EAF will burn down orb again, the EAF is threatening orb to destroy orb if orb did not accept it’s offer, the fact that orb’s safety is threatened is no grounds for accepting to join the alliance, it is not a good enough reason to accept the conclusion

    3)
    shinn disobeyed direct orders and returned a prisoner to the enemy because “she was suffering so much and was terrified”
    -shinn asuka(gundam seed destiny)

    R6 Argumentum Misericordiam
    the fallacy is commited when careful reasoning is replaced with direct or insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion. it replaces support of a claim with an “appeal to pity” of the reader or listener.

    in this example, shinn disobeyed orders and used military resources to his personal gain, his reason is he wanted to help someone who was suffering and terrified, this is a case of an “appeal to pity” the situation of the person he helped was indeed a pity, but pity should not be the reason to break rules.

    4)
    killing all the naturals is the right path to take because patrick zala said so
    -unknown GINN type 2 pilot (gundam seed destiny)

    R2 this fallacy is commited when the premises of an arguement appeal to the judgement of some party/parties having no legitimate claim to authority in the matter at hand.

    in this example, the pilot said that killing all the naturals is the correct thing to do for coordinators because patrcik zala said so, he did not give an arguement on it, he just stated an authority.

    5)
    You move to an area, and you multiply, and multiply, until every natural resource is consumed. The only way you can survive is to spread to another area. There is another organism on this planet that follows the same pattern. A virus. Human beings are a disease, a cancer of this planet, you are a plague, and we are the cure.
    -agent smith (the matrix)

    D4 Staw Man, this fallacy is committed when the arguer makes a position appear strong solely by making the opposing position weaker than it really is. That is when one puts a weak arguement in an opponents mouth when stronger arguements are available.

    in this example, agent smith diverts the attention from the purpose of humans by making them appear so useless and makes them look like a virus, yes, humans do multiply and they consume natural resources but they can also find a way to coexist with nature peacefully, they can find ways to replace the resources they consumed.

    6)
    [After a mysterious wind blows up for the 2nd time.]
    That happens a lot around here, doesn’t it?
    -Rick O’Connell (the mummy)

    P5 converse accident (hasty generalization)
    this fallacy is comitted when once movesa carelessly or too quickly from a single case to an indefensible broad generalization.

    in this example rick said that a myterious wind blows often there after experiencing it for 2 times. just because it happened two times doesn’t mean that it happens there often, 2 times is not enough to say that it happens often.

    7)
    Ronald Quincy I know the presidents’ chief advisor, we were at MIT together. And, at this point in time, you really don’t want to take advice from a man who got a C minus in astrophysics. The presidents’ advisors are wrong. I am right.
    -Ronald Quincy (armageddon)

    R3 Argumentum ad Hominem(attack to the person)
    this fallacy is committed when an attack is leveled not at the claims being made or the merits of the arguement, but at the person of the opponent.

    in this example, ronald “poisoned the well” before anyone could drink from it, he already discredited the president’s cheif advisor before, the advisor could even speak.

    8)
    USA, The world’s biggest leper colony. Why? Godlessness. Let me say that again… Godlessness. It wasn’t the war they started. It wasn’t the plague they created. It was Judgement.
    -Lewis Prothero (v for vendetta)

    P2 False Cause
    the fallacy is committed when one treats as the cause of a thing what is not really its cause. that is when what is not a cause or reason is assumed to be its cause or reason.

    in this example, lewis prothero said that the reason why USA became inflicted by a plague and became a leper colony is because of godlessness, lewis is saying that the USA does not worship God, so they were punished by a plague. eventhough there is no proof that this is the real cause, he assumed that godlessness was the cause for the suffering of people in the USA

    9)
    “We can’t keep hiding at the bottom of the sea like a bunch of oysters in their shells.” -Cagalli(gundam seed destiny)

    D3 False analogy
    this fallacy is committed when two things are presumed to be more similar than they really are.

    in this example, cagalli compared themselves to oysters hiding in their shells, because they were hiding underwater, at the time, they had one similar characteristic, but it isn’t enough to compare themselves properly, they are not really similar to oysters.

    10)
    no woman wakes up saying “God, I hope I don’t get swept off my feet today!”
    -hitch (hitch)

    A3 Accent
    this fallacy is committed when a shift of meaning arises within an arguement as a consequence of changes in the emphases given to its words or parts.in this example, if you put the accent on “no woman” the statement could mean the opposite, because the arguer is being sarcastic.

    11)
    “Fighting is not the answer! We can’t let anger and hatred control us! If we attack each other now, the world will become a battlefield once again. Nothing will be gained, and all will be lost!”
    – Athrun (gundam seed destiny)

    D2 Slippery Slope
    this fallacy is committed when conclusion depends on the unlikely chain reaction.

    in this example, athrun said that if we let anger control us, we will attack each other, then the world will become a battlefield once again, and all will be lost, this is an unlikely chain reaction from letting anger control us, it doesn’t necessarily follow that the world will be at war once we let anger control us…

    12)

    “My daughter’s tombstone must fall! It’s the only way the world will ever change!”
    – one of the Junius 7 Terrorists(gundam seed destiny)

    D5 False Dilemma
    this fallacy is committed when one claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable, so we should choose the other, but in reality, there are more alternatives.

    in this example, the terrorist is saying that it’s either his daughter’s tombstone must fall onto the earth or it will never change, since they want the world to change it’s violent ways, they said that the tombstone must fall(a giant peice of debris falling on the earth), this is a fallacy because there are more alternatives in changing the world.

    13)
    “We all have just one life to live. And this is your life you’re living!”
    -Kira(gundam seed destiny)

    P3 Petitio Principii (begging the question)
    this fallacy is committed when the conclusion is restated in other terms and then used it as a premise to prove the very same conclusion.

    in this example, kira said that we all have one life to live, and its our life we’re living….both the premise (we all have one life to live) and the conclusion (this is your life you are living) means the same thing, it is just stated differently

    14)
    [nero strikes the ground with his sword and spins on the spot extinguishing

    berial's flames]
    “when i came into this world 2000 years ago, there was no such human as the likes of you”
    -berial (devil may cry 4)

    R1 Argumentum Ignorantiam
    this fallacy is committed when it is argued that a proposition is true on the ground that it has not been proven false, or when it is argued that a proposition is false because it has not been proved to be true.

    in this example, berial said, that 2000 years ago, no human could do what nero did, but there isn’t really any proof that no one was able to do it because it was impossible for berial to have observed all humans 2000 years ago. so, he cannot prove that nobody was like nero 2000 years ago

    15)
    The ZAFT is evil! you’re a part of the ZAFT, you must be evil too!
    – unknown little boy to Athrun (gundam seed)

    A5 Division
    this fallacy os committed when (1) arguer reasons from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its parts, (2) when one reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a totality of some collection of entities to the attributes of the individual entities within that collection

    in this example, the boy reasoned that athrun must be evil because he’s part of an alliance that does wicked things, but this is not true, because athrun already wants to leave that alliance and he disagrees with the decision of the alliance.

    16)
    “Look at her! Because she (Jun) hasn’t got any boyfriends around she fawns all over her guardian ghost.”
    -Len(shaman king)

    D1 Red Herring
    this fallacy is committed when one diverts the discussion from the real subject to a related but different one.

    in this example, len said that jun fawns around her guardian ghost because she doesn’t have any boyfriends, although this might be true, it diverts from the real reason why she fawns around her guardian ghost.

    17)
    people say he’s(amidamaru) a demon, so he must be evil
    -manta (shaman king)

    R4 argumentum ad populum
    this fallacy is comitted when one appeals to popularly held beliefs as premises to a conclusion

    in this example, manta reasoned that amidamaru is evil because people and books say that he’s a demon, but this isn’t true, because the people didn’t know the real story behind his attack. a lot of people beleiveng something does not guarantee its truth

    18)
    do you think you can be shaman king?
    -len to yoh (shaman king)

    P1 Complex question
    this fallacy is comitted when a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in that question.

    in this example, len asked you if he thinks he can be shaman king, he presupposed a definite answer to “do you want to become a shaman king?” and “are you going to participate in the tournament?”, it is a simple question but consists of several questions rolled into one, len assumed that yoh wanted to become a shaman king and he is going to join the tournament without proof.

    19)
    silva controls 5 sacred spirits, all shaman fight commissioners use 5 sacred spirits
    -manta (shaman king)

    A4 Composition
    this fallacy is committed when arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of an individual member of some collection, to the attributes of the totality of that collection

    in this example, manta reasoned that since silva is a shaman fight commissioner, and he uses 5 sacred spirits, all shaman fight commissioners use 5 sacred spirits, this commits the fallcy of composition, tho whole may have some properties not possesed by its parts.

    20)
    “i cannot forgive you for harming a friend!”
    -yoh asakura to faust VIII (shaman king)

    A2 amphiboly
    this fallacy is committed when one of the statements in an arguement has more than one plausible meaning, because of the loose and awkward way in wich the words in that statement have been combined.

    in this example, yoh said he cannot forgive faust for harming A friend, but it is not clear whose friend faust is harming, it could be faust’s friend or yoh’s friend. the fallacy of amphiboly is committed.

    (pls forgive any typographical errors, i did this in notepad, which is kinda my fault, so it isn’t really an excuse, still, i am sorry for any typographical errors,i hope those kind of errors won’t affect my grade for this)

  21. the smiley in my earlier post is supposed to be the # 8….sorry, i did not realize it would become a smiley

  22. continuation….
    D1. Red Herring
    Cornelius Fudge: Why, Dumbledore! You-Know-Who cannot be returned to full strength! Look in the Daily Prophet. No wizard has been murdered since.
    – Fudge diverts the statement that Voldemort returns.

    D2. Slippery Slope
    Dolores Umbridge: Joining in any student organization is completely banned to all students. Anyone caught will be brought to the Ministry and to be punished without mercy. Do you understand?

    D3. Straw Man
    Hagrid: But professor, Malfoy insulted Ron’s family.
    Professor Snape: Be it as it may, Hagrid but fighting in the corridor is totally wrong. Weasley here attacked Malfoy. Ten points from Gryffindor.

  23. 1.Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Mr. Velasco is a paragon of honesty because he has never been caught cheating or telling a lie.

    Explanation: The argument is taken as true even if there is no evidence yet.

    2. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    Advertising is a rich source of examples of this fallacy. Nora Aunor says that “the ideal number of children in the family is three” . Undoubtedly, Nora Aunor’s word carries greater weight to the masses that say, Mercedes B. Concepcion, who is the director of the Population Institute of the University of the Philippines.
    Explanation: To quote an artist such as Nora Aunor on the subject of demography is to commit the fallacy of appealing to authority.

    3. Argumentum ad Hominem
    Malcolm X: Brothers and sisters, I am here to tell you that I charge the white man. I charge the white man with being the greatest murderer on earth. I charge the white man with being the greatest kidnapper on earth. There is no place in this world that this man can go and say he created peace and harmony. Everywhere he’s gone he’s created havoc. Everywhere he’s gone he’s created destruction. So I charge him. I charge him with being the greates kidnapper on this earth! I charge him with being the greatest murderer on this earth! I charge him with being the greatest robber and enslaver on this earth! I charge the white man with being the greatest swine-eater on this earth. The greatest drunkard on this earth! He can’t deny the charges! You can’t deny the charges! We’re the living proof *of* those charges! You and I are the proof. You’re not an American, you are the victim of America. You didn’t have a choice coming over here. He didn’t say, “Black man, black woman, come on over and help me build America”. He said, “Nigger, get down in the bottom of that boat and I’m taking you over there to help me build America”. Being born here does not make you an American. I am not an American, you are not an American. You are one of the 22 million black people who are the *victims* of America. You and I, we’ve never see nany democracy. We didn’t see any… democracy on the-the cotton fields of Georgia, wasn’t no democracy down there. We didn’t see any democracy. We didn’t see any democracy on the streets of Harlem or on the streets of Brooklyn or on the streets of Detroit or Chicago. Ain’t no democracy down there. No, we’ve never seem democracy! All we’ve seen is hypocrisy! We don’t see any American Dream. We’ve experienced only the American Nightmare!
    Explanation: The person here, Malcolm X, attacks the white people here because he is so mad at them. It is here wher he released his convictions

    4.Argumentum ad Populum
    Person 1: Tom, Yesterday was my birthday, you forgot it again,
    Person 2: How do you expect me to remember your birthday, eh hindi ka naman tumatanda.
    Person 1: (Kinikilig)
    Person 2: (Inside his head) Quick thinking ha?

    Explanation: The person 1 here brings flattery to the 2nd person. He says what person 2 wants to hear.
    5.Argumentum Misericordiam
    The accused in a robbery case must not be put to jail, because he is a father of 12 children and the husband of a woman who is suffering from cancer.
    Explanation: This arises when the person appeals to mercy and sympathy.
    6.Argumentum ad Baculum
    Company Owner: And that, ladies and gentlemen, is my new office policy. All right, for those who don’t agree… say I RESIGN!
    Explanation: The Owner her uses intimidation in order to gain acceptance of his propositions.

    7.Complex Question
    Have you stopped cheating on exams?
    Explanation: This question is not answerable by a simple answer
    8.Petitio Principii
    “Crispa is the best team in the PBA”
    “Why is it the best team?”
    “Because it has won most of its games.”
    “Why did it win most of its games?”
    “Because it is the best team in the league”

    9.Converse Accident
    Women are at the bottom of all troubles
    Ilocanos are thrifty
    Ilongos are carefree
    Tagalogs are lovers
    Baptists are fundamentalists
    Lawyers are liars
    My Adidas shoe lasted for only two months and my brother’s Adidas lasted for two months. This proves that Adidas shoes can only last for two months.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because these statements uses hasty generalizations
    10.False Cause
    Jack killed a black cat. The following day, he died. Therefore, it is the killing of the black cat that caused Jill’s illness.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because one assigns a wrong cause on what happened.
    11.Equivocation
    All atheists are separated from God.
    All sinners are separated from God.
    Therefore, all sinners are atheists.
    Explanation: The word “separated from God” is the equivocal term and it is used to mean differently in the 2 premises.

    12.Amphiboly
    “While standing on his hind legs, the Physical Education played with his dog”.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because there is something wrong on the grammatical composition

    13.Accent
    You may laugh as you like: Others may not laugh
    You may laugh as you like: You are not prohibited from laughing
    You may laugh as you like: It is permissible that you may laugh or you may not laugh
    Explanation: This may be fallacies because the sentence might mean differently depending on the way it is said.

    14.Division
    All Filipinos are Christians
    The Ibanags are Filipinos
    Hence the Ibanags are Christians.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because it is wrong to say that what is wrong to the whole is wrong to the parts

    15.Composition
    Toyota Tamaraws is an excellent basketball team because Robert Jaworski is an excellent player.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because it is wrong to say that a part can symbolize the whole.

    16.Accident
    The grade which one gets in a Board Exam measures the kind of intelligence one has. Paul failed in the CPA Board Exam. Therefore, Paul has low intelligence.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because there are some cases when particular cases have circumstances which may not allow the general rules to be applicable.

    17.False Analogy
    Smoking is bad for the membrane of the lungs. If you want to see what it can do to membranes, just try getting the smoke into your eyes.
    Explanation: This is a fallacy because the membrane of the lungs is different from the membrane of the eyes, these are two incomparable things.

    18.Slippery Slope
    Pag wala ka ballpen, wala ka notes.
    Pag wala ka notes, wala pag- aaral.
    Pag walang pag-aaral, walang diploma.
    Pag walang diploma, walang work.
    Pag walang work, walang pera.
    Pag walang pera, walang food.
    Pag walang food, magugutom.
    Pag gutom,papayat.
    Pag payat,papangit.
    Pag pangit, walang syota.
    Pag walang syota, walang Asawa.
    Pag walang asawa, walang anak.
    Pag walang anak, madedepress.
    Pag depress, magkakasakit.
    Pag nagkasakit, mamatay!
    Explanation: This sentences lead to a wrong conclusion
    19.Red Herring
    We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.
    Explanation: While a topic is already talked about, another topic is being talked about that leads the talk to be far away from the real topic.
    20.Straw Man
    Bill and Jill are arguing about cleaning out their closets:
    Jill: “We should clean out the closets. They are getting a bit messy.”
    Bill: “Why, we just went through those closets last year. Do we have to clean them out everyday?”
    Jill: “I never said anything about cleaning them out every day. You just want too keep all your junk forever, which is just ridiculous.”

    Explanation: This is a fallacy because the statement shows that the other’s argument has been wrongly presented by showing that the other has a better argument.
    —————————————————————————————-
    Sources and references: ww.imdb.com(movie lines), the nikzor project, LOGIC by Salvador D. Martinez, Logic by Eddie R. Babor, LL.B. , Introduction to Logic 9th edition by Irving M. Copi and Carl Cohen, Baltic & Co Comics, Pugad Baboy by Paul Medina Jr.,

    —Sartre Genesis R. Padilla—1CS-2——————————

  24. *R1 – Argumentum ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)
    Source: Copi and Cohen
    “Since you cannot prove that ghosts do not exist, therefore they must exist.”
    Explanation: In view of the fact that science has no proof that ghosts do not exist it doesn’t imply that they do exist. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Argumentum ad Ignorantiam.

    *R2 – Argumentum ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)
    Source: Mean Girls
    Gretchen: “I’m not allowed to wear hoop earrings because Regina said so.”
    Explanation: In this situation Gretchen only stated that she’s not allowed to wear such earrings because Regina, the leader of the group who has the authority within her, said that she can’t but she didn’t affirmed clearly the reasons why. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Argumentum ad Verecundiam or to Appeal to Inappropriate Authority.

    *R3 – Argumentum ad Hominem (Attack on the Person)
    Source: Mean Girls
    Janis: “Evil takes its human form on Regina George. Don’t be fooled cause she may look like your typical back-stabbing, slut-faced, ho-bag but in reality she’s worst than that!”
    Explanation: On this event, Janis called Regina George some foul names and she verbally abused her. Thus making Janis as the attacker, In other words, she used “name calling” to attack the other and this phenomenon falls under the first case of Argumentum ad Hominem or the “attack on the person”

    *R4 – Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to the people)
    Source: Mean Girls
    Girl in school: “They say that Cady Heron is so hot. One time I saw her wearing army pants and flip-flops, so I bought army pants and flip-flops.”
    Explanation: Since that Cady is getting popular around the campus and people keep on mentioning how hot and cool she was some girls in school tried to copy her fashion style thinking that it would make them hot/cool too and that it would make them be “in” with the crowd. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Argumentum ad Populum (Appeal to the people) due to the fact that “mob mentality” arouses among the arguer.

    *R5 – Argumentum Misericordiam (Appeal to pity)
    Source: Mean Girls
    Ms. Norbury: “You don’t have to dumb yourself to get someone to like you.”
    Cady: “How would you know?”
    Ms. Norbury: “I’m divorce; I’m broke from getting divorce. The only guy that calls my house is Randy from Chase Visa. And you know why? Because I’m a pusher, I pushed my husband to law school and that was a bust and I pushed myself to work three jobs.”
    Explanation: In this situation, Cady asked Ms. Norbury how would she know but instead of answering Cady’s question, Ms. Norbury started talking about all the mishaps she had in her life. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Argumentum Misericordiam or Appeal to pity because Ms. Norbury tried to catch Cady’s sympathy towards her that made the conversation totally out of the topic or irrelevant.

    *R6 – Argumentum ad Baculum (Apeal to force)
    Source: Mean Girls
    Kristen Hadley: “Talk to me again and I’ll kick your ass.”
    Explanation: Here, Kristen used force to threaten Cady to not talk to her that bring about the acceptance of the situation. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Argumentum ad Baculum.

    *R7 – Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the point)
    Source: Mean Girls
    Kevin: “Hey, you’re the Africa girl, right?”
    Cady: “Yeah.”
    Kevin: “I’m Kevin Gnapoor, captain of the North Shore Mathletes. We participate in math challenges against other high schools in the state, and we can get twice as much funding if we’ve got a girl. So you should think about joining.”
    Explanation: In this event, Kevin is asking Cady to join the Mathletes but instead of convincing her to join and telling her how great she was and that’s the reason why she has to join, he said something else instead that divert the subject from thing to another which causes to miss the point of the premise. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Ignorantio Elenchi.

    *P1 – Complex question
    Source: Mean girls
    Cady: “Do you still like her?”
    Explanation: Here, Cady asked Aaron whether he still like Regina but in such a way that another question is within that question. The implication is that he used to like her in the past but that can’t be easily answered by a simple yes or no. in this case the unstated question is “Did you like her in the past?” followed by, “If you loved her in the pass, do you still like her until now?” Therefore this is under the fallacy of Complex question.

    *P2 – False Cause (non causa pro causa)
    Source: Naruto Shipuden
    Ino: “When we go out with Kiba, its full of curses. This time, Kiba’s not around, since there are just the two of us, it’s a lucky day!”
    Explanation: Kiba’s presence or absence is non-causal to Ino’s everyday life and it doesn’t affect the things that about to happen to her, the assumption is just a senseless excuse. Therefore this is under the fallacy of False Cause.

    *P3 – Petitio Principii (Begging the question)
    Source: Mean Girls
    Janis: “Cause she’s a life-ruiner, she ruins people’s lives.”
    Explanation: Here, the word life-ruiner has the same meaning as ruining people’s lives and they are univocal to each other. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Petitio Principii (Begging the question) also called as circular argument.

    *P4 – Accident (Sweeping Generalization)
    Source: Plato’s Republic Book
    “It is good to return things you have borrowed. Therefore, you should return this automatic rifle from the madman you borrowed it from.”
    Explanation: It is true that it’s good to return things that you have borrowed but that doesn’t apply to all. In this situation the riffle that he had borrowed from a madman shouldn’t be returned anymore because that would only make things worse. That’s why returning things that has been borrowed doesn’t apply in this cases and therefore must not be taken generally. Therefore this is under the fallacy of sweeping generalization.

    *P5 – Converse Accident (Hasty Generalization)
    Source: Barker
    “Fred the Australian stole my wallet. Thus, all Australians are thieves.”
    Explanation: Here, an Australian stole a wallet but we shouldn’t judge all Australians on the basis of one example. Therefore this is under the fallacy of hasty generalization.

    *P6 – False Dilemma
    Source: Mean Girls
    Cady: “The meaner Regina was to her, the more Gretchen tried to win Regina back. She knew it was better to be in The Plastics, hating life than to not be in at all. Because being with The Plastics was like being famous. People looked at you all the time, and everybody just knew stuff about you.”
    Explanation: In this situation, Gretchen is claiming that there is only two alternatives for her to choose and it is whether to be in The Plastics or not to be in it at all. And since the other one is unacceptable the only choice she has is to choose the other. Therefore this is under the fallacy of False dilemma.

    *A1 – Equivocation
    Source: The Abortion Controversy
    “The elements of the moral argument on the status of unborn life strongly favor the conclusion that this unborn segment of humanity has a right not to be killed.”
    “The humanity of the patient’s appendix is medically undeniable. Therefore, the appendix has a right to life and should not be surgically removed.”
    Explanation: This scenario equivocates on the word humanity, which is the condition of being human and the characteristic of mankind. , it is true that the “humanity” of an embryo or fetus is medically undeniable, in the second sense of “human”—that is, it is a “human embryo or fetus”. It is, however, an equivocation on “human” to conclude that it “has a right not to be killed”. Parts of the human body are “human” in this sense, but it is only a whole human being who has a right to life. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Equivocation.

    *A2 – Amphiboly
    Source: Mean Girls
    Regina: “Why were you talking to Janis Ian?”
    Cady: “I don’t know, I mean, she’s so weird. She just, you know, came up to me and started talking to me about crack.”
    Explanation: In this event the word crack was used. The word crack seems to be harmless if its talking about its literal meaning which is to break or solve something. Otherwise, it could also mean as an illegal substance, if crack meant cocaine. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Amphiboly.

    *A3 – Accent
    Source: Mean Girls
    Gretchen: “Regina, you’re wearing sweatpants. It’s Monday.”
    Explanation: Here, the statement may only state or assert that Regina is wearing a sweatpants and its Monday but the meaning of the premise changes when an emphasis or stress is given to the word Monday. Since that they’re not suppose to wear sweatpants on Mondays, Gretchen is pointing it out clearly and frankly to Regina that’s why while uttering this line she gave emphasis to the word Monday for Regina to notice what she intended to say. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Accent.

    *A4 – Composition
    Source: Mean Girls
    Damian: “In the name of all that is holy, will you look at Karen Smith’s gym clothes.”
    Janis: “The Plastics wear the same gym clothes.”
    Explanation: In this scene, Damian point out what Karen Smith is wearing then Janis reasoned out mistakenly by pointing out that since Karen Smith is a part of the group named Plastics, therefore everyone who is in that social clique also wears the same gym clothes. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Composition.

    *A5 – Division
    Source: Mean Girls
    Regina: “You know Swedish?”
    Cady: “Yeah, everyone in Africa can read Swedish.”
    Explanation: In this situation, when Cady was asked by Regina if she can read Swedish, Cady affirmed to Regina that everyone from Africa can read Swedish therefore stating that she can also read Swedish for the fact that she came from Africa. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Division because she reason out mistakenly by taking the attributes of a whole to its parts.

    *D1 – Red Herring
    Source: Mean Girls
    Cady: “Won’t we get in some sort of trouble for this?”
    Janis: “Why would we get you into trouble? We’re your friends.”
    Explanation: Here, when Cady asked Janis if they would be in trouble for doing such things, Janis diverts the issue from the real subject to a related but different one making the topic off track. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Red herring or missing the point.

    *D2 – Slippery Slope
    Source: Mean Girls
    Coach Carr: “Don’t have sex, because you will get pregnant and die.”
    Explanation: In this event, Coach Carr is currently having her class on Sex Education and while explaining the lessons to his students he commits a fallacy wherein the topic of the discussion resulted to chain reactions that leads down to the “slippery slope” which is the final consequence that is clearly undesirable but implausible. Therefore this is under the fallacy of Slippery slope.

    *D3 – False Analogy
    Source: Mean Girls
    Gretchen: “You wouldn’t buy a skirt without asking your friends first if it looks good on you.”
    Cady: “I wouldn’t?”
    Gretchen: “Right. Oh, and it’s the same with guys. Like, you may think you like someone, but you could be wrong.”
    Explanation: In this scenario it shows two things that is presumed to be more similar than they really are by comparing two significantly incomparable cases, thus committing a fallacy. Here, buying a skirt is compared to love which is definitely two different things. In buying a skirt you could surely be wrong on picking out what looks good on you therefore you could ask for someone else to help you out but when you talk about love the only person who could know whether that person is the right one for you is only you and nobody else. Therefore this is under the fallacy of False Analogy.

    *D4 – Straw Man
    Source: Naruto
    Sound Ninja: “You’ve gotta be kidding me, kid! A small leaf village kid like you telling me that I will fall down on my knees?! Get a life, I’m much of a real ninja unlike you!”
    Explanation: The sound ninja claims that he is a real ninja and Konohamaru is not because of being called “little”. Here, the sound ninja makes himself appear stronger solely by making his opponent, Konohamaru, appear weaker than it really is, therefore this is under the fallacy of

    *D5 – False Dilemma
    Source: White Chicks
    Kevin: “What are you doing?”
    Marcus: “It’s either I kill myself now or let the chief kill me.”
    Explanation: Here, Marcus is asserting that there are only two choices in the situation and it is either he kill himself or waits for the chief to kill him and if the other is unacceptable then he should choose the other but in reality there are more alternatives than that, thus committing a fallacy. Therefore this is under the fallacy of False Dilemma.

  25. Argumentum ad Populum
    Admiral Kathryn Janeway: “As they say in the Temporal Mechanics Department, ‘there’s no time like the present’.”
    – It was stated that the people in the Temporal Mechanics Department say that “There’s no time like the present.” Because it is often said by those in the Department, she restates it.

    Amphiboly
    Admiral Kathryn Janeway: “But when I’m through, things might be better for all of us”
    – What will she finish? What will be better? This is a case of Amphiboly. Since the statement she made was broad. What could she mean by that?

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    Commander Chakotay: “If his cooking’s as bad as his puns, we’re in trouble.”
    – He is concluding that subject A (person being talked about) has a bad repute for his work, they could be in trouble.

    Red herring
    Seven of Nine: “The radiation is interfering with our sensors, but if Ensign Kim’s enthusiasm turns out to be justified, it would be the most concentrated occurrence of wormholes ever recorded.”
    – What does Ensign Kim’s enthusiasm have to do with statement that the radiation is interfering with their sensors?
    – It is faulty due to the sudden input of Ensign Kim’s enthusiasm. Ensign Kim’s enthusiasm has no utter relevance to what the radiation has done with the sensors.

    Argumentum ad Baculum
    Korath: “Your shield’s generator is of particular interest.”
    Admiral Kathryn Janeway: “It’s not for sale”
    Korath: “Then what you want isn’t available, either.”
    – In the dialogue, Korath is imposing the he is interested in the Admiral’s shield generator. However, since the Admiral stated that the shield generator is not for sale, Korath replied that what the admiral wanted is not available either.
    – Korath is forcing the admiral to trade her shield generator in exchange for what she wanted.

    Accent
    Ensign Kim: “If they can’t detect us, we should go back.”
    – Who could not detect them? Where should they go back?

    Complex Question
    Ensign Kim: “Don’t you want to find a way home?”
    – This has another meaning. It is like saying; “You’re not home yet.”

    False Dilemma
    (Bleach):“In life, there are two reasons why we should fight: it’s either to protect one’s life or to protect one’s pride.”
    – Protecting one’s pride is quite unacceptable if the situation is to whether to protect someone or to ignore that person and stand up to one’s pride and belief.

    Division
    Kenshin: “Sensei is very skillful in martial arts. Since I’m his student, I could be as great as him, too, in the future.”
    – He is arguing that “sensei” or “master” In English, is skillful and since he is his student, he could be as great as him. This is a case of Division since he is arguing the attributes of his master to his own attributes.

    False Cause
    “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”
    – If all people were short, then they would become great emperors. This is a false cause.
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “Marriage by judge is allowed because the government offers it.”
    – Is the government a sound authority? Marriage is supposed to be done in Church and by a priest not a judge.

    Accident
    “He graduated from a public school. He must be poor.”
    – It was concluded that he was poor because he graduated from a public school. It is been a trademark for many that public schools are schools for those who lack financial support to study.

    Composition
    B’elanna Torres: “It doesn’t really matter to you anyway. You flyboys are all the same.”
    – The argument states that all flyboys are the same. The statement is directed to the attributes of an individual in comparison to a collective (Flyboys).

    Petitio Principii
    “The life stream is a never ending cycle because it goes over and over.”

    – The argument has stated that the life stream is a never ending cycle thus becoming redundant in saying “over and over.”
    Argumentum Misericordiam
    “I’m will only do this because I need money to study. It might be painful to my body and soul I must endure it or I will have no future.”

    – The statement is fallacious since it is expressing that person A needs money or she will have no future. She is selling herself as a means of earning money. There are many other ways to earn money.

    Ignorantio Elenchi
    “Science is the answer to everything. Stop daydreaming and get that experiment of yours finished.”
    – As stated by many people, science is not the answer to everything. True, science has answered many phenomena before, but why could not Science explain the existence of God?”

    Converse Accident
    “I’ve seen you change phones three times now, you must be really rich.”
    – The observation of one changing phones for three consecutive times does not imply that a person is rich.

    Equivocation
    “Practice makes perfect, but nobody is perfect”
    – The term Practice means to train or to improve one’s ability whereas perfect refers to someone who does not commit mistakes, someone who is angelically beautiful.
    – Practice and practice are two same words but have different meanings.

    False Analogy
    “Women are like the police. They can have all the evidence in the world, but they still want the confession.”
    —Chris Rock : Hard Time
    – Women are not generally police officers, since there are women who are accountants, business managers, etc.
    – The statement is comparing women to how police act. It somehow is like generalizing that women are police.

  26. 1. False Dilemma

    ( THE ROCK ):

    Stanley Goodspeed “Okay, I’ve got some bad news and some really bad news.”

    Explanation: there are 2 alternatives but still have the same conclusion

    2. Fallacy of Presumption – False Cause

    (FREEDOM WRITTERS)

    Tito: Nobody cares what I do. Why should I bother coming to school?

    Explanation: We should go to school for our own future not because other people cares.

    3. Fallacy of Ambiguity – Division

    (FREEDOM WRITTERS)

    Erin Gruwell: But to get respect you have to give it.

    Eva: White people wanting their respect like its for free.

    Explanation: Eva thinks that all white people are abusive and evil because of her past experiences with them, but it doesn’t mean that all white men are evil because some of them treated you that way.

    4. Fallacy of Distraction – Red Herring (Missing the point)

    (GOOD WILL HUNTING)
    “Well, I just got her number. How d’ya like them apples?”

    Explanation: creating a topic then creating another which is not related to the first one.
    5. Argumentum ad Hominem
    (Attack on the Person)

    (FIGHT CLUB)

    Tyler: Listen up, maggots. You are not special. You are not a beautiful or unique snowflake. You’re the same decaying organic matter as everything else.

    Explanation: Tyler is disciplining his men by using the act of verbal abuse.

    6. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    (Appeal to Ignorance)

    “If there is such thing as a god, then he would stop this piece of chalk from breaking unto pieces as it hits the ground.”

    Explanation: Miracles are not the only proof, that god exist. We could prove god exist in many different ways. Therefore the statement is under Argumentum ad Ignorantiam.

    7. Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    (Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    (RIGHTEOUS KILL)

    “Most people respect the badge, everybody respects the gun”

    Explanation: We should all respect the law more than our life.

    8. Argumentum ad Baculum
    (Appeal to force)

    (THE GODFATHER)
    Vito Corleone “I’m gonna make him an offer he can’t refuse.”

    Explanation: If Moe Green didn’t do what Vito wants he will kill him. This makes this under Argumentum ad Baculum.

    9. False Analogy

    (GOOD WILL HUNTING)
    Billy (Cloe Hauser):
    “You’re legally allowed to drink, so we figured the best thing for you, kid, was a car.”

    Explanation: This is a fallacy because of the use of the excuse of Drinking and having a car doesn’t really blend to each other. “Legally allowed to drink” may be translated that the person is already in a legal age but, the use of these 2 words creates a false analogy, therefore creating a fallacy.

    10. Composition

    “We all have the freshest and the best ingredience, so we will have the perfect dish”

    Explanation: it doesn’t mean that if you have the best ingredience that you’ll have the perfect dish. Cooking is composed of a lot of different elements.

    11. Division

    Hitler hates Jews,
    Hitler is a German,
    Therefore all Germans hate Jews

    Explanation: It doesn’t mean that Hitler hates Jews then all of his kin also hates Jews.

    12. Accident
    Whatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good.

    Explanation: this doesn’t mean men are better than women. That doesn’t apply to all.

    13. Equivocation

    All ilocanos are Filipinos
    All tagalongs are Filipinos
    Therefore, all ilocanos are tagalogs

    Explanation: ilocanos and tagalogs are not the same even through they are both Filipinos. Even through the word Filipinos serves as a middle term it doesn’t mean that all the other words which is concluded by it has the same meaning.

    14. Slippery Slope

    (FUNNY QUOTES)

    “When I was kidnapped, my parents snapped into action. They rented out my room.”

    Explanation: The conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction.

    15. Hasty Generalization

    (300)

    King leonidas “Instead, Maybe we should send our women to fight.”

    Explanation: Leonidas brags the skill of his men, even if he sends the women of Sparta they will still achieve victory.

    18. Argumentum Misericordian
    (Appeal to pity)

    (The Mummy)

    Benny“Please don’t kill me I have a children”(lying)

    Explanation: He begged for his life by lying having an excuse that he still needs to raise his children.

    19. Accent

    (THE AMERICAN DRAGON)

    “That’s so wrong!”

    Explanation: The use of so changes the intensity of the verb being used in the scentence.

    20. Straw Man

    (LETTERS TO IWA JIMA)

    “Digging burrows and caves??? Instead of protecting the beach … the general is crazy“

    Explanation: The opposition is questioning the argument but it is a far better argument than his.

  27. Dr. Gregory House: Overall, drug addicts are idiots
    -argumentum ad hominem

    Dr. Eric Foreman: I think your argument is specious.
    Dr. Gregory House: I think your tie is ugly.
    -red herring(missing the point)

    lockness monster does not exist
    “We went from shoreline to shoreline, top to bottom on this one, we have covered everything in this loch and we saw no signs of any large living animal in the loch,” said Ian Florence, one of the experts commissioned by the BBC.
    -argumentum ad ignorantiam

    I have nipples, Greg, would you milk me?
    Meet the Parents, spoken by Robert de Niro
    -complex question

    GERRY (Jack Lemmon): We can’t get married at all…I’m a man.
    OSGOOD (Joe E. Brown): Well, nobody’s perfect.
    Some Like It Hot
    -ignorantio elenchi

    Peter Parker:
    No matter what I do, no matter how hard I try, the ones I love will always be the ones who pay
    -false clause

    if you like to be a basketball player,you should wear Nike shoes, Michael Jordan has lots of them.
    -argumentum ad verecundian
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.181

    Bandwagon: Of course man is good.Every real human real being believes that.
    -Argumentum ad populum
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.180

    Lawyer:I tell you, if you don’t convict this murderer, one of you may be his next victim.
    -argumentum ad baculum
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.180-181

    Lawyer: If you accused this person, he will have an unfortunate life and the more his family
    -argumentum ad misericordian
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.182

    You say that you ate what you brought; But you bought raw meat. Therefore, you must have eaten raw meat.
    -Fallacy of accident
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.177

    Every man has a right to his or her property; so the suspect still has a right to take his weapon used in the crime.
    -Sweeping Generalization
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.178

    Spirits are immaterial substances,
    but liquors are spirits.
    Therefore, liquors are immaterial substances.
    -Equivocation
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.171-172

    This man his father is killed.
    -Amphiboly
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.172-173

    If you think our waitresses are rude, wait till you see our manager.
    -Accent
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.175-176

    A man who is lying down can stand up. And so a man can lie down and stand up at the same time.
    -Composition
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.174

    All in this room weigh about two tons, But Mr.Cruz is in the room. Therefore, Mr.Cruz weighs about two tons.
    -Division
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.175

    Legalizing marijuana will lead to the legalization of other drugs like cocaine. If we legalize other drugs like cocaine, then people can have cocaine and every other drug at any local store.
    -Slippery Slope
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.188

    Metaphysics is a philosophy subject and it discusses topics that are out of this world. Ethics is also a philosophy subjects, so it also discusses topics that are out of this world.
    -False Analogy
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.188

    If you are not of the solution, then you are part of the problem.
    -False Dillema
    A Handbook in Basic Logic by Jove Jim S. Aguas p.189

  28. 1. “My friend here got hospitalized from that fastfood restaurant last time. I won’t be there.” Kunio Murai, GTO. Murai came up to a conclusion based on an inadequate reason. Hasty Generalization.
    2. “Cresta is the famous selling car in its class, should I get one?” Vice-Principal, GTO. Perceptional Impressions of people as support for VP’s conclusion is irrelevant. Ad Populum.
    3. “I noticed you surf the net too much, enjoyed pornography?” Urumi Kanzaki, GTO. She asked a question that is hard to answer. Complex Question.
    4. “Cresta Is a world-class car. I own one and it broke down everytime. A car that breaks down everytime isn’t good. World class cars are not good.” VP, GTO. He came to a conclusion based on an inadequate example. Hasty Generalization.
    5. “Onizuka is a teacher, being a teacher is good, Onizuka is good.” Fuyutsuki, GTO reasoned out the whole port to the characteristics of the constituent part.
    6. “Live or let die.” Onizuka, GTO he threatens a hostage taker to affirm or negate his conclusion
    7. “If you don’t make it in three days, you’re doomed, hated by everyone, kicked out of the school.” Urumi Kanzaki, GTO. Slippery Slope.
    8. “I woke up, ended up in a trash because of fantasy last night.” Onizuka, GTO. Ignoratio Elenchi.
    9. “We cannot let Miyabi get in our way, the Benz will be worthless, the trip at Okinawa will be a waste!” Kunio Murai, GTO. Slippery Slope.
    10. “You’re nothing but a coward.” Anko Uehara, GTO. Ad Baculum.
    11. This book is great and best selling, shouldn’t anyone be buying this?” Namikaze Minato, Naruto. Ad Populum.
    12. “We cannot allow Naruto to take away the scroll, its forbidden.” Enmu Sarutobi, Naruto. Ad Veriundium.
    13. “The measure of a shinobi isn’t how he lives, but how he dies.” Jiraiya, Naruto Shippuuden. Although “live and die” are not complementary classes, the meanings could not be similar enough to circular reasoning. False dichotomy.
    14. “Ha! Did you really think that I’m going to shake hands with you?” Kunio Murai, GTO. Ad Baculum.
    15. “You’re not going to win Mom for sure, I won’t let you.” Kunio Murai. Ad Baculum.
    16. “I’m not good at this games, Eikichi, you’re probably a newbie, so there’s proof that I would win.” Kunio Murai, GTO. Straw man, claiming victory by assuming that Onizuka is a newbie.
    17. “Kids raised without a partner may sometimes be stubborn, Kunio is raised without a father, therefore Kunio is stubborn.” Murai’s Mom, GTO. Composition.
    18. “They say that Onizuka is a new teacher, we should try playing a trick on him.” Kikuchi, GTO. Ad populum.
    19. “I saw an old man so I thought there was a wedding.” Kunio Murai, GTO. Ignoratio Elenchi. Presence of an old man is non-causal for having a wedding.
    20. “When we were with Onizuka, there is always trouble. Now he’s gone, we can have all the fun we want.” Anko Uehara, GTO. False cause. The presence of Onizuka does not affect Uehara’s day in school, all are non-causal excuses.

  29. Mali ung name knina e..hehe..

    1. “My friend here got hospitalized from that fastfood restaurant last time. I won’t be there.” Kunio Murai, GTO. Murai came up to a conclusion based on an inadequate reason. Hasty Generalization.
    2. “Cresta is the famous selling car in its class, should I get one?” Vice-Principal, GTO. Perceptional Impressions of people as support for VP’s conclusion is irrelevant. Ad Populum.
    3. “I noticed you surf the net too much, enjoyed pornography?” Urumi Kanzaki, GTO. She asked a question that is hard to answer. Complex Question.
    4. “Cresta Is a world-class car. I own one and it broke down everytime. A car that breaks down everytime isn’t good. World class cars are not good.” VP, GTO. He came to a conclusion based on an inadequate example. Hasty Generalization.
    5. “Onizuka is a teacher, being a teacher is good, Onizuka is good.” Fuyutsuki, GTO reasoned out the whole port to the characteristics of the constituent part.
    6. “Live or let die.” Onizuka, GTO he threatens a hostage taker to affirm or negate his conclusion
    7. “If you don’t make it in three days, you’re doomed, hated by everyone, kicked out of the school.” Urumi Kanzaki, GTO. Slippery Slope.
    8. “I woke up, ended up in a trash because of fantasy last night.” Onizuka, GTO. Ignoratio Elenchi.
    9. “We cannot let Miyabi get in our way, the Benz will be worthless, the trip at Okinawa will be a waste!” Kunio Murai, GTO. Slippery Slope.
    10. “You’re nothing but a coward.” Anko Uehara, GTO. Ad Baculum.
    11. This book is great and best selling, shouldn’t anyone be buying this?” Namikaze Minato, Naruto. Ad Populum.
    12. “We cannot allow Naruto to take away the scroll, its forbidden.” Enmu Sarutobi, Naruto. Ad Veriundium.
    13. “The measure of a shinobi isn’t how he lives, but how he dies.” Jiraiya, Naruto Shippuuden. Although “live and die” are not complementary classes, the meanings could not be similar enough to circular reasoning. False dichotomy.
    14. “Ha! Did you really think that I’m going to shake hands with you?” Kunio Murai, GTO. Ad Baculum.
    15. “You’re not going to win Mom for sure, I won’t let you.” Kunio Murai. Ad Baculum.
    16. “I’m not good at this games, Eikichi, you’re probably a newbie, so there’s proof that I would win.” Kunio Murai, GTO. Straw man, claiming victory by assuming that Onizuka is a newbie.
    17. “Kids raised without a partner may sometimes be stubborn, Kunio is raised without a father, therefore Kunio is stubborn.” Murai’s Mom, GTO. Composition.
    18. “They say that Onizuka is a new teacher, we should try playing a trick on him.” Kikuchi, GTO. Ad populum.
    19. “I saw an old man so I thought there was a wedding.” Kunio Murai, GTO. Ignoratio Elenchi. Presence of an old man is non-causal for having a wedding.
    20. “When we were with Onizuka, there is always trouble. Now he’s gone, we can have all the fun we want.” Anko Uehara, GTO. False cause. The presence of Onizuka does not affect Uehara’s day in school, all are non-causal excuses.

  30. Argumentum ad Populum
    “Pornography must be banned. It is violence against women.”

    Amphiboly
    “Premise: Belief in God fills a much-needed gap.”

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    “You claim that atheists can be moral–yet I happen to know that you abandoned your wife and children.”

    Red herring
    “You may claim that the death penalty is an ineffective deterrent against crime–but what about the victims of crime? How do you think surviving family members feel when they see the man who murdered their son kept in prison at their expense? Is it right that they should pay for their son’s murderer to be fed and housed?”

    Argumentum ad Baculum
    “Thus there is ample proof of the truth of the Bible. All those who refuse to accept that truth will burn in Hell.”

    Accent
    “We should not speak ill of our friends”

    Complex Question
    “Where did you hide the money you stole?”

    False Dilemma
    “I want to go to Scotland from London. I overheard McTaggart say there are two roads to Scotland from London: the high road and the low road. I expect the high road is dangerous because it’s through the hills. But it’s raining, so both roads are probably slippery. I don’t like either choice, but I guess I should take the low road.”

    Division
    “You are studying at a rich college. Therefore you must be rich.”

    False Cause
    “My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter. So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter.”

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    “Isaac Newton was a genius and he believed in God.”
    Accident
    “Christians generally dislike atheists. You are a Christian, so you must dislike atheists.”

    Composition
    “The bicycle is made entirely of low mass components, and is therefore very lightweight.”

    Petitio Principii
    “Women have rights,” said the Bullfighters Association president. “But women shouldn’t fight bulls because a bullfighter is and should be a man.”

    Argumentum Misericordiam
    “I did not murder my mother and father with an axe! Please don’t find me guilty; I’m suffering enough through being an orphan.”

    Ignorantio Elenchi
    “In court, Thompson testifies that the defendant is a honorable person, who wouldn’t harm a flea. The defense attorney rises to say that Thompson’s testimony shows his client was not near the murder scene.”

    Converse Accident
    “Jim Bakker was an insincere Christian. Therefore all Christians are insincere.”

    Equivocation
    “What could be more affordable than free software? But to make sure that it remains free, that users can do what they like with it, we must place a license on it to make sure that will always be freely redistributable.”

    False Analogy
    “The universe is like an intricate watch.”

    Straw Man
    “To be an atheist, you have to believe with absolute certainty that there is no God. In order to convince yourself with absolute certainty, you must examine all the Universe and all the places where God could possibly be. Since you obviously haven’t, your position is indefensible.”

  31. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    There are no “if”s. There only is an assumption of “what if” and the wish that “it had turned out like that”. There are no “if”s. There is only the present
    -Futaba Rentarou
    Explanation: There is no absolute truth which supports this.
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    All of it may be unforgivable, but it is what was necessary.
    -Mithos Yggdrasil
    Explanation: He claims even that if what he did was wrong and unforgivable, it is the right and necessary thing to do.
    Argumentum ad Hominem
    He is a heavy smoker, university dropout, has no job and he has a weird name. He’s poor… and quite staggering… but you still like hanging out with him. Is he deceiving you?
    -Futakoi Alternative Extra character
    Explanation: The person is defaming and ruining the image of another person.
    Argumentum ad Populum
    They’re looked highly upon the doujin world and on the net! So I also recommend you this one.
    -Nobunaga
    Explanation: Just because it was popular among other people and in the internet, he recommends it off to other people.

    Argumentum ad baculum
    Zastin: Step aside, earthling. Outsiders shouldn’t meddle in our affairs.
    Rito: And if I don’t?
    Zastin: Then I’ll use my power to make you move.
    Explanation: He is resorting to force and is threatens him to move aside.
    Argumentum ad misericordiam
    Due to an illness, Takuma is blind. So please help him out.
    Explanation: The person asks her friends to give pity Takuma and help him because he has an illness.
    Ignorantio elenchi
    There are many people who can be lead this war… we don’t deserve to be fighting in this war. Why does it have to be US?
    -Nanami
    Explanation: She says that there are better people, and they don’t deserve to be involved in the war.
    Complex Question
    Wouldn’t it be better if I didn’t exist? If I didn’t exist… you’d have Syouju wouldn’t you? That’s why… be together with Syouju! Treasure her.
    -Sara
    Explanation: The girl claims that if she didn’t exist, the guy would have another girl. She jumped into conclusion without warranty.

    False Cause
    Yui: Bad things always happen when she’s around. You shouldn’t get yourself involved with her or bad thing will happen to you too.
    -H2O ~Footprints in the sand~
    Explanation: This can be an Argumentum ad Hominem too but I’m placing it under false cause. I placed it here because she treats the cause of unluckiness which is not really the cause but was just coincidental.
    Petitio Principii
    The Bible is the word of God. The word of God cannot be doubted, and the Bible states that the Bible is true. Therefore the Bible must be true.
    Explanation: The conclusion was just restated and it used it as a premis to prove the same conclusion.
    Accident
    If the enemy is in range, so are you.
    -Infantry Journal
    Explanation: A generalization was applied to an individual case but it does not properly govern.
    Converse Accident
    I’m the same as them. The Kohinata family was the one who killed your mother. I’m a Kohinata who killed your mother!
    -Hayami
    Explanation: Not because her family killed the person’s mother means that she is like every other person in her family. Her family did it but not her.

    Amphiboly
    If we are to make an alliance with the Toran Republic, many people will be outraged!
    -Apple, Suikoden 2
    Explanation: It was not clear whose people would be angry, their people or the people of the Toran Republic?
    Accent
    Colette looks good today
    -Genis
    Explanation: Does that mean the she did not look good yesterday?
    Composition
    Humans are just animals, so we should not concern ourselves with justice; we should just obey the law of the jungle
    Explanation: It is about to reason that because we are animals, we can have only properties which animals have; that nothing can distinguish us as a special case.
    Division
    Only very intelligent people can enter such great schools as Harvard. You graduated there therefore you are very intelligent too.
    Explanation: The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes of an individual
    Red Herring
    People who believe in God say this world was created by God. Therefore, this world of pain and struggle was created by God. A God who created such a miserable world cannot be a good person. God is evil.
    -Misaki, Welcome to the NHK
    Explanation: This is wrong because it diverted the issue from the belief on God to a different topic about God’s “evil deeds” and God is “evil”.

    Slippery slope
    First you’ll become a Hero, welcomed and loved by everyone. Then you will still be famous and respected for the following years. But when someone else has shined, then you’ll be forgotten and everything you did for these people will be just a legend…
    Explanation: The conclusion made a chain reaction.
    False Analogy
    A true soldier can only do his function once he accepted that he is already dead, like how a convict accepts the fact that there is no tomorrow for him. If you want to do your job as a soldier, accept first the fact that you are already dead.
    -Band of Brothers
    Explanation: The two things are presumed to be similar.
    Straw Man
    To be an atheist, you have to believe with absolute certainty that there is no God. In order to convince yourself with absolute certainty, you must examine the Universe and all the places where God could possibly be. Since you obviously haven’t, your position is indefensible.
    Explanation: The arguer tells that an atheist is someone who believes that there is no God and to become one, he must look for all places that God can be. But since he haven’t, his position is indefensible.

  32. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    There are no “if”s. There only is an assumption of “what if” and the wish that “it had turned out like that”. There are no “if”s. There is only the present
    -Futaba Rentarou

    Explanation: There is no absolute truth which supports this.

    Argumentum ad Verecundiam
    All of it may be unforgivable, but it is what was necessary.
    -Mithos Yggdrasil

    Explanation: He claims even that if what he did was wrong and unforgivable, it is the right and necessary thing to do.

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    He is a heavy smoker, university dropout, has no job and he has a weird name. He’s poor… and quite staggering… but you still like hanging out with him. Is he deceiving you?
    -Futakoi Alternative Extra character

    Explanation: The person is defaming and ruining the image of another person.

    Argumentum ad Populum
    They’re looked highly upon the doujin world and on the net! So I also recommend you this one.
    -Nobunaga

    Explanation: Just because it was popular among other people and in the internet, he recommends it off to other people.

    Argumentum ad baculum
    Zastin: Step aside, earthling. Outsiders shouldn’t meddle in our affairs.
    Rito: And if I don’t?
    Zastin: Then I’ll use my power to make you move.

    Explanation: He is resorting to force and is threatens him to move aside.

    Argumentum ad misericordiam
    Due to an illness, Takuma is blind. So please help him out.

    Explanation: The person asks her friends to give pity Takuma and help him because he has an illness.

    Ignorantio elenchi
    There are many people who can be lead this war… we don’t deserve to be fighting in this war. Why does it have to be US?
    -Nanami

    Explanation: She says that there are better people, and they don’t deserve to be involved in the war.

    Complex Question
    Wouldn’t it be better if I didn’t exist? If I didn’t exist… you’d have Syouju wouldn’t you? That’s why… be together with Syouju! Treasure her.
    -Sara

    Explanation: The girl claims that if she didn’t exist, the guy would have another girl. She jumped into conclusion without warranty.

    False Cause
    Yui: Bad things always happen when she’s around. You shouldn’t get yourself involved with her or bad thing will happen to you too.
    -H2O ~Footprints in the sand~

    Explanation: This can be an Argumentum ad Hominem too but I’m placing it under false cause. I placed it here because she treats the cause of unluckiness which is not really the cause but was just coincidental.

    Petitio Principii
    The Bible is the word of God. The word of God cannot be doubted, and the Bible states that the Bible is true. Therefore the Bible must be true.

    Explanation: The conclusion was just restated and it used it as a premis to prove the same conclusion.

    Accident
    If the enemy is in range, so are you.
    -Infantry Journal

    Explanation: A generalization was applied to an individual case but it does not properly govern.

    Converse Accident
    I’m the same as them. The Kohinata family was the one who killed your mother. I’m a Kohinata who killed your mother!
    -Hayami

    Explanation: Not because her family killed the person’s mother means that she is like every other person in her family. Her family did it but not her.

    Amphiboly
    If we are to make an alliance with the Toran Republic, many people will be outraged!
    -Apple, Suikoden 2

    Explanation: It was not clear whose people would be angry, their people or the people of the Toran Republic?

    Accent
    Colette looks good today
    -Genis

    Explanation: Does that mean the she did not look good yesterday?

    Composition
    Humans are just animals, so we should not concern ourselves with justice; we should just obey the law of the jungle

    Explanation: It is about to reason that because we are animals, we can have only properties which animals have; that nothing can distinguish us as a special case.

    Division
    Only very intelligent people can enter such great schools as Harvard. You graduated there therefore you are very intelligent too.

    Explanation: The arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes of an individual

    Red Herring
    People who believe in God say this world was created by God. Therefore, this world of pain and struggle was created by God. A God who created such a miserable world cannot be a good person. God is evil.
    -Misaki, Welcome to the NHK

    Explanation: This is wrong because it diverted the issue from the belief on God to a different topic about God’s “evil deeds” and God is “evil”.

    Slippery slope
    First you’ll become a Hero, welcomed and loved by everyone. Then you will still be famous and respected for the following years. But when someone else has shined, then you’ll be forgotten and everything you did for these people will be just a legend…

    Explanation: The conclusion made a chain reaction.

    False Analogy
    A true soldier can only do his function once he accepted that he is already dead, like how a convict accepts the fact that there is no tomorrow for him. If you want to do your job as a soldier, accept first the fact that you are already dead.
    -Band of Brothers

    Explanation: The two things are presumed to be similar.

    Straw Man
    To be an atheist, you have to believe with absolute certainty that there is no God. In order to convince yourself with absolute certainty, you must examine the Universe and all the places where God could possibly be. Since you obviously haven’t, your position is indefensible.

    Explanation: The arguer tells that an atheist is someone who believes that there is no God and to become one, he must look for all places that God can be. But since he haven’t, his position is indefensible.

    -sorry sir inayos ko lng, unorganized yung kanina eh nakakalito basahin

  33. Informal Fallacies:

    R1 Appeal to Ignorance

    “Bill(All about eve)
    My client must not be guilty! You have no proof that he is.Its all lies!”-the first statement was true because there is no evidence that he is”

    R2 Appeal to inappropriate Authority

    “Jack(Bruce Almighty)
    I want to tell you, it wasn’t my decision to let you go.
    When the big guy gives the order, I Gotta obey.”
    -it is being stated the reason caused was because only because of the higher party/officer.

    R3 Attack on the person

    “Zoro(OnePiece)
    Usop,can you try to become more decent? you’re too clumsy ! try to becom more useful”

    -The opponent was harrassed through words that applies in this Fallacy

    R4 Appeal to Popular Prejudice

    “Luffy(One Piece)
    Hey! Where did everyone get that? I want one too!”

    -in this statement, the person talking liked the object which is supposed to be food because everyone have it”

    R5 Appeal to Force

    “BRUCE(Bruce Almighty)
    (laughs) Catch you later, lemmings! It’s kill
    or be killed, only the strong survive, no guts, no glory!”

    -Threats are used in place of reasonings.

    R6 Appeal to Pity

    “BRUCE(Bruce Almighty)
    Look, Jack. Hear me out, I’m getting desperate man, I am pushing forty and what have I got to show for it? The point is, I’ve hit some kind of a ceiling here. Some kind of anti-Bruce barrier. And Evan is just lovin’ it, by the way. He gets the good stories, he gets on sweeps.Maybe I have to be more like Evan.”

    -getting the sympathy for the statements to be accepted

    R7 Missing the Point”

    “BRUCE(Bruce Almighty)
    The previous Buffalo cookie record was 3 feet, 17 inches baked by Gladys Pelsnick. But this behemoth cookie clearly proving that Gustov and Vol have much more free time.”

    -The premise missed the point, statements are not well related.

    P1 Complex Question

    “GRACE(Bruce Almighty)
    So God is torturing us?”

    -Multiple questions can be seen in this statement. It presumes the truth that God is really torturing her.

    P2 False Cause

    “Ashley(just my Luck)
    Oh no, Maggie, your black cat is blocking My path, I’m gonna have a bad luck!”

    -The cause was not scientifically based. Its just some sayings that do not support as a good cause of bad luck

    P3 Begging the Question

    “Eneru(One Piece)
    Eating Evil fruit can make you unable to swim because its is
    The payment for the power it fives you. ”

    The conclusion was restated and used it as a premise that prove the very same conclusion. Its just rephrasing or saying it in other terms.

    P4 Accident

    “Rex(Toy Story)
    We got really scared woody. Don’t tell me you’re not.”

    -Generally, they got scared, and applied it to an individual case as shown in the statement.

    P5 Converse Accident

    “Raphael(Mutant Ninja Turtles)
    Oh-oh, if master can’t beat him, who else can?!”

    -they made a hasty generalization.

    A3 Accent

    “BRUCE
    I’m dead?!”

    Through changing the emphasis on each word, the meaning changes.

    A4 Composition

    “Crocodile(One Piece)
    Of all the pirates I defeated, it was you who took time to kill,You have talent kid, not like them. Try to become stronger….”

    Through different characteristics in each statement, the statement concluded that the individual who has different characteristics was exempted and does not belong to the group.

    A5 Division

    “Kenpachi(Bleach)
    Gotei-13 never gives up when it comes to fighting. And as the squad captain, I also have the responsibility to that stand still and never give up.”

    -The attribute “never giving up” applies into the part of the group( which is the squad captain)

    D1 Red Herring

    “BRUCE(Bruce Almighty)
    Bill, you’ve been running the Maid of the Mist for 23 years. Tell me, why do you think I didn’t get the anchor job?

    -the divertion of subject applies in this fallacy

    D2 Slippery Slope

    ” GOD(Bruce Almighty)
    Poor man wanna be rich, rich man
    wanna be king, king’s dissatisfied
    ’cause he rules everything…”

    -The premises were reasoned through chain reasoning to support the first statement.

    D5 False Dilemma

    “Capt. Miller(Saving Private Ryan)
    Its now time to choose… To Fight with honor or die without fighting”

    -Two statements were made and only one is acceptable which is to fight with honor.

    ——————————————————————————–
    -Ryan Reyes 1cs-2

  34. Argumentum ad Populum.
    -“the attempt to win popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the emotions and enthusiasms of the multitude, rather than by appeal to the relevant facts.”

    Argumentum ad Hominem
    -What she says about Johannes Kepler’s astronomy of the 1600’s must be just so much garbage. Do you realize she’s only fourteen years old?

    Amphiboly
    -In a cartoon, two elephants are driving their car down the road in India. They say, “We’ve better not get out here,” as they pass a sign saying:
    ELEPHANTS
    PLEASE STAY IN YOUR CAR

    Complex Question
    -[Reporter's question] Mr. President: Are you going to continue your policy of wasting taxpayer’s money on missile defense?

    Straw Man
    -(a debate before the city council):

    Opponent: Because of the killing and suffering of Indians that followed Columbus’s discovery of America, the City of Berkeley should declare that Columbus Day will no longer be observed in our city.
    Speaker: This is ridiculous, fellow members of the city council. It’s not true that everybody who ever came to America from another country somehow oppressed the Indians. I say we should continue to observe Columbus Day, and vote down this resolution that will make the City of Berkeley the laughing stock of the nation.

    Ignorantio Elenchi
    -a legislator who, in discussing a housing bill, argues only that decent housing for all is desirable, rather than whether the bill in question would achieve that goal.

    Petitio Principii
    -“Women have rights,” said the Bullfighters Association president. “But women shouldn’t fight bulls because a bullfighter is and should be a man.”

    Equivocation
    -Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too.

    False Analogy
    -The book Investing for Dummies really helped me understand my finances better. The book Chess for Dummies was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount. So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances.

    Composition
    -Each human cell is very lightweight, so a human being composed of cells is also very lightweight.

    Red herring
    -Will the new tax in Senate Bill 47 unfairly hurt business? One of the provisions of the bill is that the tax is higher for large employers (fifty or more employees) as opposed to small employers (six to forty-nine employees). To decide on the fairness of the bill, we must first determine whether employees who work for large employers have better working conditions than employees who work for small employers.

    Argumentum ad Baculum
    -David: My father owns the department store that gives your newspaper fifteen percent of all its advertising revenue, so I’m sure you won’t want to publish any story of my arrest for spray painting the college.
    Newspaper editor: Yes, David, I see your point. The story really isn’t newsworthy.

    Accent
    -the captain was sober today

    Slippery Slope
    -Mom: Those look like bags under your eyes. Are you getting enough sleep?
    Jeff: I had a test and stayed up late studying.

    Mom: You didn’t take any drugs, did you?

    Jeff: Just caffeine in my coffee, like I always do.

    Mom: Jeff! You know what happens when people take drugs! Pretty soon the caffeine won’t be strong enough. Then you will take something stronger, maybe someone’s diet pill. Then, something even stronger. Eventually, you will be doing cocaine. Then you will be a crack addict! So, don’t drink that coffee.

    Division
    -Joshua’s soccer team is the best in the division because it had an undefeated season and shared the division title, so Joshua, who is their goalie, must be the best goalie in the division.

    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    -there must be ghosts because no one has ever been able to prove that there aren’t any.”

    False Cause
    -My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter. So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter

    Converse Accident
    -considering the effect of alcohol only on those who indulge to excess, and concluding that liquor is harmful and should be outlawed.

    Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    -Nobody has ever proved to me there’s a God, so I know there is no God.

    Accident
    -People should keep their promises, right? I loaned Dwayne my knife, and he said he’d return it. Now he is refusing to give it back, but I need it right now to slash up my neighbors’ families. Dwayne isn’t doing right by me.

  35. 1. Argumentum ad Baculum

    Chairman of the Board: “All those opposed to my arguments for the opening of a new department, signify by saying, ‘I resign.'”

    The Chairman of the board uses his position to threaten the others less powerful than him just to make them accept his arguments for the opening of a new department.
    2. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam

    Our universe, however, did begin with the primordial explosion, since we can obtain no information about events that occurred before it. The age of the universe, therefore, is the interval from the big bang to the present
    (Scientific American)

    This does not prove the beginning of the universe and the age of it. And with no evidence of the happenings before the big bang, that does not mean that that is where the age of our universe start.

    3. Argumentum ad verecundiam

    The brilliant William Jenkins, the recent Nobel Prize winner in physics, states uncategorically that the flu virus will be controlled in essentially all of its forms by the year 2,050. The opinion of such a great man cannot be disregarded
    (

    Even if he is a nobel prize winner doesn’t mean that his statement can be very reliable.

    4. Argumentum ad Hominem

    Francis Bacon’s philosophy should be dismissed since Bacon was removed from his chancellorship for dishonesty

    the speaker directed francis bacon to what happened to him and concludes that the information that he gave are not true.

    5. Argumentum ad Populum

    Shell was charged with misleading advertising in its Platformate advertisements. A Shell spokesman said: ‘The same comment could be made about most good advertising of most products
    (S.S. Baker, The Permissible Lie (ASIN), 39.)

    the spokesman of shell manipulated the controversy by comparing it to other products that are at their same level

    6. Complex question

    Look very closely. You will see that no person and no circumstance can prevent you from becoming a self-understanding man or woman. Who is stopping you at this very moment? No one.
    (New Life Foundation, 1999)

    the person jumps already to his point concluding that there is nothing stopping him/her to be independent, which can be very questionable.

    7. False Cause

    “Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.”

    That does not make the cause or reason of the greatness of Napoleon. If this were a causal inference, then all short people would become emperors

    8. Petitio principii

    “Dear Friend, a man who has studied law to its highest degree is a brilliant lawyer, for a brilliant lawyer has studied law to its highest degree.”
    (Oscar Wilde, De Profundis)

    this first premise is just the opposite positioning and meaning of the second premise.

    9. Accident

    “Thou shalt not kill; therefore, you should not try to control termites in your home or fight for your country.”

    “Thou shall not kill” doesn’t mean that every living thing applies to that rule. God is known to be precise. But that doesn’t mean that every thing He say is done literally.

    10. Converse Accident

    “Wow! Did you see that teenager run that red light? Teenage drivers are really pathetic.”

    The speaker, after seeing the teenager run a red light, quickly concluded that every teen drivers are like that. That doesn’t mean that all teenagers are alike.

  36. Fallacies 1-12 from the Manga of Rurouni Kenshin aka Samurai X
    1. “I am Hitokiri Battosai, am I not?” –Argumentum ad Verecundium. Expl: He claims that he is a Hitokiri though the townspeople don’t know who he is.
    2. “You should be avoiding patrolling now, it is dangerous to hunt a swordsman like him.”
    –Slippery Slope. Expl: Patrolling at night will invariably cause big consequences.
    3. “Kamiya Kasshin Ryu was taught with the style “swords that give life”, then he followed the satsujin-ken “swords that give death”. He must perish, he’s such a defiler!”– Ad hominem. Expl: Attacks the person making an argument rather than anything.
    4. “Would there be a sink or swim?! Damn it!” –False Dilemma. Expl: there are two alternatives, one is safer.
    5. “I know that there won’t be a fight tonight since the people said so.” –Ad populum. Expl: Since it is said so that doesn’t mean it won’t be.
    6. “Your sword swing is very reckless!” “You swing that way too, so I must do too!” – Ad hominem to Quogue. Expl: Speaker applied “yes too”, since hes done something already.
    7. “I am very certain that people of Japan will fall on their knees and your soul’s on the line.”
    –Ad Baculum.
    8. “Swords that give life eh? Get a taste of my sword that gives you death.” –Ignoratio Elenchi
    9. “Nothing has ever shown me that there’s no Battosai. As of what I see now, it might be speculated that there is.” –Argumentum ad ignorantum. Expl: Absence of true/clear answer implies positive/negative answer.
    10. “If you are not a thief why do you have this?!” –Fallacy of complex. Expl: There are only 2 answers; yes or no and an argument supporting it.
    11. “Revolutionists like them have argued for this plan, some disagreed with them due to its destructive cause. For this cause, we must not follow them.” –Ad populum. Expl: The destructive cause has made the police officer to change his decision.
    12. “I am not the strongest that I have ever been, am I not?!?” –Argumentum ad Verecundium. Expl: He claims that he is the strongest and that the authority doesn’t even know a thing about him.
    13. “It’s no use. My kodachi will block even the bullets from rifles.” –False Cause
    Full Metal Alchemist
    14. “Shh!! You must be quiet in the library!” –Argumentum ad Verecundium
    Highschool of the Dead
    15. “Do you want to die? Or do you want to live?” –Argumentum ad Baculum
    Death Note
    16. “Shut up! Or I’ll kill whoever makes a scene!” –Argumentum ad Baculum
    17. “As long as you don’t go off and try something funny, I can guarantee both of your lives.” –Argumentum ad Baculum.

  37. 1.)Argumentum ad ignorantiam

    “Uh, he didn’t like it one bit, but at least he’s letting me stay in the play, i think. He

    won’t be able to make it. He’s in Chicago. But, uh, I think he’s gonna let me stay with

    acting.”-dead poets society
    explanation: He predicted that he’s father would allow him to act in a play without any

    proof or confirmation

    2.)Argumentum ad Verecundiam

    “Your clan are nothing but thieves, our chief told us about your kind.”

    explanation: they judged the other clan because their leader told them. just because a high

    official told them it’s true they must confirm if its valid

    3.)Argumentum ad Hominem

    “Chris is nothing but a two-timing con artist, and i hate his guts.”

    explanation: “name calling” or abusive ad Hominem

    4.)Argumentum ad Populum

    “All your friends told me your lying. what makes you think ill believe what your saying is

    true. i don’t care. Were through!!”

    explanation: the girl believes that the guy is lying just by what his friends told her

    5.)Argumentum ad Baculum

    “You have about 5 seconds to leave, or your expelled”

    explanation: the principal threatens the child to leave

    6.)Argumentum ad Elenchi

    “why ask me?Timmy is a straight A student, ask him”

    explanation: the topic just shifted away. And we don’t know if the question asked to him/her

    is answerable by Timmy’s knowledge

    7.)Complex question

    “Do you think Brad is hot?”

    explanation: the girl might want to know the true feelings of the other girl

    8.)False Cause

    “yeah. I did great. because you were there watching me babe”

    explanation: the guy scored many points and treats it as if he’s girlfriend is the reason

    9.)Petitio Principii

    “You got wrong because you didn’t answer it right!”

    explanation:the instructor proved the conclusion by restating it in other terms

    10.)Accident

    “I’ve never been beaten in overtime, in other words. You’re goin down”

    explanation: The player generalizes that he will win. But what he said first doesn’t prove

    the outcome

    11.)Converse Accident

    “Your a sports fan?then I’m in to sports too.”

    explanation: The guy just generalized that he’s a sports fan too quick just on what one

    person says.

    12.)Equivocation

    “basketball is my life, i love my life, basketball i love”

    explanation: we cannot say that the player loves basketball because we cannot confirm that

    the 2 definitions of basketball to him are right.

    13.)Accent

    “Are you going to order anything , today perhaps?”

    explanation: the waiter might want the customer to order faster

    14.)Composition

    “Guys are cheaters, so are you!”

    explanation: not all guys are cheaters so we cant assume that all are.

    15.)Division

    “You came from the US but you don’t speak English, but we all know people speak English

    there”

    explanation: it doesn’t mean that when you came from a certain country you should speak the

    country’s language fluently, you might be a tourist.

    16.)Red Herring

    “Mom didnt i say how much i love you, oh mom by the way i got an F on my exam.”

    explanation: the child sneaked another topic into one, so his mom wont get mad

    17.)Slippery Slope
    (a mother talking to her son)
    “First you get your ears pierced, then you get a tatoo, then you become a criminal, what

    else do you have to say?”

    explanation: we cant say that if we get our ears pierced we become criminals.

    18.)False Analogy

    “Water is a liquid and is good for us, beer is just like water a liquid, its good for us”

    explanation: the descriptions dont justify their similarities are true.

    19.)Straw Man

    “If you wanna be the best, you should beat sannoh high first, and us.”

    explanation: the opponents told the other team that if they want to be the best they should

    beat the best first, therefore weakening the position.

    20.)False Dilemna

    “If you leave, we all will feel sad, and i can’t take it”

    explanation: there are more outcomes to this claim. not only negatives.

  38. 1. False Dilemma
    • “Everything else is toast.”
    A false dilemma is a fallacy with unacceptable premises because it presumes that only two alternatives exist when there are more. In an advertisement for Pepperidge Farm Swirl Bread, there is a picture of a plate of toasted slices of raisin cinnamon Swirl Bread. Beneath the picture are the words, “Everything else is toast.” The advertisement implies that there are only two alternatives: eating toast or eating Swirl Bread. Everything else, however, is not toast. There are many other breakfast breads.
    Source: Good Housekeeping

    2. False Dilemma
    • “So don’t continue to loose your calcium each day. Build up bones and try Natrol Calcium Chewables to supplement your daily intake.”
    In an advertisement for Natrol Calcium Chewables, only two alternatives, loosing calcium or taking Natrol Chewables, are offered when there are more. There are other ways to increase one’s intake of calcium, such as increasing the amount of dairy foods eaten, buying “improved” products like calcium- enriched orange juice, or even taking other brands of calcium supplements.
    Source: Men’s Health.

    3. False Dilemma
    • “Read this or Die: 397 New Health & Fitness Tips.”
    This is a false dilemma because, while reading their health tips might encourage you to exercise more and eat a healthy diet, you will not necessarily live longer just because you read this article. Also, while everyone dies eventually, I think it is fairly safe to say that life and death do not hinge on a single article in a popular magazine.
    Source: Men’s Health.

    4. False Dilemma (and possibly Fallacy of Division)
    • “Be a Pike or be beaten by one.”
    It is clearly obvious that only two choices are given-become a Pike or be beaten by one. This motto may be correct for some of the members (they may feel like they want to beat you if you aren’t like them); however, this is not true for all the members. Not all Pikes want to beat non-Pikes, but even if they did, it isn’t possible.
    Source: Men’s Health.

    5. Appeal to Authority
    • “Your bones grow until about age 35 and the calcium in milk helps. After that, it helps keep them strong. So drink up. Doctor’s orders.”
    This example is a fallacy because it has irrelevant premises. The fallacy of the appeal to authority cites a fake authority figure. In an advertisement for milk, is pictured with this text: “Want strong bones? Your bones grow until about age 35 and the calcium in milk helps. After that, it helps keep them strong. So drink up. Doctor’s orders.” The medical information about bone growth is followed by an appeal to Wyle’s fictional authority as a doctor.
    Source: Men’s Health.

    6. Appeal to Fear and Faulty Analogy
    • “Her mother never had a job interview. Her grandmother never graduated from high school. It’s tough to succeed when failure is a family tradition . . . Like mother, like daughter. Like granddaughter.”
    The advertisement attempts to persuade the illiterate to seek help so they and their children can be taught how to read. To accomplish this the advertisement shows a picture of a girl sitting by herself in an empty classroom with a lonely expression. This statement could first be considered an irrelevant premise/appeal to fear, for what does the girl’s mother never having gone on a job interview, or her grandmother never having completed high school have to do with the girl’s future success in life, let alone learning how to read? From this angle, the ad is set up as a scare tactic to force illiterate parents into helping their kids become better readers. By the same token, this can also be seen as an insufficient premise/faulty analogy, for it is incorrectly, and unfairly, comparing the girl to the failings of her family, assuming she too will fail just because her mother and grandmother did.
    Source: National Center for Family Literacy, Time.

    7. Appeal to Ignorance
    • America Online promises “unlimited email” and “the whole internet.”
    Potential customers are unaware that other services offer the same options. AOL prohibits the viewing of some web sites by their users.
    • “Sprint announces no comparison whatsoever.”
    Their new concept is to make sure that everyone knows that no matter what, there is no other company that can compare to the almighty Sprint. But, what happened to MCI and AT&T? Well, no one has proven that they are any better or any worse than Sprint, why not let there be a comparison.
    Source: Newsweek 2007

    8. Ad Hominem / Poisoning the Well
    • “The Democrats are the lefties, the takers, the coercive utopians…They are not stupid, they are evil…Evil!”
    While this statement may describe a democrat, republican or a few other humans on the planet, it can not accurately include all the democrats. It would also seem to point to the limited options of stupidity or evil. It would seem to Mr. Nordquist that there is no middle ground, if they are not plain stupid, they are purely evil. Not a good intention is in sight in his explanation of who they are and what side they are on. It is impossible to respond to his allegations. If you are truly evil, you’d be dishonest so how could you be trusted in the first place? By using generalizations he has poisoned the well; no democrat can now be trusted, not because they are misguided or misinformed, or have differing opinions or objectives but, apparently, because they are in cahoots with Satan.
    Source: Atlanta magazine Constitution.

    9. Authority of the Many
    • “10,000 Elvis Fans Can’t Be Wrong.” – Record title.
    This seems to imply that if you’re not one of the 10,000 Elvis fans, you must be wrong. The title also implies that by the virtue of their large number, the fans are authority on what’s right and wrong. The title is also a bit vague because it doesn’t indicate what the 10,000 Elvis fans are so knowledgeable about. Can’t be wrong about what? Musical taste? Paper or plastic? Did Elvis die or ‘just go home?’
    Source: Time, Jan. 2001

    10. Fallacies of relevance (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)
    = John Bardeen, a professor at the Advanced Institute of Physics, has gone on record to say that the American Medical Association needs to raise its standards for physicians. The opinion of a man of that brilliance should not be disregarded.
    An authority in physics is being cited outside of his field of expertise.
    Source: Time, Jan. 2001

    11. Fallacy of Presumption (Converse Accident)
    =When I was shopping at Bess’s Fine Clothing, not one person gave me the time of day. I guess Bess’s is not a very friendly place to work.
    The speaker is generalizing from one experience. More evidence would be necessary to reach the conclusion that Bess’s is not a good place to work. The speaker commits the fallacy of converse accident
    Source: The Turn of the Screw (Dover Thrift Editions)

    12. Fallacy of presumption (false cause)
    =Einstein became a great physicist because his parents and his teachers left him alone to dream. Had they badgered him to study, he never would have gotten beyond the Swiss patent office.
    Since there is no causal connection between “leaving someone alone to dream” and ”becoming a great physicist,” the fallacy cause occurs.
    Source: The Science of Secrecy

    13. Fallacy of Presumption (Accident)
    =The best definition distinguishing man from other animals is that man is a rational animal. Therefore, you, as a person, should spend more time studying and using your brain than you should spend for partying.
    Although all persons, as human beings, have rational capacities, it does not follow that in this specific case one should be rational more often.
    Source: The Science of Secrecy

    14. Fallacy of Presumption (Converse Accident)
    =As a daughter when I was four, my father taught me the beauty of numbers, and I have excelled at mathematics ever since. My conclusion as to why females do not score as high on math tests? The males with a high aptitude for mathematics are not spending enough time with their daughters.
    The author of this example assumes that her case ould be typical of all or most other daughters if they had similar experiences.
    Source: The Turn of the Screw (Dover Thrift Editions)

    15. Fallacies of relevance (Argumentum ad Hominem)
    =The testimony of the defendant accused of manslaughter in this indictment should be disallowed because she has been arrested for shoplifting on many occasions.
    Strictly speaking, one should evaluate the cogency of the testimony and evaluate the cogency of the testimony and evaluate it on its own merit. Fallacy of ad hominem occurs because being a shoplifter does not entail not telling the truth.
    Source: The Turn of the Screw (Dover Thrift Editions)

    16. Fallacies of Relevance (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)
    • “It must be the shoes.” – koby bryan.
    • Buy Royavac Batteries. – koby bryan.
    Michael Jordan in “Nike” commercials promoting shoes is an example of an appeal to authority. In the commercial he says, “It must be the shoes.” This implies that there is something special about the shoes that allow you to play better. What makes this an informal fallacy is that, while Michael Jordan is a great basketball player he is not necessarily an expert on the quality and effectiveness of shoes. And he almost certainly is not an expert on rechargeable alkaline batteries.
    Source: Time, Jan. 2007

  39. 1. “We can see beautiful things in this world, it is safe to assume that there won’t be ugly things if there isn’t war” -Kikyo,Inuyasha
    FALSE DICHOTOMY. Although beautiful and ugly are complementary classes, the meaning is similar enough to circular reasoning.

    2. “Since many of us agreed, it is so sure that this plan would work.” Athrun Zala, Gundam Seed.
    AD POPULUM. The appeal to impression of group of people as a support for the truth of Athrunis conclusion is merely irrelevant.

    3. “When I was at the shopping mall, not one of them gave me extra assistance. I guess the mall is not really a happy place to shop at.” -Meer. Gundam Seed Destiny.
    CONVERSE ACCIDENT. Meer generalized from experience. There are more examples necessary to reach conclusion that the mall isn’t a happy place to shop at.

    4. “You really think that the plants want the war to end? If you’re right, who is the Lacus Clyne at the PLANTS?” -Kira Yamato, Gundam Seed Destiny
    COMPLEX. There are two answers (Yes or No) for Athrun, only one can be chosen.

    5. “So this is how it is. Durandal only has need for those that serve him in the way that he wants. He wants to control you as Lacus and wants me to be his obedient soldier. I refuse to be his puppet soldier.” Athrun, Gundam Seed Destiny.
    AD HOMINEM. Because of the Chairman’s vanity,interest, Athrun opposed him through the argument.

    6. “Cagalli, this is my gift to you for the day you decide to engage in battle. This is your sword, use it to protect the others. I know you’ll never need this.” -Lord Uzumi Nara Atha
    RED HERRING. His missing the point why not having the need for Cagalli to protect?

    7. The news item says “The person was arrested by the policeman who pushes drugs.”
    AMPHIBOLY. Who pushes the drugs??? In this statement, it also means the the plociman is the one who pushes drugs.

    8. The sign says, “Unauthorized persons are not allowed inside.”
    ACCENT. This maybe true, it depends on how it the words were emphasize.

    9.”If he had acted like you and Lacus and worked with me, they would have made a real difference and sure that they would have been happier in the end.” -Chairman Durandal, Gundam Seed Destiny
    SLIPPERY SLOPE. The conclusion is alleged that it would inevitably result in various consequences.

    10. “Don’t move or I’ll slice this girls throat.” -Hostage taker,GTO.
    AD BACCULUM. There are two options, only one will be chosen for Onizuka since it is a throat to him.

    11.”Only members of Uchiha Clan are especially capable of executing fire jutsus. Kakashi Hatake is not an Uchiha. Hence, Kakashi is not capable of executing fire jutsus.” -Kurenai,Naruto.
    EQUIVOCATION. Kurenai draws an inference on a basis of an incorrect semantic analysis of the term.

    12. “Subatomic particles are lifeless. Therefore anything made of them is lifeless.”
    COMPOSITION. Because a whole may be greater than the sum of its parts; that is, it may have properties not possessed by its parts.

    13. The machine is heavy. Therefore all parts of this machine are heavy.
    DIVISION. Just ignore the real difference between parts and wholes.

    14. “I know one of those psychics. They’re all a bunch of phonies.”
    HASTY GENERALIZATION. You can’t make a valid generalization about an entire class of things from observing only one or even a number of them.

    15. “Bigfoot must exist because no one has been able to prove that he doesn’t.”
    AD IGNORANTIAM. They take a lack of evidence for one thing to be good evidence for another. A lack of evidence, however, proves nothing.

    16. “You’re not even worth killing, foolish little brother.” -Itachi Uchicha, Naruto.
    AD BACCULUM. It is a threat to Sasuke throughly with verbal means.

    17. (a.) “Defined principles are empty without the humans to interpret them.”
    (b.) “All feminists lack any sort of foundation or structure, and as a result cannot understand anything concerned with reason or logic.”
    STRAW MAN. (a) doesn’t offer a complete argument, so it is not clear that (b) is presenting a weaker version to then knock down.

    18. “You’re not summoning me again, are you?!” -Gamabunta, Naruto.
    COMPLEX QUESTION.Viraiya has to make choices, one that he cannot respond to Gamabunta with the other.

    19. “My dream is to create a world that would foster such behavior, I need your help to make this a reality.” -Chairman Purandal.
    FALSE DICHOTOMY. Althogh dream are complamentary classes, the meaning is similar enough to circular reasoning.

    20.”Don’t think you can rely on that trick again.” -Shinn Asuka,Gundam Seed Destiny.
    AD BACCULUM. He threatens Kira by trash talking.

  40. “If were going to fight the Uchiha Clan to the last, this war will continue, let’s forget the past regarding the battles, let us call a truce to them”- False Dilemma

    “It’s either we let Naruto follow Sasuke or we let him die as he follow him.”- False Dilemma

    “It’s either we die or surrender to Hanzo(of the Salamander)-False Dilemma

    “My friend died in that woods Anko trained us, I’ll never return to that place again!”- Hasty Generalization

    “I got a taste of Amaterasu in Sasuke’s eyes, I won’t take on him easy next time.” -Hasty Generalization

    “Because of your god damn excuses, Rin got captured! I won’t make any mistake of trusting you again!” -Hasty Generalization

    “You’re not going to rap again, are you?!” -Complex Question

    “You came from that bathhouse, didn’t you peek again, perverted Hermit?” -Complex Question

    “This is the last time, who is pain? what is he?” -Complex Question

    “Sarutobi told me not to follow Orochimaru, it’s against his will so I didn’t try.” -Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

    “Minato sent us to patrol the forest, not to kill, it’s an order.” -Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

    “I must slaughter the whole Uchiha Clan to end this story, it’s an order from above.” -Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

    “We all know how great Namikaze Minato was, I was a student of his, I must be great too!” -Division

    “All those who failed in Kakashi’s Team 7 were sent back to Academy, Naruto and the rest are under his class, I fear that Naruto might fail.” -Division

    “Nins like Itachi and some unknown are missing nins, akatsuki is a group of Anbu Squadron against anyone opposing them, Itachi is an akatsuki member after all.” -Division

    “I don’t need your damn chances, I still want to fight!” -Ad Baculum

    “You’re a pebble in my way, You’re going to lose!”

    “Leaf ninjas are against Orochimaru, You’re a leaf ninja, those who oppose him are to be killed, i must kill you.” -Equivocation

    “Power to be had is a risk, I’m having it so i’m a risk.” -Composition

    “His dark because he ran away” -Red Herring

  41. Fallacies of relevance
    1. argumentum ad Ignorantiam
    Dr. Niko Tatopoulus: This thing is much too big to be some lost dinosaur because dinosaurs are already defunct. (Godzilla)
    Explanation: it committed that a proposition is true on the ground that it has not been proven false, or vice versa.
    2. argumentum ad verecundiam
    Sid: Stop playing there, kids
    Kids: Why?
    Sid: Because your camp leader said so.(ice age)
    Explanation: it committed the premise of an argument appeal the judgment of some party having no legitimate claim to authority in the matter at hand.
    3. argumentum ad hominem
    Diego: You don’t want to do that Sid.
    Sid: What now?
    Diego: We know that you’re an idiot in 3 languages.(ice age)
    Explanation: it committed an attack is leveled not at the claims being made or merits of the argument, but at the person of the opponent.
    4. argumentum ad populum
    Patrick Bateman: You are a fucking ugly bitch and I want to stab you to death and play with your blood. (American pscho)
    Explanation: it committed one appeals to popularly held beliefs as premises to a conclusion.
    5. argumentum misericordiam
    Lucy: If you were a dork you should say you’re sorry. Girls like that.(American president)
    Explanation: it committed when careful reasoning is replaced w/ direct or insinuated threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.
    6. argumentum ad baculum
    Vulture: You have 2 choices there mate, you can drown yourself in the water or you can move higher in the rocky mountains.(ice age)
    Explanation: it committed careful reasoning is replaced w/ direct threats to bring about the acceptance of some conclusion.
    7. ignorantio elenchi
    Manny: Well you know, mammoths are extincts now. And you’re a female mammoth. Well, we must reproduce, well you know. (Ice age)
    Explanation: it committed the premises miss the point, purporting to support one conclusion while in fact supporting another.
    Fallacies of presumption
    1. Complex question
    Sid: Aren’t you all mammoths extinct? .(ice age)
    Explanation: it committed a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some assumption buried in question.
    2. False cause
    Austin Powers: Jimi Hendrix deceased, drugs. Janis Joplin deceased, alcohol. Mama Cass deceased, ham sandwich (Austin powers: International Man of Mystery)
    Explanation: it committed one treats as the cause of a thing what is not really its cause.
    3. Petitio principii
    austin powers: fat bastard is so fat because he’s not slim.( AUSTIN POWERS: THE SPY WHO SHAGGED ME)
    Explanation: it committed the conclusion is restated in other terms.
    4. Accident
    Franz Sanchez: are you a soldier? Do you kill innocent people or do you let cocaine to import here? (License to kill)
    Explanation: it committed one applies a generalization to an individual case.
    5. Converse accident
    Dr. Buddy Rydell: In Europe, it’s not considered unusual for three or four men to share a bed. They don’t want gays.
    Dave Buznik: That’s why I’m proud to be an American… (Anger management)
    Explanation: it committed one moves carelessly from a single case to an indefensibly broad generalization.
    Fallacies of ambiguity
    1. Equivocation
    Lev Andropov: I’m an astronaut on mission. Astronauts can return to earth only by a miracle. So I will die? (Armageddon)
    Explanation: it committed the same word used w/ 2 or more meanings.
    2. Amphiboly
    MJ is one of the reasons why I want to go to America. (Basketball is my dream, a poet)
    Explanation: it committed one of the statements in an argument has more than 1 plausible meaning.
    3. Accent
    Alejandro Murrieta: Do you surrender?
    Elena: Never, but I may scream.
    Alejandro Murrieta: I understand. Sometimes I have that effect. (The mask of Zorro)
    Explanation: it committed a shift of meaning arises within the argument as a consequence of changes.
    4. Composition
    Eversmann: Remember, we’re Rangers Elite. There are no rangers that are coward.
    Rangers: YEAH! (Black hawk down)
    Explanation: it committed arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a part of the whole.
    5. Division
    Hot Chicks: all hot chicks have great large breasts.
    Jesse: I have a friend who is a hot chick too. She must have great large breasts too. I can’t wait. (Dude where’s my car?)
    Explanation: it committed arguer reasons mistakenly from the attributes of a whole to the attributes to one of its parts.
    Fallacies of distraction
    1. Slippery slope
    Bree Van de Kamp: You should be in school study! Because if you finish your studies, you’ll be in a good company and will earn money! (Desperate housewives)
    Explanation: it committed the conclusion depends on unlikely chain reaction.
    2. False analogy
    Beer is like love. It is everywhere and it is the living proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy. (Benjamin Franklin)
    Explanation: it committed 2 things are presumed to be more similar than they really are.
    3. False dilemma
    Principal: If we kick out our bully students, what will happen at their future? Let’s just pray that they will change in near future. (Bully)
    Explanation: it committed one claims that there are only 2 alternatives and one is unacceptable.

  42. All Fallacies are found on Hercules the movie
    ————————————————————–
    R1.
    Thebian man: I don’t think you’re a hero. If you are, then why does that monster still terrorizes our village?

    R2 Phil: Remember kid, as Zeus said so, always keep your shield on the ground.

    R3 Pain: Oooh! The mighty Jerkules! The Zero Hero!

    R4 Hades: Pain, why are you wearing those sandals? Pain: Well, it has the picture of Hercules. Every people has it.

    R5 Hades: Do we have a deal then? You give me your powers and Meg lives. Going once, going twice…

    R6 Hercules: If you don’t train me, I cannot fulfil my promise to myself to go the distance.

    R7 Zeus: Hercules, you still do not prove yourself as a hero. Hercules: Father, I am famous. Look at this bubble head father!

    P1 Zeus: Why hello Hades! Been working up to death?

    P2 Hercules: The weather is calm because I’m with you Meg

    P3 Hades: I cannot be! Hercules is immortal because he did not die!

    P4 Phil: That guy always panics at the sight of locusts and fire. He’s from Thebes, I suppose.

    P5 Man: Who trained you kid? Hercules: Phil here trained me Man: The one who trained Achilles? You must be in bad condition.

  43. 1. False Dilemma
    (X-MEN: THE LAST STAND)
    Eric Lensherr: It’s only that you realize, while you were talking about organizing and committees, the extermination has already begun. Make no mistake, my brothers. They will draw first blood. They will force their cure upon us. The only question is, will my brotherhood and fight, or wait for the inevitable genocide? Who will you stand with– the humans…or us?
    -This fallacy is committed when one claims that there are only two alternatives and one is unacceptable.

    2.) “I know your car isn’t working right. But, if you had gone to the store one day earlier, you’d not be having problems. ”
    (Red herring)

    -The 1st premise has nothing to do with the 2nd premise

    3. Argumentum ad Baculum
    Dash: Dad, why do we have to behave like ordinary people when we have special powers?
    Mr. Incredible: Because I’m your father, and I say so, that’s why.
    Mr. Incredible

    – It implicitly gives a threat of force in place of relevant reasons for not showing their super powers.
    4. Composition
    Bugs Bunny: Every player on the team is a superstar and a great player, so the team is a great team.
    Space Jam

    -This is fallacious since the superstars might not be able to play together very well and hence they could be a lousy team.
    5. Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad Hominem
    “Dumb, I mean you!”
    Historys Strongest Disciple Kenichi

    -It directly attacks against persons by saying dumb which disgrace the person’s dignity and rights.

    6.)False Analogy (Band of Brothers
    A true soldier can only do his function once he accepted that he is already dead, like how a convict accepts the fact that there is no tomorrow for him. If you want to do your job as a soldier, accept first the fact that you are already dead.

    -The two things are presumed to be similar

    7.)Red Herring
    “BRUCE(Bruce Almighty)
    Bill, you’ve been running the Maid of the Mist for 23 years. Tell me, why do you think I didn’t get the anchor job?
    -the divertion of subject applies in this fallacy

  44. Ad Hominem
    The President’s budget proposal is absurd. After all, no real President would let himself be pushed around by his wife the way Clinton does. And if he can’t run his own household right, then he can hardly run the country right.

    Ad Populum (appeal to the masses)
    The Ford Taurus is the most popular selling car in its class. Shouldn’t you get a Taurus?

    Ad Verecundiam (appeal to authority)
    My coach told me to quit smoking and drinking. So I’ve decided to quit smoking and drinking.

    Ad Baculum (appeal to force)
    A. “Any scientist or research group which doesn’t support my Strategic Defense Initiative cannot expect to receive any further federal funds supporting their research.
    B. Likewise, every member of the Republican Party must choose between supporting my economic policies – or getting the political blackball.”

    Appeal to Ignorance
    P1: The health department could not prove that the committee was responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.
    C1: Therefore, the committee is not responsible for the outbreak of salmonella poisoning at the Apple Festival.

    Appeal to Tradition (appeal to the past)
    Cannibal father to cannibal son: “Go ahead and eat your dinner! You know we’ve always eaten people.”

    Reference:

    http://www.drury.edu/ess/Logic/Informal/Overview.html

  45. 1. “you carry a bakamatsu, you must be from tokugawa era.”
    Magsz Rawkz: Hasty generalization, Kaoru, Samurai X.

    Assumed directly from one uncertain sample.

    2.I know everybody thinks Einstein’s theory of relativity is correct, but I can’t accept it. Einstein believed in evolution.
    Magsz Rawkz: Urumi Kanzaki, GTO.

    Ad hominem someone attacks an opponent’s character, or his motives for believing something, instead of disproving his opponent’s argument.

    3.Urumi: “My uncle says that all murderers should be put to death because then nobody would want to murder anybody anymore.” Miyabi: “Wasn’t your uncle in jail once? I don’t think that we can trust somebody’s opinion who was once a criminal.”

    Ad hominem, attacks an opponent’s character, or his motives for believing something, instead of disproving his opponent’s argument.

    4.“I don’t see what is wrong with speeding – everybody does it.” Ryuji, GTO.

    Tu quoque, everyone does what he does.

    5.Kikuchi says the best way to fix computer problems is to just give the computer a good, sharp kick.Urumi Kanzaki, GTO.

    someone appeals to the authority of someone who has no special knowledge in the area they are discussing.

    6. Kikuchi: “I’ve been homeschooled all of my life, and I think it has helped me out a lot.” Kunio: “The man who has the highest IQ in the world said he didn’t think homeschooling turned out good citizens. He said he didn’t think homeschoolers received enough socialization, so they will become social misfits. Do you still think homeschooling is a good idea?”

    Faulty Appeal to Authority,appeals to the authority of someone who has no special knowledge in the area they are discussing.

    7.It looks as if more people vacation in Nagasaki than any other place. It must be the nicest place in Japan to visit.Fuyutsuki, GTO.

    Appeal to the Peopleclaims, her viewpoint is correct just because many other people agree with it.

    8. If the English don’t drive on the right side of the road, what are they doing on the wrong side? Urumi Kanzaki.

    Equivocation, the meaning of a word is changed in the middle of an argument.

    9.Dad: “Son, when you grow up I want you to always be a responsible young man.” Son: “But Dad, I am already very responsible. Whenever something breaks around here, it seems as if I am always responsible.”

    Equivocation, the meaning of a word is changed in the middle of an argument.

    10.Either you’re a Chinese or you are a Communist. You aren’t from Chinese, so you must be a Communist. Urumi Kanzaki, GTO.

    Either-Or someone asserts that we must chose between two things, when in fact we have more alternatives.

  46. Tomorrow Morning by Anne Parrish…

    Nice site, I think you like this latest post on Tomorrow Morning by Anne Parrish…

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